2 Corinthians 13

2 Corinthians 13


This is the third timeI I am comingII to you. “AnyIII chargeIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “third time” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
II “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
III “any” = pas. This is all or every.
IV “charge” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

must be sustainedV by the evidenceVI of twoVII or threeVIII witnesses.”IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “sustained” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
VI “evidence” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
VII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
VIII “three” = treis. Related to “third time” in v1. See note I above.
IX “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

I warnedX those who sinned previouslyXI and allXII the others,XIII

Notes on verse 2a

X “warned” = prolego. 14x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is to forewarn, state clearly, predict. It is saying ahead of time.
XI “sinned previously” = proamartano. 2x in NT– in 2 Corinthians 12 & 13. From pro (before, earlier, above) + hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is to sin before or already.
XII “all” = pas. Same as “any” in v1. See note III above.
XIII “others” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.

and I warn them now while absent,XIV as I didXV when presentXVI on my secondXVII visit, that if I come againXVIII I will not be lenientXIX— 

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “absent” = apeimi. Related to “present” in v2. 7x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + eimi (see note XVI below). This is being away or absent.
XV “did” = prolego. Same as “warned” in v2. See note X above.
XVI “present” = pareimi. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is to be near, to be there, to come.
XVII “second” = deuteros. Related to “two” in v1. From duo (see note VII above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Deuteronomy
XVIII “again” = palin. Perhaps from the same as pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate). This is back, again, anew.
XIX “be lenient” = pheidomai. 10x in NT. This is to spare, refrain, or to treat with leniency.

since you desireXX proofXXI that ChristXXII

Notes on verse 3a

XX “desire” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XXI “proof” = dokime. 8x in NT. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}  This is something that is being proved or tried in the sense of being tested. It can refer to the ordeal itself or imply something that has passed the test – that is genuine, trustworthy, or of good character.
XXII “Crist” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

is speakingXXIII in me. He is not weakXXIV in dealing with you but is powerfulXXV in you. 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XXIV “is…weak” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
XXV “is powerful” = dunateo. 3x in NT– 1x in Romans & 2x in 2 Corinthians. From dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); from dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is being able or powerful. It is the same root as the Greek word for “miracle.”

For he was crucifiedXXVI in weaknessXXVII but livesXXVIII by the powerXXIX of God.XXX For we are weak in him, but in dealing with you we will live with him by the power of God.

Notes on verse 4

XXVI “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “sustained” in v1. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note V above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
XXVII “weakness” = astheneia. Related to “is…weak” in v3. From asthenes (see note XXIV above). This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
XXVIII “lives” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XXIX “power” = dunamis. Related to “is powerful” in v3. From dunamai (see note XXV above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XXX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

ExamineXXXI yourselves to see whether you are livingXXXII in the faith.XXXIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXI “examine” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XXXII “living” = eimi. Related to “present” and “absent” in v2. See note XVI above.
XXXIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

TestXXXIV yourselves. Do you not realizeXXXV that JesusXXXVI Christ is in you?—

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIV “test” = dokimazo. Related to “proof” in v3. From dokimos (see note XXI above). This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXV “realize” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
XXXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

unless, indeed,XXXVII you fail to meet the test!XXXVIII I hopeXXXIX you will find outXL

Notes on verses 5c-6a

XXXVII “indeed” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
XXXVIII “fail to meet the test” = adokimos + eimi. Adokimos is related to “proof” in v3 & “test” in v5. 8x in NT. From a (not, without) + dokimos (see note XXI above)}. This is unapproved, counterfeit, rejected, failed. Eimi is the same as “living” in v5. See note XXXII above.
XXXIX “hope” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
XL “find out” = ginosko. Related to “realize” in v5. See note XXXV above.

that we haveXLI not failed.XLII But we prayXLIII to God that you may not doXLIV anything wrongXLV

Notes on verses 6b-7a

XLI “have” = eimi. Same as “living” in v5. See note XVI above.
XLII “failed” = adokimos. Same as “fail to meet the test” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIII “pray” = euchomai. 7x in NT. This is to wish, make a request, or pray.
XLIV “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XLV “wrong” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.

not that we may appearXLVI to have met the testXLVII but that you may do what is right,XLVIII though we may seem to have failed.XLIX 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVI “appear” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVII “met the test” = dokimos. Related to “proof” in v3 & “test” and “fail to meet the test” in v5. 7x in NT. See note XXI above.
XLVIII “right” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XLIX “seem to have failed” = adokimos + eimi. Same as “fail to meet the test” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.

