Numbers 13

Numbers 13


The LordI spokeII to Moses,III saying, 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“SendIV menV to spy outVI the landVII of Canaan,VIII

Notes on verse 2a

IV “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
V “men” = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
VI “spy out” = tur. This is to seek out, explore, investigate. It is often used of trading or spying.
VII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
VIII “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

which I am givingIX to the Israelites;X from each of their ancestralXI tribesXII

Notes on verse 2b

IX “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
X “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XI “ancestral” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XII “tribes” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).

you shall send aXIII man,XIV, XV every oneXVI a leaderXVII among them.” 

Notes on verse 2c

XIII “a” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XIV “man” = ish. Related to “men” in v2. Perhaps from enosh (see note V above). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XV {untranslated} = ish + echad. Ish is the same as “man” in v2. See note XIV above. Echad is the same as “a” in v2. See note XIII above.
XVI “every one” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XVII “leader” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.

So Moses sent them from the wildernessXVIII of Paran,XIX according to the commandXX of the Lord,

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XIX “Paran” = Paran. 11x in OT. From the same as porah (a branch or spring; properly, ornamentation); perhaps from pa’ar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is Paran, perhaps meaning ornamental.
XX “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

allXXI of them leadingXXII menXXIII among the Israelites. 

These were their names:XXIV

Notes on verses 3b-4a

XXI “all” = kol. Same as “every one” in v2. See note XVI above.
XXII “leading” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XXIII “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXIV “names” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

from the tribe of Reuben,XXV ShammuaXXVI sonXXVII of Zaccur;XXVIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “Israelites” in v2. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note X above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
XXVI “Shammua” = Shammua. 5x in OT. From shama (hear, call, consent, or consider; implies listening intelligently, giving attention; obedience and action are often implied) OR from shamem (to be appalled, astonished; to stun or devastate, be destitute). This is Shammua, meaning “renowned” or “hearing.” See
XXVII “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note X above.
XXVIII “Zaccur” = Zakkur. 9x in OT. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is Zaccur or Zakkur, meaning “mindful” or “remembered.” See

from the tribe of Simeon,XXIX ShaphatXXX son of Hori;XXXI 

Notes on verse 5

XXIX “Simeon” = Shimon. Related to “Shammua” in v4. From shama (see note XXVI above). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
XXX “Shaphat” = Shaphat. 8x in OT. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is Shaphat, meaning “he has judged” or “judge.”
XXXI “Hori” = Chori. 4x in OT. From the same as Chori (Horite, Hori; “cave-dweller” or “troglodyte”); from the same as chor (a hole, den, cavity); from the same as chur (hole; a hole that was bored; a crevice where a snake lives; the cell of a prison). This is Hori, meaning “caveman” or “cave dweller” or “troglodyte” or “central authority” or “noble” or “perforated” or “hollow” or “white” or “burning hole.” See

from the tribe of Judah,XXXII CalebXXXIII son of Jephunneh;XXXIV 

Notes on verse 6

XXXII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
XXXIII “Caleb” = Kaleb. From the same as keleb (a dog, male prostitute; perhaps from a word meaning to yelp or attack). This is Caleb or Kaleb, meaning “dog” or “unsophisticated servant.” See
XXXIV “Jephunneh” = Yephunneh. 16x in OT. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is Jephunneh or Yephunneh, meaning “he will be prepared” or “he will turn to” or “he will face” or “he will be beheld.” See

from the tribe of Issachar,XXXV IgalXXXVI son of Joseph;XXXVII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXV “Issachar” = Yissaskar. Related to “leader” and “man” in v2. Perhaps from nasa (see note XVII above) + sakar (wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit); {from sakar (to hire, reward, earn)} OR ish (see note XIV above } + sakar (see above). This is Issachar, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “he will bring a reward.” See
XXXVI “Igal” = Yigal. 3x in OT. From gaal (to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws; acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow; to redeem, acts as kinsman; as a noun, deliverer or avenger). This is Igal or Yigal, meaning “he will redeem” or “he will defile.” See
XXXVII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”

