1 Samuel 9:1-3, 15-18 & 10:1

1 Samuel 9:1-3, 15-18 & 10:1
A Women’s Lectionary – Proper 12


9:1 There wasA a manB of BenjaminC whose nameD was KishE

Notes on verse 9:1a

A “was” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
B “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
C “Benjamin” = Binyamin. From ben (son, age, child); {from banah (to build)} + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
D “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
E “Kish” = Qish. Perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare); perhaps from yaqosh (to set a snare in a literal or figurative sense; a fowler). This is Kish or Qish, meaning “a bow” or “snaring” or “bird catcher.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Kish.html

sonF of AbielG son of ZerorH son of BecorathI

Notes on verse 9:1b

F “son” = ben. Related to “Benjamin” in v9:1. See note C above.
G “Abiel” = Abiel. 3x in OT. From ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense) + el (God, a god). This is Abiel, meaning “El is my father” or “God is my father.”
H “Zeror” = Tsrowr. 10x in OT. From tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is a bag, pouch, pebble, grain, kernel, package. It is also Zeror, a name.
I “Bechorath” = Bekorath. 1x in OT. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is Becorath or Bekorath, meaning “firstborn.”

son of Aphiah,J a Benjaminite,K a man of wealth.L 

Notes on verse 9:1c

J “Aphiah” = Aphiyach. 1x in OT. Perhaps from puach (to puff, breathe or blow, whether the breath or air; to light a fire, utter, speak, snore, hasten, or scoff). This is Aphiah, perhaps meaning “helpless” or “striving” or “rekindled” or “refreshed” or “breeze” or “exhaling” or “blowing.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Aphiah.html
K “Benjaminite” = ben + ish + yemini. Ben is the same as “son” in v9:1. See note F above. Ish is the same as “man” in v9:1. See note B above. Yemini is related to “Benjamin” in v9:1. 5x in OT. Related to yemani (right, right side, or south); related to yamin (see note C above). This is Benjaminite or on the right side.
L “wealth” = gibbor + chayil. Gibbor is from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant. Chayil is from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.

He hadM a son whose name was Saul,N a handsomeO young man.P

Notes on verse 9:2a

M “had” = hayah. Same as “was” in v9:1. See note A above.
N “Saul” = Shaul. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
O “handsome” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
P “young man” = bachur. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is choice, chosen, selected. It is a youth or young man.

There was not a man among the IsraelitesQ more handsome than he; he stood head and shoulders aboveR everyone else.S

Notes on verse 9:2b

Q “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “son” in v9:1. See note F above. Yisrael is related to “Abiel” in v9:1. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note G above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
R “head and shoulders above” = shekem + maal + gaboah. Literally, “from his shoulders and upward higher.” Shekem is perhaps from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens. Figuratively, it can refer to the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion. Maal is from alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly. Gaboah is from gabah (to be tall, high, exalted, proud, haughty). This is high, tall, long, proud, or arrogant. It could also be a high ranking official, someone exalted, or something lofty. 
S “everyone else” = kol + am. Literally, “than any of the people.” Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Am is from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

Now the donkeysT of Kish, Saul’s father,U had strayed.V So Kish said to his son Saul, “TakeW, X oneY of

Notes on verse 9:3a

T “donkeys” = athon. Perhaps from the same as eythan (continual, mighty, strong, ever-flowing, permanence). This is a female donkey as an animal that is patient and gentle.
U “father” = ab. Related to “Abiel” in v9:1. See note G above.
V “strayed” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
W “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
X {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
Y “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

the young menZ with you;AA goBB and look forCC the donkeys.”

Notes on verse 9:3b

Z “young men” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
AA {untranslated} = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
BB “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CC “look for” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.

