Acts 1:6-14

Acts 1:6-14
Seventh Sunday of Easter A


So when theyI had come together,II they askedIII him,IV

Notes on verse 6a

I {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
II “come together” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
III “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
IV {untranslated} = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Lord,V is this the timeVI when you will restoreVII the kingdomVIII to Israel?”IX 

Notes on verse 6b

V “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
VI “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
VII “restore” = apokathistemi. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
VIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
IX “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

He replied, “It isX not for you to knowXI the times or periodsXII

Notes on verse 7a

X “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XI “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XII “periods” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

that the FatherXIII has setXIV by his ownXV authority.XVI 

Notes on verse 7b

XIII “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XIV “set” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
XV “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XVI “authority” = exousia. Related to “is” in v7. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note X above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

But you will receiveXVII powerXVIII when the HolyXIX SpiritXX

Notes on verse 8a

XVII “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XVIII “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XIX “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XX “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

has comeXXI upon you, and you will be my witnessesXXII in Jerusalem,XXIII

Notes on verse 8b

XXI “come” = eperchomai. Related to “come together” in v6. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.
XXII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
XXIII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

in allXXIV JudeaXXV and Samaria,XXVI and to the endsXXVII of the earth.”XXVIII 

Notes on verse 8c

XXIV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXV “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
XXVI “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
XXVII “ends” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
XXVIII “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

When he had said this, as they were watching,XXIX he was lifted up,XXX and a cloudXXXI tookXXXII him out of their sight.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 9

XXIX “watching” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XXX “lifted up” = epairo. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
XXXI “cloud” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
XXXII “took” = hupolambano. Related to “receive” in v8. 5x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + lambano (see note XVII above). This is to take up or bear up, to receive. It can also mean to welcome or entertain. Further, it can mean to take up discussion of a topic, to suppose, or imagine.
XXXIII “sight” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.

10 While he was goingXXXIV and they were gazing upXXXV toward heaven,XXXVI

Notes on verse 10a

XXXIV “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXXV “gazing up” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
XXXVI “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “lifted up” in v9. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note XXX above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

suddenlyXXXVII twoXXXVIII menXXXIX in whiteXL robesXLI stood byXLII them. 

Notes on verse 10b

XXXVII “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XXXVIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
XXXIX “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XL “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.
XLI “robes” = esthes. 8x in NT. From hennumi (to clothe). This is robe, clothing, dress. It is used of both human and angelic apparel.
XLII “stood by” = paristemi. Related to “restore” in v6. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note VII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.

11 They said, “Men of Galilee,XLIII why do you standXLIV looking upXLV toward heaven? This Jesus,XLVI

Notes on verse 11a

XLIII “Galilee” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
XLIV “stand” = histemi. Related to “restore” in v6 & “stood by” in v10. See note VII above.
XLV “looking up” = blepo. Same as “watching” in v9. See note XXIX above.
XLVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

who has been taken upXLVII from you into heaven, will comeXLVIII in the same wayXLIX as you sawL him go into heaven.”

Notes on verse 11b

XLVII “taken up” = analambano. Related to “receive” in v8 & “took” in v9. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (see note XVII above). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
XLVIII “come” = erchomai. Related to “come together” in v6 & “come” in v8. See note II above.
XLIX “way” = tropos. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); from trepo (to turn). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.
L “saw” = theaomi. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”

12 Then they returnedLI to Jerusalem from the mountLII calledLIII Olivet,LIV

Notes on verse 12a

LI “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “mount” = oros. Related to “lifted up” in v9 & “heaven” in v10. See note XXXVI above.
LIII “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LIV “Olivet” = Elaion. 1x in NT. From elaia (olive, olive tree; Mount of Olives; figuratively, can refer to the people of God). This is olive orchard or grove. It is used specifically to refer to the Mount of Olives.

which is nearLV Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’sLVI journeyLVII away.LVIII 

Notes on verse 12b

LV “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
LVI “Sabbath day’s” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
LVII “journey” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LVIII “away” = echo. Related to “ends” in v8. See note XXVII above.

13 When they had enteredLIX the city, they wentLX to the room upstairsLXI where they were staying:LXII

Notes on verse 13a

LIX “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “come together” in v6 & “come” in v8 & “come” in v11. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LX “went” = anabaino. Related to “kingdom” in v6. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note VIII above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
LXI “room upstairs” = huperoon. 4x in NT. From huperoos (upper); from huper (over, above, beyond). This refers to an upper chamber on the third floor.
LXII “staying” = katameno. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remain, wait, reside, dwell.

Peter,LXIII and John,LXIV and James,LXV and Andrew,LXVI

Notes on verse 13b

LXIII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LXIV “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v11. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XLVI above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
LXV “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LXVI “Andrew” = Andreas. Related to “men” in v10. 13x in NT. From aner (see note XXXIX above). This is Andrew, meaning manly.

PhilipLXVII and Thomas,LXVIII BartholomewLXIX and Matthew,LXX

Notes on verse 13c

LXVII “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
LXVIII “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
LXIX “Bartholomew” = Bartholomaios. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”
LXX “Matthew” = Matthaios. Related to “Jesus” in v11 & “John” in v13. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note XLVI above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See

James son of Alphaeus,LXXI and SimonLXXII the Zealot,LXXIII and JudasLXXIV son of James. 

Notes on verse 13d

LXXI “Alphaeus” = Alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
LXXII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
LXXIII “Zealot” = Zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.
LXXIV “Judas” = Ioudas. Related to “Judea” in v8. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XXV above). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.

14 All these were constantly devotingLXXV themselves to prayer,LXXVI togetherLXXVII with certain women,LXXVIII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXV “constantly devoting” = proskartereo. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.
LXXVI “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
LXXVII “together” = homothumadon. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
LXXVIII “women” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

including MaryLXXIX the motherLXXX of Jesus, as well as his brothers.LXXXI

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIX “Mary” = Mariam. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
LXXX “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

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