from the tribe of Ephraim,XXXVIII HosheaXXXIX son of Nun;XL 

Notes on verse 8

XXXVIII “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
XXXIX “Hoshea” = Hoshea. 16x in OT. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; in a causative sense, to free someone). This is Hosea, Hoshea, or Joshua, meaning “salvation” or “deliverer.”
XL “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”

from the tribe of Benjamin,XLI PaltiXLII son of Raphu;XLIII 

Notes on verse 9

XLI “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “Israelites” in v2 & “Reuben” in v4. From ben (see note X above) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
XLII “Palti” = Palti. 2x in OT. From palat (to escape, slip out, deliver, calve). This is Palti, meaning “escape” or “delivered” or “escapist” or “the Lord has freed” or “deliverance of the Lord.” See  
XLIII “Raphu” = Raphu. 1x in OT. From rapha (properly, to repair by stitching – figuratively to heal or cure; to make whole). This is Raphu, meaning “cured” or “healed.” See

10 from the tribe of Zebulun,XLIV GaddielXLV son of Sodi;XLVI 

Notes on verse 10

XLIV “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
XLV “Gaddiel” = Gaddiel. Related to “Israelites” in v2. 1x in OT. From gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); {from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack)} + El (see note X above). This is Gaddiel, meaning “El is my fortune” or “fortune of God” or “God is my fortune” or “troop of God.” See
XLVI “Sodi” = Sodi. 1x in OT. From the same as sod (council, assembly, session, consultation); perhaps from yasad (to establish, appoint, instruct; to set in a literal or figurative sense; also, to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel). This is Sodi, meaning “a confidant” or “my assembly” or “assembly of the Lord” or “an acquaintance” or “acquaintance of God” or “acquaintance of the Lord” or “intimacy of the Lord.” See  

11 from the tribe of Joseph (that is, from the tribe of Manasseh),XLVII GaddiXLVIII son of Susi;XLIX 

Notes on verse 11

XLVII “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
XLVIII “Gaddi” = Gaddi. Related to “Gaddiel” in v10. 1x in OT. From gad (see note XLV above). This is Gaddi, meaning “my fortune” or “fortunately” or “a Gadite” or “troop of God” or “fortune of God.” See
XLIX “Susi” = Susi. 1x in OT. From the same as sus (root may mean to skip as in jump for joy; a crane or a swift bird; a horse as leaping). This is Susi, meaning “horse-like” or “swift” or “horseman.” See

12 from the tribe of Dan,L AmmielLI son of Gemalli;LII 

Notes on verse 12

L “Dan” = Dan. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
LI “Ammiel” = Ammiel. Related to “Israelites” in v2 & “Gaddiel” in v10. 6x in OT. From am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + El (see note X above). This is Ammiel, meaning “my kin is God” or “people of God” or “one of the people of God.” See
LII “Gemalli” = Gemalli. 1x in OT. From gamal (camel); from gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is Gemalli, meaning “camel-driver” or “pertaining to the camel” or “pertaining to investing” or “camel possessor.” See

13 from the tribe of Asher,LIII SethurLIV son of Michael;LV 

Notes on verse 13

LIII “Asher” = Asher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is Asher, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It means “happy one.”
LIV “Sethur” = Sethur. From sathar (hide, conceal, or be absent; hiding because something is covered – used in a literal or figurative sense). This is Sethur, meaning “hidden.”
LV “Michael” = Mikael. Related to “Israelites” in v2 & “Gaddiel” in v10 & “Ammiel” in v12. 13x in OT. From mi (who, what, which, whoever) + El (see note X above). This is Michael, meaning “who is like God?” or “what is God like?” See