15 Now the dayDD, EE beforeFF Saul came,GG

Notes on verse 9:15a

DD “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
EE {untranslated} = echad. Same as “one” in v9:3. See note Y above.
FF “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
GG “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

the LordHH had revealedII to Samuel:JJ 

Notes on verse 9:15b

HH “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “was” in v9:1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note A above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “revealed” = galah + ozen. Galah is to remove, bring, carry, lead, appear, advertise. It can mean to strip someone or something bare in a negative sense. Captives were typically stripped before they were sent into exile. Used figuratively, in a positive sense, this word means reveal, disclose, discover. Ozen is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
JJ “Samuel” = Shemuel. Related to “name” in v9:1& “Abiel” in v9:1 & “Israelites” in v9:2. From shem (see note D above) + el (see note G above) OR from shama (hear, call, consent, or consider; implies listening intelligently, giving attention; obedience and action are often implied) + el (see note G above).This is Samuel meaning either the “name of God” or “heard of God.”

16 “TomorrowKK about this timeLL I will sendMM to you a man from the landNN of Benjamin, and you shall anointOO him to be rulerPP

Notes on verse 9:16a

KK “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
LL “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
MM “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
NN “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
OO “anoint” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
PP “ruler” = nagid. From nagad (this is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is a commander or leader as the one who stands at the front, whether in a military, religious, or civic setting. It can also mean honorable or noble in an abstract sense.

over my peopleQQ Israel. He shall saveRR my people from the handSS of the Philistines,TT for I have seenUU the suffering of my people, because their outcryVV has come to me.” 

Notes on verse 9:16b

QQ “people” = am. Same as “everyone else” in v9:2. See note S above.
RR “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.
SS “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
TT “Philistines” = Pelishti. From Pelesheth (Philistia); from palash (to mourn, wallow, maybe roll in). This is Philistines. Their name may mean “griever” or “burrower” or “weakener.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Philistine.html.
UU “seen” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
VV “outcry” = tseaqah. From tsaaq (to cry out or call together, to shriek; by implication, calling for an assembly). This is a cry for help, shriek or outcry.

17 When Samuel saw Saul, the Lord toldWW him, “HereXX is the man of whom I spoke to you. He it is who shall ruleYY over my people.” 

18 Then Saul approachedZZ Samuel insideAAA the gateBBB

Notes on verses 9:17-18a

WW “told” = anah. Related to “time” in v9:16. See note LL above.
XX “here” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
YY “rule” = atsar. To inclose, restrain, keep, hold back, or prevail. It can also mean to maintain, rule, or gather together.
ZZ “approached” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
AAA “inside” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
BBB “gate” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.

and said, “TellCCC me, please,DDD where is the houseEEE of the seer?”FFF

Notes on verse 9:18b

CCC “tell” = nagad. Related to “ruler” in v9:16. See note PP above.
DDD “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v9:3. See note X above.
EEE “house” = bayit. Related to “Benjamin” and “son” in v9:1. Probably from banah (see note C above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
FFF “seer” = ro’eh. Related to “seen” in v9:16. 6x in OT. From raah (see note UU above). This is a vision or a seer.

10:1 Samuel took a vialGGG of oilHHH and pouredIII it

Notes on verse 10:1a

GGG “vial” = pak. 3x in OT. From pakah (to trickle, pour). This is a vial or flask – container that pours liquid.
HHH “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
III “poured” = yatsaq. This is to pour out, flow, wash away, or overflow. It can imply melting as one does to cast metal. By extension, it can refer to something being steadfast, stiffened, firmly in place.

on his headJJJ and kissedKKK him; he said, “The Lord has anointed you ruler over his people Israel. You shall reign over the people of the Lord, and you will save them from the hand of their enemies all around. Now this shall be the sign to you that the Lord has anointed you ruler over his heritage:”LLL 

Notes on verse 10:1b

JJJ “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
KKK “kissed” = nashaq. This is to kiss in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to touch, rule, or equip with weapons.
LLL “heritage” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

Image credit: “Saul Meets Samuel the Prophet” by Amy & Carly of Fishnet Bible Stories.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply