1 Peter 5:1-14

1 Peter 5:1-14
Narrative Lectionary


Now as an elderA myself and a witnessB of the sufferingsC of Christ,D as well as one who sharesE

Notes on verse 1a

A “elder” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
B “witness” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
C “sufferings” = pathema. 16x in NT. From pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is something that happens to you such as suffering, affliction, passion, or emotion. It can also be one’s capacity for deep feelings or enduring. Further, it can be hardship or pain.
D “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
E “shares” = koinonos. 10x in NT. From koinonoia (sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community); from koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is partner, companion, partaker, sharer.

in the gloryF to beG revealed,H I exhortI the elders amongJ you 

Notes on verse 1b

F “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
G “to be” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
H “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
I “exhort” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
J “elders among” = sumpresbuteros. Related to “elder” in v1. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + presbuteros (see note A above). This is a fellow elder or presbyter.

to tendK the flockL of GodM that is in your charge, exercising the oversight,N 

Notes on verse 2a

K “tend” = poimaino. 11x in NT. From poimen (shepherd in a literal or figurative sense – one who feeds, protects, rules). This is to tend, care for, shepherd. It focuses on tending, guiding, and protecting rather than feeding. Figuratively, it can mean to govern.
L “flock” = poimnion. Related to “tend” in v2. 5x in NT. From poimne (flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats); from poimen (see note K above). This is a flock, which can refer to believers.
M “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
N “exercising the oversight” = episkopeo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + skopeo (to look at, take heed, consider, observe, ai at, or spy); {from skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to see, oversee, care for, focus on, beware.

not under compulsionO but willingly,P as God would have you do it, not for sordid gainQ but eagerly.R 

Notes on verse 2b

O “under compulsion” = anagkastos. 1x in NT. From anagkastos (forced, constrained) OR from anagkazo (to urge, compel, or force); {from anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}}. This is under compulsion, by force, out of necessity.
P “willingly” = hekousios. 2x in NT. From hekousios (voluntary, willing, spontaneous, consent); from hekon (freely, voluntary). This is voluntarily, willfully – done from free will.
Q “sordid gain” = aischrokerdos. 1x in NT. From aischrokerdes (greedy, fond of lucre); {from aischros (shameful, improper, venal, filthy); {from aischuno (o dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)} + kerdos (profit, gain, advantage)}}. This is greedily or sordidly.
R “eagerly” = prothumos. 1x in NT. From prothuomos (willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance; predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}}. This is readily, cheerfully, willingly, pre-inclined.

Do not lord it overS those in your charge,T but beU examplesV to the flock. 

Notes on verse 3

S “lord…over” = katakurieuo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + kurieuo (to rule, have authority or dominion); {from kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy)}. This is to exercise lordship authority, over dominion. It can also mean to overpower or master. It is having control and authority for that control. Generally the negative sense of control – to subjugate.
T “those in your charge” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
U “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
V “examples” = tupos. 16x in NT. From tupto (to strike repeatedly, wound, punish; figuratively to offend). This is a figure, model, image, impression, pattern, copy. Properly, this is a model created through much repetition so figuratively it is the proper model. It can be the impression of a stamped image, the mark of a scar, the shape of a statue. Figuratively, it can refer to a style or resemblance. Used specially, it is a model as something to imitate or as a cautionary tale. This is where the word “type” comes from.

And when the chief shepherdW appears,X you will winY the crownZ of glory that never fades away.AA 

Notes on verse 4

W “chief shepherd” = archipoimen. Related to “tend” and “flock” in v2. 1x in NT. From arche (origin, beginning, rule; can refer to the power of a magistrate or a king; it is the first thing as being the starting point or the most important); {from archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)} + poimen (see note K above). This is chief or head shepherd.
X “appears” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
Y “win” = komizo. 10x in NT. From komeo (to tend or take care of). This is to carry, bring, recover, or recompense. It is receiving something that was lost or promised. Also, to provide for – as carrying someone out of harm’s way.
Z “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
AA “never fades away” = amarantinos. 1x in NT. From amarantos (unading, enduring, perpetual); {from a (not, without) + maraino (to waste away, die, dry out, extinguish, pass away)}. This is unfading, enduring. Literally, it refers to the amaranth flower. In the ancient world, it was associated with fadelessness.

In the same way, you who are youngerBB must be subjectCC to the elders. And all of you must clotheDD yourselves with humilityEE in your dealings with one another, for

Notes on verse 5a

BB “younger” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).
CC “be subject” = hupotasso. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to place under. So it is to subject, submit, obey, or subordinate.
DD “clothe” = egkomboomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + komboomai (to gird). This is to put clothes on, tie a knot, secure.
EE “humility” = tapeinophrosune. 8x in NT. From tapeinos (low in position, depressed, low in circumstance; fig humiliated, low in spirit) + the base of phren (literally the diaphragm; used figuratively for heart, thought, or understanding; personal outlook we use to decide our actions, general outlook); {may be from phrao (to rein in, curb)}. This is humility, modesty. It is lowly or a humble mind.

“God opposesFF the proudGG
    but givesHH graceII to the humble.”JJ

Notes on verse 5b

FF “opposes” = antitasso. Related to “be subject” in v5. 5x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + tasso (see note CC above). This is to oppose or resist. It is to set against as in battle or in defense.
GG “proud” = huperephanos. Related to “appears” in v4. 5x in NT. From huper (over, above, beyond) + phaino (see note X above). This is proud, haughty, arrogant. Literally, it is to over-shine, to set oneself above others.
HH “gives” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
II “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
JJ “humble” = tapeinos. Related to “humility” in v5. 8x in NT. See note EE above.

HumbleKK yourselves, therefore, under the mightyLL handMM of God, so that he may exaltNN you in due time.OO 

Notes on verse 6

KK “humble” = tapeinoo. Related to “humility” and “humble” in v5. 14x in NT. From tapeinos (see note EE above). This is bringing someone or something low. Figuratively to humble or humiliate – to depress or abase.
LL “mighty” = krataios. 1x in NT. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is strong, powerful, domination.
MM “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
NN “exalt” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
OO “due time” = kairos.  This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

CastPP all your anxietyQQ on him, because he caresRR for you. 

Notes on verse 7

PP “cast” = epiripto. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + rhipto (to cast, toss fling, or disperse; a quick toss in contrast to another word ballo, intentional hurling, and teino (stretching outward)); {perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap)}. This is to throw or cast in a literal or figurative sense (likt casting you anxiety on God).
QQ “anxiety” = merimna. 6x in NT. Perhaps from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is a portion removed from the whole. Figuratively, it is care, worry, or anxiety that tears a person apart.
RR “cares” = melo. 10x in NT. This is to think about something, take an interest, to pay attention. It is to care or worry about something.

DisciplineSS yourselves; keep alert.TT Like a roaringUU lionVV your adversaryWW

Notes on verse 8a

SS “discipline” = nepho. 6x in NT. To be sober in a literal sense. Also to be calm or vigilant, not subject to illusion or the influence of selfish greed or other sins. This is one who uses clear judgment and has their wits about them.
TT “keep alert” = gregoreo. From egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.
UU “roaring” = oruomai. 1x in NT. This is to howl or roar like an animal.
VV “lion” = leon. 9x in NT. This is lion, which is where our word “lion” comes from.
WW “adversary” = antidikos. 5x in NT – 4x meaning opponent in court and 1x referring to Satan. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is an opponent or adversary, whether in court or the devil. It is someone bringing former charges and seeking damages.

the devilXX prowls around,YY looking forZZ someone to devour.AAA 

Notes on verse 8b

XX “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.
YY “prowls around” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
ZZ “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
AAA “devour” = katapino. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is literally to drink down – to gulp something down whole, devour, destroy, consume, or overwhelm. It is to drink down in a literal or figurative sense.

ResistBBB him, steadfastCCC in your faith,DDD

Notes on verse 9a

BBB “resist” = anthistemi. 14x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to stand against, to take an entirely opposite stance, resist, oppose, or withstand. Figuratively, it is publicly holding your ground. It has its roots as a military term for resisting one’s enemy.
CCC “steadfast” = stereos. Related to “resist” in v9. 4x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (see note BBB above). This is hard, solid, steadfast, sure, stable. It is solid in a literal or figurative sense
DDD “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

for you knowEEE that your brothersFFF and sisters in all the worldGGG are undergoingHHH the same kinds of suffering. 

Notes on verse 9b

EEE “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
FFF “brothers” = adelphotes. 2x in NT. From adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {{from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)} This is brotherhood or Christendom. It can also be fraternity.
GGG “world” = kosmos. Related to “win” in v4. Perhaps from the base of komizo (see note Y above). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
HHH “undergoing” = epiteleo. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to complete or make perfect, execute, accomplish, undergo or finish.

10 And after you have sufferedIII for a little while,JJJ the God of all grace, who has calledKKK you to his eternalLLL glory in Christ,MMM 

Notes on verse 10a

III “suffered” = pascho. Related to “sufferings” in v1. See note C above.
JJJ “a little while” = oligos.  This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
KKK “called” = kaleo. Related to “exhort” in v1. See note I above.
LLL “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
MMM {untranslated} = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

will himself restore,NNN support,OOO strengthen,PPP and establishQQQ you. 

Notes on verse 10b

NNN “restore” = katartizo. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {from artios (perfect, complete, ready, adequate, fitted); from arti (now, in the moment); from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to prepare, complete, perfect for final use. This is restoring something to a good condition, whether for the first time or one more. It is to repair in a literal or figurative sense.
OOO “support” = sterizo. Related to “resist” and “steadfast” in v9. 13x in NT. From sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (see note BBB above). This is to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely.
PPP “strengthen” = sthenoo. Related to “resist” and “steadfast” in v9 & “support” in v10. 1x in NT. From sthenos (strength, vigor); related to histemi (see note BBB above). This is to strengthen, confirm.
QQQ “establish” = themelioo. 5x in NT. From themelios (related to a foundation); from tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is laying a foundation, grounded, setting a basis. Literally, it can be to erect. Figuratively, it can be to consolidate or settle.

11 To him be the powerRRR forever and ever.SSS Amen.TTT

Notes on verse 11

RRR “power” = kratos. Related to “mighty” in v6. 12x in NT. See note LL above.
SSS “forever and ever” = eis + ho + aion + ho + aion. Literally, “to the ages of the ages.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
TTT “Amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

12 Through Silvanus,UUU whom I considerVVV a faithfulWWW brother,XXX

Notes on verse 12a

UUU “Silvanus” = Silouanos. 4x in NT. Latin form of Silas (Silas; Saul); from Aramaic – cognate of Hebrew Shaul (Saul, meaning “asked of the Lord”); {from shaal (to ask, inquire)} OR {from Latin Silvanus (Silvanus, god of forests); {from silva (forest, grove); from Proto-Indo-European *sel- or *swell- (board, threshold)). This is Silvanus, meaning either “asked of the Lord” or “forest.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Silvanus
VVV “consider” = logizomai. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
WWW “faithful” = pistos. Related to “faith” in v9. From peitho (see note DDD above). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
XXX “brother” = adelphos. Related to “brothers” in v9. See note FFF above.

I have writtenYYY this shortZZZ letter to encourageAAAA you and to testifyBBBB that this is the trueCCCC grace of God. StandDDDD fast in it. 

Notes on verse 12b

YYY “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
ZZZ “short” = oligos. Same as “a little while” in v10. See note JJJ above.
AAAA “encourage” = parakaleo. Same as “exhort” in v1. See note I above.
BBBB “testify” = epimartureo. Related to “witness” in v1. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + martureo (to testify, give evidence; testify in a literal or figurative sense); {from martus (see note B above)}. This is to testify earnestly, corroborate.
CCCC “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.
DDDD “stand” = histemi. Related to “resist” and “steadfast” in v9 & “support” and “strengthen” in v10. See note BBB above.

13 Your sister church in Babylon,EEEE chosen together withFFFF you, sends you greetings,GGGG and so does my sonHHHH Mark.IIII 

Notes on verse 13

EEEE “Babylon” = Babulon. 12x in NT. See Hebrew babel (Babylon or Babel); {perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow)} OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god). This is Babylon, meaning “gate of god” or “gate of gods.” See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon.
FFFF “chosen together with” = suneklektos. Related to “consider” in v12. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note VVV above)}. This is a fellow elect person, someone with whom you are chosen.
GGGG “send…greetings” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
HHHH “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
IIII “Mark” = Markos. 8x in NT. From Latin Marcus (Marcus); {from Mars (the planet or god)} This is Mark of Marcus, a name meaning “dedicated to Mars.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Marcus#Latin

14 Greet one another with a kissJJJJ of love.KKKK

PeaceLLLL to all of you who are in Christ.MMMM

Notes on verse 14

JJJJ “kiss” = philema. 7x in NT. From phileo (friendship love and fondness with personal attachment; kiss as a sign of love deriving from this personal affection -cherishing); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person)}. This is a kiss of friendship or other deep bond.
KKKK “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
LLLL “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
MMMM {untranslated} = amen. Same as “amen” in v11. See note TTT above.

Image credit: “Catharsis on the Mall” by Victoria Pickering, 2017.

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