14 from the tribe of Naphtali,LVI NahbiLVII son of Vophsi;LVIII 

Notes on verse 14

LVI “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
LVII “Nahbi” = Nachbi. 1x in OT. From chabah (to withdraw, conceal). This is Nachbi or Nahbi, meaning “occult” or “concealed” or “hidden.” See  
LVIII “Vophsi” = Vophsi. Related to “Joseph” in v7. 1x in OT. Perhaps from yasaph (see note XXXVII above). This is Vophsi, meaning “additional” or “addition of the Lord” or “rich, with my abundance.” See

15 from the tribe of Gad,LIX GeuelLX son of Machi.LXI 

Notes on verse 15

LIX “Gad” = Gad. Related to “Gaddiel” in v10 & “Gaddi” in v11. Perhaps from gad (see note XLV above). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
LX “Geuel” = Geuel. Related to “Israelites” in v2 & “Gaddiel” in v10 & “Ammiel” in v12 & “Michael” in v13. 1x in OT. From gaah (to rise up, be exalted, triumph; figuratively, be majestic) + El (see note X above). This is Geuel, meaning “majesty of El.”
LXI “Machi” = Maki. 1x in OT. Perhaps from muk (be low, humiliate, go down). This is Machi or Maki, meaning “pining.”

16 These were the names of the menLXII whom Moses sent to spy out the land. And Moses changed the nameLXIII of Hoshea son of Nun to Joshua.LXIV

17 Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan and said to them, “Go upLXV there into the Negeb,LXVI and go up into the hill country,LXVII 

Notes on verses 16-17

LXII “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXIII “changed the name” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXIV “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Hoshea” in v8. From YHVH (see note I above) + yasha (see note XXXIX above). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
LXV “go up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVI “Negeb” = Negeb. Root may mean to be parched. The Negeb is the south country – sometimes used to refer to Egypt. This is a land that suffers from a lot of drought.
LXVII “hill country” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.

18 and seeLXVIII what the land is like and whether the peopleLXIX who liveLXX in it are strongLXXI

Notes on verse 18a

LXVIII “see” = raah. Related to “Reuben” in v4. See note XXV above.
LXIX “people” = am. Related to “Ammiel” in v12. See note LI above.
LXX “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
LXXI “strong” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.

or weak,LXXII whether they are fewLXXIII or many,LXXIV 

Notes on verse 18b

LXXII “weak” = rapheh. 4x in OT. From raphah (sink, relax, feeble, wait; it can be literal or figurative). This is weak or discouraged. It can be a physical or mental reference. It could also be Raphah, a name meaning “healed,” “sunken,” or “powerless one.” See
LXXIII “few” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
LXXIV “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.

19 and whether the land they live in is goodLXXV or bad,LXXVI and whether the townsLXXVII

Notes on verse 19a

LXXV “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LXXVI “bad” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
LXXVII “towns” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

that they live in are unwalledLXXVIII or fortified,LXXIX 20 and whether the land is richLXXX or poor,LXXXI

Notes on verses 19b-20a

LXXVIII “unwalled” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
LXXIX “fortified” = mibtsar. From batsar (to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated to fortify, something mighty, to gather grapes). This is fortification, castle, besiege, or defender.
LXXX “rich” = shamen. 10x in OT. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, plenteous, rich, greasy, roust, lusty. It refers to rich food, fertile land, and strong people.
LXXXI “poor” = razeh. 2x in OT. From razah (to be or become lean in a literal or figurative sense; famish, emaciate). This is lean or thin.

and whether there areLXXXII treesLXXXIII in it or not.LXXXIV Be bold,LXXXV and bringLXXXVI some of the fruitLXXXVII of the land.”

Notes on verse 20b

LXXXII “there are” = yesh. This is being, existence, or substance.
LXXXIII “trees” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
LXXXIV “not” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
LXXXV “be bold” = chazaq. Related to “strong” in v18. See note LXXI above.
LXXXVI “bring” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXXXVII “fruit” = peri. Related to “Ephraim” in v8. From parah (see note XXXVIII above). This is fruit or reward.

