Proverbs 8:1-11, 22-36

Proverbs 8:1-11, 22-36
Narrative Lectionary


Does not wisdomI callII
    and understandingIII raiseIV her voice?V

Notes on verse 1

I “wisdom” = chokmah. From chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wisdom, wit, or skillfulness.
II “call” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
III “understanding” = tebunah. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is understanding, discernment, discretion, intelligence, skill, fruit, an argument.
IV “raise” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
V “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

OnVI the heights,VII beside the way,VIII

Notes on verse 2a

VI {untranslated} = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
VII “heights” = marom. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This can be height, high place, or lofty. It can be either exalted or haughty/proud. It can refer to dignity or to heaven.
VIII “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

    at theIX crossroadsX she takes her stand;XI
besideXII the gatesXIII in frontXIV of the town,XV

Notes on verses 2b-3a

IX {untranslated} = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
X “crossroads” = nathiyb. Root may mean to tramp. This is a path beaten from regular use. So, it is pathway or traveler.
XI “takes…stand” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
XII {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XIII “gates” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
XIV “front” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XV “town” = qereth. 5x in OT– 1x in Job and 4x in Proverbs. From qarah (to happen, meet, bring about). This is a towny or city.

    at the entranceXVI of the portalsXVII she cries out:XVIII

Notes on verse 3b

XVI “entrance” = mabo. From bo (to come in, go in, enter). This is entrance, coming in – the process of entering or the place of entrance. It can also mean the setting of the sun i.e. the west.
XVII “portals” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
XVIII “cries out” = ranan. This is a cry of joy or a joyful song. Properly, it is emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy.

“To you, O people,XIX I call,
    and my cryXX is to all who live.XXI

Notes on verse 4

XIX “people” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XX “cry” = qol. Same as “voice” in v1. See note V above.
XXI “all who live” = ben + adam. Literally, “children of humankind.” Ben is related to {untranslated} in v2. From banah (see note IX above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Adam is perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.

O simple ones,XXII learnXXIII prudence;XXIV

Notes on verse 5a

XXII “simple ones” = pthiy. 19x in OT. From pathah (to be simple, entice, deceive, persuade, allure, be silly); from pethi (simple, silly, foolish, easily deceived); from pathah (to be wide open, deceive, entice, persuade, to be simple, delude). This is open-minded, simple, silly, foolish, or seducible.
XXIII “learn” = bin. Related to “understanding” in v1. See note III above.
XXIV “prudence” = ormah. 5x in OT. From orem (craftiness, shrewdness); from arom (being shrewd or crafty, cunning; properly, being or making bare). This is prudence or wisdom. Alternately, it’s craftiness, guile, or trickery.

    acquire intelligence,XXV, XXVI you who lackXXVII it.

Notes on verse 5b

XXV “acquire intelligence” = bin. Same as “learn” in v5. See note XXIII above.
XXVI {untranslated} = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XXVII “who lack” = kesil. From kasal (being or becoming stupid or foolish; properly, being fat and so figuratively silly or foolish). This is someone who is stupid, silly, or foolish.

Hear,XXVIII for I will speakXXIX noble things,XXX

Notes on verse 6a

XXVIII “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXIX “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXX “noble things” = nagid. From nagad (this is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is a commander or leader as the one who stands at the front, whether in a military, religious, or civic setting. It can also mean honorable or noble in an abstract sense.

    and fromXXXI my lipsXXXII will come what is right,XXXIII

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI {untranslated} = miphtach. Related to “portals” in v3. 2x in OT. From pathach (see note XVII above). This is an opening or utterance.
XXXII “lips” = saphah. Root may mean to spread out – it would be the same root used in mishpachah, which means family or clan. This is maidservant, female slave, or female bondslave.
XXXIII “what is right” = meshar. 19x in OT. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, agreeable). This is evenness, straightness, prosperity, or uprightness.

for my mouthXXXIV will utterXXXV truth;XXXVI
    wickednessXXXVII is an abominationXXXVIII to my lips.

Notes on verse 7

XXXIV “mouth” = chek. 18x in OT. Perhaps from chanak (to narrow; to dedicate, initiate, train, or discipline). This is gums, mouth, roof of the mouth, palate, speech, gums, taste.
XXXV “utter” = hagah. This is to speak, declare, make a sound, imagine, or mutter. It could be a murmur, moan, or growl, whether from delight or anger. It can also mean to study, ponder, or meditate.
XXXVI “truth” = emet. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.
XXXVII “wickedness” = resha. From rasha (to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong; can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment; this verb implies disturbing or violating). This is wrong, particularly moral wrong. It can be wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten.
XXXVIII “abomination” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.

AllXXXIX the wordsXL of my mouthXLI are righteous;XLII

Notes on verse 8a

XXXIX “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XL “words” = emer. From amar (to say, answer, challenge). This is something that is said – a word, saying, speech.
XLI “mouth” = peh. Same as “front” in v3. See note XIV above.
XLII “righteous” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.

    there is nothingXLIII twistedXLIV or crookedXLV in them.

Notes on verse 8b

XLIII “nothing” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
XLIV “twisted” = pathal. 5x in OT. This is to twist or twine. It can mean to struggle, be cunning, wily, or astute, or to wrestle.
XLV “crooked” = iqqesh. 11x in OT. From aqash (to twist, knot, distort; to act in a perverse manner). This is twisted, distorted, crooked, or perverted.

They are all straightXLVI to one who understandsXLVII
    and rightXLVIII to those who findXLIX knowledge.L

Notes on verse 9

XLVI “straight” = nakoach. 4x in OT. From the same as nokach (straight, right, plain, integrity); from the same as nekach (root may mean being straightforward; before, the front). This is straight, straightforward, plain, correct, integrity.
XLVII “understands” = bin. Same as “learn” in v5. See note XXIII above.
XLVIII “right” = yashar. Related to “what is right” in v6. From yashar (see note XXXIII above). This is straight, right, level. Also, it is pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing other people. So, it is upright or righteous.
XLIX “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
L “knowledge” = daat. From yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism). This is knowledge, unawares, cunning, wittingly.

10 TakeLI my instructionLII instead of silverLIII
    and knowledge rather than choiceLIV gold,LV

Notes on verse 10

LI “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LII “instruction” = musar. From yasar (to discipline, correct, train, teach, punish; literally with blows, but figuratively using words). This is discipline, a correction a warning, or an instruction.
LIII “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
LIV “choice” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
LV “gold” = charuts. 18x in OT. From charats (to cut, sharpen, decree, wound, be alert, move). This is incisive, diligent, a trench, gold, threshing sledge, pointed thing.

11 for wisdom is betterLVI than jewels,LVII
    and all that you may desireLVIII cannot compareLIX with her.

Notes on verse 11

LVI “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LVII “jewels” = peninim. 6x in OT. From the same as pinnah (an angle, corner, cornerstone, tower, bulwark, pinnacle; figuratively, a chieftan); from pen (corner, angle, street, wall). This is a jewel or coral. Sometimes, it is translated pearl or ruby. It is often used to describe the value of wisdom.
LVIII “desire” = chephets. From chaphets (properly, inclined towards or bending to; figuratively, to desire, delight in, or be pleased with). This is a delight, care, or pleasure. It is what you desire or what is acceptable. It can also be used concretely for a precious thing or something that one is thinking about.
LIX “compare” = shavah. This is to equalize, resemble, agree with, compare, adjust, compose, place, or yield.

22 “The LordLX createdLXI me at the beginningLXII of his work,LXIII

Notes on verse 22a

LX “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
LXI “created” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
LXII “beginning” = reshith. Related to {untranslated} in v2. From rosh (see note VI above). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
LXIII “work” = derek. Same as “way” in v2. See note VIII above.

    the firstLXIV of his actsLXV of long ago.LXVI

Notes on verse 22b

LXIV “first” = qedem. Perhaps from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.
LXV “acts” = miph’al. 3x in OT. From pa’al (to do, make, work, or accomplish; generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – to practice). This is work, deed, something manufactured, thing.
LXVI “long ago” = az. This is beginning, now, from, since.

23 Ages agoLXVII I was set up,LXVIII
    at the first,LXIX before the beginningLXX of the earth.LXXI

Notes on verse 23

LXVII “ages ago” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LXVIII “set up” = nasak. This is to cover, pour out, offer like a libation, or to cast like one casts metal. By analogy, it can mean anointing a king.
LXIX “first” = rosh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
LXX “beginning” = qedem. Same as “first” in v22. See note LXIV above.
LXXI “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

24 When there were noLXXII depthsLXXIII I was brought forth,LXXIV

Notes on verse 24a

LXXII “no” = ayin. Same as “nothing” in v8. See note XLIII above.
LXXIII “depths” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.
LXXIV “brought forth” = chul. This is whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain. It is used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear. It can also be falling in pain or waiting.

    when there were noLXXV springsLXXVI aboundingLXXVII with water.LXXVIII

Notes on verse 24b

LXXV “no” = ayin. Same as “nothing” in v8. See note XLIII above.
LXXVI “springs” = mayan. From ayin (eye, appearance; eye in a literal or figurative sense; a fountain). This is a spring, well, or fountain. Figuratively, this is a source of contentment.
LXXVII “abounding” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
LXXVIII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

25 BeforeLXXIX the mountainsLXXX had been shaped,LXXXI
    beforeLXXXII the hills,LXXXIII I was brought forth,

Notes on verse 25

LXXIX “before” = terem. May come from a word that means to interrupt. This is not yet or before.
LXXX “mountains” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LXXXI “shaped” = taba. 10x in OT. This is sink, drown, settle, or fasten.
LXXXII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXXIII “hills” = gibah. From the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is hill or little hill.

26 when he had not yet madeLXXXIV earth and fieldsLXXXV
    or the world’sLXXXVI firstLXXXVII bits of soil.LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 26

LXXXIV “made” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXXV “fields” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
LXXXVI “world’s” = tebel. From yabal (to lead, bring, carry, conduct; properly, to flow; to bring or lead with fanfare). This is world, confusion, inhabited part of the earth, but also used for the whole world.
LXXXVII “first” = rosh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
LXXXVIII “bits of soil” = aphar. May be related to aphar (to throw dust, be dust). This is dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored. It could be ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish.

27 When he establishedLXXXIX the heavens,XC I was there;
    when he drewXCI a circleXCII on the faceXCIII of the deep,XCIV

Notes on verse 27

LXXXIX “established” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
XC “heavens” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
XCI “drew” = chaqaq. 19x in OT. This is to inscribe, carve, or decree. It can be a lawmaker/commander or a staff/scepter. Literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal.
XCII “circle” = chug. 3x in OT– all in reference to the dome of heaven or circle on the deep. From chug (to make a circle, compass, draw around). This is a circle or horizon.
XCIII “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v25. See note LXXXII above.
XCIV “deep” = tehom. Same as “depths” in v24. See note LXXIII above.

28 when he made firmXCV the skiesXCVI above,XCVII
    when he establishedXCVIII the fountainsXCIX of the deep,

Notes on verse 28

XCV “made firm” = amets. This is to be strong, stout, alert, or bold, It can also mean harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish. It can refer to physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness.
XCVI “skies” = shachaq. From shachaq (to rub off, wear away, pulverize). This is powder, dust, vapor. It can also refer to the sky or a cloud.
XCVII “above” = ma’al. From alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.
XCVIII “established” = azaz. 12x in OT. This is to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent. It means to be stout literally or figuratively.
XCIX “fountains” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

29 when he assignedC to the seaCI its limit,CII

Notes on verse 29a

C “assigned” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CI “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
CII “limit” = choq. Related to “drew” in v27. From chaqaq (see note XCI above). This is statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance It is something that is prescribed or something that is owed.

    so that the waters might not transgressCIII his command,CIV
when he marked outCV the foundationsCVI of the earth,

Notes on verse 29b

CIII “transgress” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CIV “command” = peh. Same as “front” in v3. See note XIV above.
CV “marked out” = chaqaq. Same as “drew” in v27. See note XCI above.
CVI “foundations” = mosad. 2x in OT. From yasad (to establish, appoint, instruct; to set in a literal or figurative sense; also, to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel). This is foundation.

