2 Peter 3:8-15a

2 Peter 3:8-15a
Advent B2


8 But do not ignoreA this one fact, beloved,B that with the LordC one day is like a thousandD years,E and a thousand years are like one day. 

Notes on verse 8

A “ignore” = lanthano. 6x in NT – same as “entertained angels unawares” in Hebrew 13:2. This is concealed, hidden, unnoticed. It is to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares.
B “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
C “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
D “thousand” = chilioi. 11x in NT – 2 in 2 Peter & 9 in Revelation. This is a thousand literal and figurative. Figuratively, it can mean total inclusion.
E “years” = etos. This is year or age.

The Lord is not slowF about his promise,G as some thinkH of slowness,I

Notes on verse 9a

F “is…slow” = braduno. 2x in NT. From bradus (slow, dull, unhurried). This is to slow, delay, or loiter. It can imply excess slowness or lateness.
G “promise” = epaggelia. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
H “think” = hegeomai. Related to “promise” in v9. From ago (see note G above). This is to think, suppose, have an opinion. It is to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority. It can refer to one who commands in an official capacity. This word shares a root with the word “hegemony.”
I “slowness” = bradutes. Related to “is…slow” in v9. 1x in NT. Related to bradus (see note F above). This is slowness, delay, or slackness.

but is patientJ with you, not wantingK any to perish,L but all to comeM to repentance.N 

Notes on verse 9b

J “is patient” = makrothumeo. 10x in NT.  From makros (long, long lasting) {from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is properly long tempered. It refers to one who delays anger, perseveres, or is patient. One could also say longsuffering or forbearing.
K “wanting” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
L “perish” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
M “come” = choreo. 10x in NT. From choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is to leave in order to make room or space. It can also be to advance, receive, accept, or make progress. Figuratively, it can also refer to being open-hearted.
N “repentance” = metanoia. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”

10 But the day of the Lord will comeO like a thief,P and then the heavensQ will pass awayR with a loud noise,S

Notes on verse 10a

O “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
P “thief” = kleptes. 16x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is a thief that steals using stealth rather than violence. It is a thief in a literal or figurative sense.
Q “heavens” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
R “pass away” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
S “loud noise” = rhoizedon. 1x in NT. From rhoizos (the sound of an arrow whirring past). This is a roar, whiz, a loud, rushing sound.

and the elementsT will be dissolvedU with fire,V and the earth and everything that is doneW on it will be disclosed.X

Notes on verse 10b

T “elements” = stoicheion. 7x in NT. From the same as stoicheo (walking in rows, according to a uniform cadece; it can be marching in military style; figuratively, it is one’s walk of life, living piously); from stoichos (a row) or from steicho (in a line). This is part of a row. So, it could be a letter in the alphabet, something rudimentary or a fundamental element of something else. Figuratively, it is primary principles that are orderly. It can aso refer to heavenly bodies or core sensibility.
U “dissolved” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
V “fire” = kausoo. 2x in NT – both in this passage. From kausis (burning, burning up); from kaio (to kindle, light, blaze; light in a literal or figurative sense).  This is to burn up, a great heat, setting something on fire.
W “done” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
X “disclosed” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

11 Since all these things are to be dissolved in this way, what sort of persons oughtY you to beZ in leading livesAA of holinessBB and godliness,CC 

Notes on verse 11

Y “ought” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
Z “be” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
AA “lives” = anastrophe. 13x in NT. From anastrepho (to turn back, return, or overturn; can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is behavior, conduct, life, or manner of life. It is behavior drawn from core beliefs.
BB “holiness” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CC “godliness” = eusebeia. 15x in NT – 1x in Acts, 8x in 1 Timothy, 1x in 2 Timothy, 1x in Titus, and 4x in 2 Peter. From eusebes (pious, devout, respectful); {from eu (good, well, well done) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore, hold in high regard or in awe; veneration shown by a devout one)}. This is piety, devotion – showing reverence.

12 waiting forDD and hasteningEE the comingFF of the day of God,GG because of which the heavens will be set ablazeHH and dissolved, and the elements will meltII with fire? 

Notes on verse 12

DD “waiting for” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, anticipate, expect, look for.
EE “hastening” = speudo. 6x in NT – shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Jesus tells Zacchaeus to hurry down from the tree in Luke 19:5-6. Perhaps from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.
FF “coming” = parousia. From pareimi (to be present, have come) {from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is presence, coming, arrival, advent. Properly, it was the term for an official visit of a king or someone else with formal authority. It is used specifically in the New Testament to refer to Jesus’s second coming.
GG “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
HH “set ablaze” = puroo. 6x in NT. From pur (fire, fiery; figurative for strife or trials). This is to burn, kindle, purify by fire, to glow. It is to burn literally or figuratively.
II “melt” = teko. 1x in NT. This is to melt down or turn into liquid.

13 But, in accordance with his promise,JJ we wait for newKK heavens and a new earth, where righteousnessLL is at home.MM

Notes on verse 13

JJ “promise” = epaggelma. Related to “promise” and “think” in v9. 2x in NT. From epagglelomai (to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note G above)} This is a promise made spontaneously rather than in response to a request.
KK “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
LL “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
MM “is at home” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home);{from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.

14 Therefore, beloved, while you are waiting for these things, striveNN to be foundOO by him at peace,PP without spotQQ or blemish;RR 

Notes on verse 14

NN “strive” = spoudazo. Related to “hastening” in v12. 11x in NT. From spoude (haste, diligence, earnestness, effort; being swift to demonstrate one’s enthusiasm; doing what one is told right away and with full effort); from speudo (see note EE above). This is to go fast, be diligent or eager. It is to make every effort, acting fervently.
OO “found” = heurisko. Same as “disclosed” in v10. See note X above.
PP “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
QQ “without spot” = aspilos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + spiloo (this is to stain or defile; figuratively, it can refer to spiritually defile or pollute, a defect or disgrace). This is spotless, undefiled, or pure. Figuratively, it is morally pure.
RR “blemish” = amometos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + momaomai (to blame, discredit, censure, find fault); {from momos (literally a spot; figuratively blame, disgrace, flaw, censure); {perhaps from memphomai (to blame, be disgraceful; be rejected due to doing bad things); from mempteos (rejected because one has been condemned)}. This is lacking blame or fault – unblemished.

15 and regardSS the patienceTT of our Lord as salvation.UU So also our beloved brotherVV PaulWW wrote to you according to the wisdomXX given him,

Notes on verse 15

SS “regard” = hegeomai. Same as “think” in v9. See note H above.
TT “patience” = makrothumia. Related to “is patient” in v9. 14x in NT. From makros (see note J above) + thumos (see note J above). Properly, this is long-passion or long-suffering – one who waits the needed amount of time before expressing anger. This is also patience, perseverance, and fortitude.
UU “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
VV “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
WW “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, litle). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XX “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.

Image credit: “Fire” – stained glass window at the National Cathedral in Washington, D.C.

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