Now it was the seasonLXXXVIII of the first ripeLXXXIX grapes.XC

Notes on verse 20c

LXXXVIII “season” = yom + yom. Literally, “days, days of.” Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LXXXIX “first ripe” = bikkurim. 18x in OT. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is first fruits – fruit that ripens earliest.
XC “grapes” = enab. 19x in OT. Root may mean to bear fruit. This is a grape, raisin, or wine. It can be used for the literal crop or as a metaphor for God’s relationship with Israel.

21 So they went up and spied out the land from the wilderness of ZinXCI to Rehob,XCII near Lebo-hamath.XCIII 

Notes on verse 21

XCI “Zin” = Tsin. 10x in OT. This is Zin or Tsin, which may come from a word that means to prick. It could mean “a crag” or “thorn” or “barb” or “decompilation” or “dry place” or “tradition” or “low palm tree” or “lowland.” See
XCII “Rehob” = Rechob. 10x in OT. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is Rehob or Rechob, meaning “width” or “wide place” or “open place” or “open place” or “open space” or “a street” or “market.” See
XCIII “Lebo-hamath” = bo + Chamath. Bo is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation. Chamath is from the same as chemeth (waterskin, bottle); from the same as chomah (a wall for protection); from the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is Hamath or Chamath, a place whose name means “walled” or “fortification” or “fortress” or “defense” or “citadel” or “waterskin.” See

22 They went up into the Negeb and cameXCIV to Hebron,XCV and Ahiman,XCVI

Notes on verse 22a

XCIV “came” = bo. Same as “Lebo-hamath” in v21. See note XCIII above.
XCV “Hebron” = Chebron. From cheber (company, society, enchantment, wide); from chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league.”
XCVI “Ahiman” = Achiman. 4x in OT. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) OR from ach (see above) + min (from, from out of, more than). This is Ahiman or Achiman, meaning “brother of a portion” or “gift” or “my brother is a gift” or “who is my brother?’ See

Sheshai,XCVII and Talmai,XCVIII the Anakites,XCIX were there.

Notes on verse 22b

XCVII “Sheshai” = Sheshay. 3x in OT. Perhaps from Shashay (Shashai or Shashai, meaning “whitish”); perhaps from shesh (byssus flax, a bleached fabric, white linen; figuratively, marble). This is Sheshai or Sheshay, meaning “whitish.” See
XCVIII “Talmai” = Talmay. 6x in OT. From the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate). This is Talmai or Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged.”
XCIX “Anakites” = yalid + Anaq. Literally, “descendants of Anak.” Yalid is 13x in OT. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is born, children, or otherwise referring to descendants. Anaq is 9x in OT. Perhaps from the same as anaq (necklace, ornament, chain) or anaq (to encircle like a necklace or function as a necklace; figuratively, to furnish with supplies). This is Anak or Anaq, meaning “neck” or “long-necked” or “ornamented” or “ornamenter” or “jewelry” or “necklace.” See

(Hebron was builtC sevenCI yearsCII beforeCIII

Notes on verse 22c

C “built” = banah. Related to “Israelites” in v2 & “Reuben” in v4 & “Benjamin” in v9. See note X above.
CI “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
CII “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
CIII “before” = paneh. Related to “Jephunneh” in v6. From panah (see note XXXIV above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

ZoanCIV in Egypt.)CV 23 And they came to the WadiCVI EshcolCVII

Notes on verses 22d-23a

CIV “Zoan” = Tsoan. 7x in OT. From tsaan (to lay packs on animals and so to wander or travel) OR from Egyptian (low region) OR Ancient Egyptian d’n.t (Tanis). This is Zoan or Tsoan, a location in Egypt. It may mean, “low region,” “itinerant,” or “moving about.” It See &
CV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CVI “Wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CVII “Eshcol” = Eshkol. 6x in OT. From the same as eshkol (cluster – as a bunch of fruit like grapes); perhaps from eshek (a gathered bunch; can be a testicle or stone). This is Eshkol or Eshcol. This is a person and a place in Hebron, perhaps meaning “cluster.