30     then I wasCVII besideCVIII him, like a master worker,CIX

Notes on verse 30a

CVII “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v22. See note LX above.
CVIII “beside” = etsel. From atsal (to reserve, refuse, join, separate, keep). This is nearby, toward, joining.
CIX “master worker” = amon. Related to “truth” in v7. 1x in OT. From aman (see note XXXVI above). This is an artisan or architect – one who is skilled.

and I was dailyCX his delight,CXI
    playingCXII beforeCXIII him always,CXIV

Notes on verse 30b

CX “daily” = yom + yom. Literally, “day by day.” Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXI “delight” = shaashuim. 9x in OT. From shaa (to delight, play) OR form sha’a’ (to stare, cry out, amuse self, be blinded, play). This is a delight, pleasure, or enjoyment.
CXII “playing” = sachaq. This is to laugh, celebrate, joke, mock, scorn. This is laughing, whether for joy or scorn. It can imply plays or holding a contest.
CXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v25. See note LXXXII above.
CXIV “always” = kol + et. Literally, “in every season.” Kol is the same as “all” in v8. See note XXXIX above. Et is Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.

31 playing in his inhabitedCXV worldCXVI
    and delighting in the human race.CXVII

Notes on verse 31

CXV “inhabited” = tebel. Same as “world’s” in v26. See note LXXXVI above.
CXVI “world” = erets. Same as “earth” in v23. See note LXXI above.
CXVII “human race” = ben + adam. Literally, “children of humankind.” Ben is the same as “all who live” in v4. See note XXI above. Adam is the same as “all who live” in v4. See note XXI above.

32 “And now, my children,CXVIII listenCXIX to me:
    happyCXX are those who keepCXXI my ways.

Notes on verse 32

CXVIII “children” = ben. Same as “all who live” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXIX “listen” = shama. Same as “hear” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
CXX “happy” = esher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is happy or blessedness.
CXXI “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

33 Hear instruction and be wise,CXXII
    and do not neglectCXXIII it.
34 Happy is the oneCXXIV who listens to me,
    watchingCXXV daily at my gates,CXXVI

Notes on verses 33-34a

CXXII “be wise” = chakam. Related to “wisdom” in v1. See note I above.
CXXIII “neglect” = para. 16x in OT. This is to loosen, let alone, uncover, avoid, dismiss, or perish.
CXXIV “one” = adam. Same as “all who live” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXXV “watching” = shaqad. 12x in OT. This is to watch, be alert, remain awake, be on guard for good or evil reasons.
CXXVI “gates” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.

    waitingCXXVII besideCXXVIII my doors.CXXIX

Notes on verse 34b

CXXVII “waiting” = shamar. Same as “keep” in v32. See note CXXI above.
CXXVIII “beside” = mezuzah. 19x in OT. From the same as ziz (moving things like animals, abundance). This is a door or gate post. In modern Judaism, a mezuzah adorns the doorpost of many Jewish homes in reference to Deuteronomy 6:9. See
CXXIX “doors” = pethach. Same as “portals” in v3. See note XVII above.

35 For whoever finds me finds lifeCXXX
    and obtainsCXXXI favorCXXXII from the Lord,

Notes on verse 35

CXXX “life” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CXXXI “obtains” = puq. 7x in OT. This is to supply, obtain, offer, give, secure, succeed.
CXXXII “favor” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.

36 but those who missCXXXIII me injureCXXXIV themselves;CXXXV
    all who hateCXXXVI me loveCXXXVII death.”CXXXVIII

Notes on verse 36

CXXXIII “miss” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
CXXXIV “injure” = chamas. 8x in OT. This is to violate, do violence, to wrong; implies mistreatment.
CXXXV “themselves” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXXXVI “hate” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
CXXXVII “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
CXXXVIII “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.

Image credit: “The Nights Long Moments” by Jordan Condon, 2016.

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