For we cannot doL anything against the truthLI but only for the truth. For we rejoiceLII when we are weak but you are strong.LIII This is what we pray for, that you may be restored.LIV 

Notes on verses 8-9

L “do” = dunamai. Related to “is powerful” in v3 & “power” in v4. See note XXV above.
LI “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
LII “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LIII “strong” = dunatos. Related to “is powerful” in v3 & “power” in v4 & “do” in v8. From dunamai (see note XXV above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
LIV “be restored” = katartisis. 1x in NT. From katartizo (to prepare, complete, perfect for final use; restoring something to a good condition, whether for the first time or one more; to repair in a literal or figurative sense); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {from artios (perfect, complete, ready, adequate, fitted); from arti (now, in the moment); from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}}. This is preparing, making complete, restoring.

10 So I writeLV these things while I am awayLVI from you, so that when I comeLVII I may not have to beLVIII severeLIX in using the authorityLX

Notes on verse 10a

LV “write” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
LVI “am away” = apeimi. Same as “absent” in v2. See note XIV above.
LVII “come” = pareimi. Same as “present” in v2. See note XVI above.
LVIII “be” = chraomai. 11x in NT. This is to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request.
LIX “severe” = apotomos. Related to “evidence” in v1. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + temno (to cut). This is sharply, abruptly, severely.
LX “authority” = exousia. Related to “present” and “absent” in v2 & “are” in v5. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XVI above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

that the LordLXI has givenLXII me for building upLXIII and not for tearing down.LXIV

Notes on verse 10b

LXI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXII “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIII “building up” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.
LXIV “tearing down” = kathairesis. Related to “be restored” in v9. 3x in NT– 2x in 2 Corinthians 10 & 1x in 2 Corinthians 13. From kathaireo (to take down, destroy, depose, forcibly yank; to lower violently, whether literally or figuratively); from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note LIV above)}. This is destruction, tearing down, extinction.

11 Finally,LXV brothersLXVI and sisters, farewell.LXVII Be restored;LXVIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXV “finally” = loipon. Related to “others” in v2.13x in NT. From loipos (see note XIII above). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
LXVI “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LXVII “farewell” = chairo. Same as “rejoice” in v9. See note LII above.
LXVIII “be restored” = katartizo. Related to “be restored” in v9 & “tearing down” in v10. 13x in NT. See note LIV above.

listen to my appeal;LXIX agreeLXX with one another; live in peace;LXXI

Notes on verse 11b

LXIX “listen to…appeal” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
LXX “agree” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action. It refers to one’s insight or inner perspective expressing itself through behavior.
LXXI “live in peace” = eireneuo. 4x in NT. From eirene (one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony; a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) as a well-wishing that included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual; indicates when everything that is essential is joined together properly; peace literally or figuratively; by implication, it is prosperity –not in the  sense of excessive wealth, but having enough from day to day); perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is to live in peace, be peaceful, have peace, to have integrity and wholeness.

and the God of loveLXXII and peaceLXXIII will be with you. 12 GreetLXXIV one another with a holyLXXV

Notes on verses 11c-12a

LXXII “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
LXXIII “peace” = eirene. Related to “live in peace” in v11. See note LXXI above.
LXXIV “greet” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
LXXV “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

kiss.LXXVI All the saintsLXXVII greet you.

13 The graceLXXVIII of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God,

Notes on verses 12b-13a

LXXVI “kiss” = philema. 7x in NT. From phileo (friendship love and fondness with personal attachment; kiss as a sign of love deriving from this personal affection -cherishing); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person)}. This is a kiss of friendship or other deep bond.
LXXVII “saints” = hagios. Same as “holy” in v12. See note LXXV above.
LXXVIII “grace” = charis. Related to “rejoice” in v9. From chairo (see note LII above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

and the communionLXXIX of the Holy SpiritLXXX be with all of you.LXXXI

Notes on verse 13b

LXXIX “communion” = koinonia. 19x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community.
LXXX “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXXI {untranslated} = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “Jesus Before the Sanhedrin” by LUMO Project.

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