and cut downCVIII from there a branchCIX with a singleCX clusterCXI of grapes,

Notes on verse 23b

CVIII “cut down” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CIX “branch” = zemorah. 5x in OT. From zamar (to trim, prune). This is branch, vine, twig.
CX “single” = echad. Same as “a” in v2. See note XIII above.
CXI “cluster” = eshkol. Related to “Eshcol” in v23. 9x in OT. See note CVII above.

and they carriedCXII it on a poleCXIII between twoCXIV of them. They also brought some pomegranatesCXV and figs.CXVI 

Notes on verse 23c

CXII “carried” = nasa. Related to “leader” in v2 & “Issachar” in v7. See note XVII above.
CXIII “pole” = mot. 6x in OT. From mot (to shake, slip, falter, stagger, move, fall, give way, waver, be carried). This is a pole, a bar for carrying, a yoke.
CXIV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXV “pomegranates” = rimmon. Of foreign origin OR from ramam (to rise in a literal or figurative sense; to get up or exalt). This is a pomegranate or a decoration in that shape. It can also refer to the pomegranate tree.
CXVI “figs” = teenah. This is fig tree.

24 That placeCXVII was calledCXVIII the Wadi Eshcol because ofCXIX the cluster that the Israelites cut down from there.

Notes on verse 24

CXVII “place” = maqom. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXVIII “called” = qara. Same as “changed the name” in v16. See note LXIII above.
CXIX “because of” = al + odoth. Odoth is 11x in OT. From the same as ud (firebrand, a poker). This is turning, occasion, cause, concerning.

25 At the endCXX of fortyCXXI daysCXXII they returnedCXXIII from spying out the land. 

Notes on verse 25

CXX “end” = qets. From qatsats (to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense). This is outer border, end, or extremity. It can also mean infinite.
CXXI “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
CXXII “days” = yom. Same as “season” in v20. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXXIII “returned” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

26 And they cameCXXIV to Moses and AaronCXXV and to all the congregationCXXVI of the Israelites in the wilderness of Paran, at Kadesh;CXXVII

Notes on verse 26a

CXXIV “came” = halak. + bo. Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc. Bo is the same as “Lebo-hamath” in v21. See note XCIII above.
CXXV “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
CXXVI “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
CXXVII “Kadesh” = Qadesh. 18x in OT. From the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.) This is Kadesh, a place whose name means sacred or sanctuary.

they brought backCXXVIII wordCXXIX to them and to all the congregation and showedCXXX them the fruit of the land. 

27 And they reportedCXXXI to him and said, “We cameCXXXII to the land to which you sent us;

Notes on verses 26b-27a

CXXVIII “brought back” = shub. Same as “returned” in v25. See note CXXIII above.
CXXIX “word” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v1 & “wilderness” in v3. From dabar (see note II above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CXXX “showed” = raah. Same as “see” in v18. See note LXVIII above.
CXXXI “reported” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
CXXXII “came” = bo. Same as “Lebo-hamath” in v21. See note XCIII above.

it flowsCXXXIII with milkCXXXIV and honey,CXXXV and this is its fruit. 28 YetCXXXVI the people who live in the land are strong,CXXXVII

Notes on verses 27b-28a

CXXXIII “flows” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
CXXXIV “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.
CXXXV “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.
CXXXVI “yet” = ephes. From aphes (to finish, fail, stop, come to nothing, disappear). This is an end, ceasing, no further. It is often used to refer to the ends of the earth.
CXXXVII “strong” = az. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively; a Late Hebrew word). This is strong or mighty. It can also refer to power or vehemence or mean greedy.

and the towns are fortifiedCXXXVIII and veryCXXXIX large,CXL and besides, we saw the descendantsCXLI of AnakCXLII there. 

Notes on verse 28b

CXXXVIII “fortified” = batsar. Related to “fortified” in v19. See note LXXIX above.
CXXXIX “very” = meod. Related to “because of” in v24. Perhaps from the same as ud (see note CXIX above). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CXL “large” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXLI “descendants” = yalid. Same as “Anakites” in v22. See note XCIX above.
CXLII “Anak” = Anaq. Same as “Anakites” in v22. See note XCIX above.

29 The AmalekitesCXLIII live in the land of the Negeb; the Hittites,CXLIV the Jebusites,CXLV and the AmoritesCXLVI live in the hill country,

Notes on verse 29a

CXLIII “Amalekites” = Amaleq. Perhaps from amal (to work – hard labor) OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + laqaq (to lap, lick) OR from am (see above) + malaq (to wring, nip; to remove a bird’s head). This is Amalek or Amalekite. It may mean “people that wring,” “people that lap,” “nippers,” or “lickers.” See &
CXLIV “Hittites” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See
CXLV “Jebusites” = Yebusi. From yebus (threshing place; one of the former names of Jerusalem); from bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.
CXLVI “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.

and the CanaanitesCXLVII live by the seaCXLVIII and alongCXLIX the Jordan.”CL

Notes on verse 29b

CXLVII “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. Related to “Canaan” in v2. From Kna’an (see note VIII above). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
CXLVIII “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
CXLIX {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CL “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”

30 But Caleb quietedCLI the people before Moses and said, “Let us go up at onceCLII and occupyCLIII it, for we are well able to overcome it.”CLIV 

Notes on verse 30

CLI “quieted” = has. 8x in OT. This is hush, still, hold peace, be quiet. It is an interjection that is likely an onomatopoeia.
CLII “go up at once” = alah + alah. Same as “go up” in v17. See note LXV above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CLIII “occupy” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish
CLIV “are well able to overcome” = yakol + yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

31 Then the menCLV who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against this people, for they are stronger than we.” 

32 So they broughtCLVI to the Israelites an unfavorable reportCLVII of the land that they had spied out, saying, “The land that we have gone throughCLVIII as spies

Notes on verses 31-32a

CLV “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLVI “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVII “unfavorable report” = dibbah. 9x in OT. From dabab (to glide, flow gently, move slowly, speak). This is flowing so it can mean whispering, bad report, slander, or infamy.
CLVIII “gone through” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

is a land that devoursCLIX its inhabitants,CLX and all the people that we saw inCLXI it areCLXII of great size.CLXIII 

Notes on verse 32b

CLIX “devours” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CLX “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “live” in v18. See note LXX above.
CLXI “in” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLXIII “size” = middah. From mad (measure, cloth, cloak, armor, stature, height); from madad (to measure, stretch, be extended, continue). This is a measure, size, garment, height, width, or tribute.

33 There we saw the NephilimCLXIV (the AnakitesCLXV come from the Nephilim), and to ourselvesCLXVI

Notes on verse 33a

CLXIV “Nephilim” = Nephilim. 3x in OT. From naphal (to fall, literal or figurative; death, calamity, wasting away). This is Nephilim, a group of giants. Their name may mean feller or bully. It refers to angel-human hybrids before the flood and some other group of giants afterwards.
CLXV “Anakites” = ben + Anaq. Literally, “children of Anak.” Ben is the same as “Israelites” in v2. See note X above. Anaq is the same as “Anakites” in v22. See note XCIX above.
CLXVI “ourselves” = ayin. Literally, “in our eyes.” This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

we seemedCLXVII like grasshoppers,CLXVIII and soCLXIX we seemed to them.”CLXX

Notes on verse 33b

CLXVII “seemed” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Joshua” in v16. See note I above.
CLXVIII “grasshoppers” = chagab. 5x in OT. This is locust or grasshopper.
CLXIX “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CLXX “them” = ayin. Literally, “in their eyes.” Same as “ourselves” in v33. See note CLXVI above.

Image credit: “Israelites Carrying Grapes of Canaan” Stained Glass Window at the Church of Saint-Just. Photo by Espirat, 2015.

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