Numbers 18

Numbers 18


The LordI said to Aaron,II “You and your sonsIII and your ancestralIV houseV with you

Notes on verse 1a

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
III “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
IV “ancestral” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
V “house” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v1. Probably from banah (see note III above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

shall bear responsibilityVI for offensesVII connected with the sanctuary,VIII while you and your sons aloneIX shall bear responsibility for offenses connected with the priesthood.X 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “bear responsibility” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
VII “offenses” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
VIII “sanctuary” = miqdash. From the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
IX “alone” = et. Literally, “with you.”
X “priesthood” = kehunnah. 14x in OT. From the same as kohen (a priest, one who officiates or acts as priest). This is priesthood or priestly duties.

SoXI bringXII with you also your brothersXIII

Notes on verse 2a

XI “so” = gam. This is also, again, similarly.
XII “bring” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XIII “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

of the tribeXIV of Levi,XV your ancestral tribe,XVI

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “tribe” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
XV “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.
XVI “tribe” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.

in order that they may be joinedXVII to you and serveXVIII you while you and your sons with you are in front ofXIX the tentXX of the covenant.XXI 

Notes on verse 2c

XVII “joined” = lavah. Related to “Levi” in v2. See note XV above.
XVIII “serve” = sharat. This is ministering, serving, or waiting on. It can refer to one offering service as a worshipper or one serving as a servant.
XIX “in front of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XX “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
XXI “covenant” = eduth. From ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.

They shall performXXII dutiesXXIII for you andXXIV for the wholeXXV tent.

Notes on verse 3a

XXII “perform” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XXIII “duties” = mishmeret. Related to “perform” in v3. From mishmar (jail, guard, watch, guard post); from shamar (see note XXII above). This is a guard or watch or guard post. It is used figuratively for obligation, duty, or observance, including religious observance.
XXIV {untranslated} = mishmeret. Same as “duties” in v3. See note XXIII above.
XXV “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.

ButXXVI they must not approachXXVII either the utensilsXXVIII of the sanctuaryXXIX

Notes on verse 3b

XXVI “but” = ak. Related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
XXVII “approach” = qarab. Same as “bring” in v2. See note XII above.
XXVIII “utensils” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
XXIX “sanctuary” = qodesh. Related to “sanctuary” in v1. See note VIII above.

or the altar,XXX or else bothXXXI they andXXXII you will die.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 3c

XXX “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
XXXI “both” = gam. Same as “so” in v2. See note XI above.
XXXII {untranslated} = gam. Same as “so” in v2. See note XI above.
XXXIII “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

They are attachedXXXIV to you in order to perform the duties of the tent of meeting,XXXV for allXXXVI the serviceXXXVII of the tent; no outsiderXXXVIII shall approach you. 

Notes on verse 4

XXXIV “attached” = lavah. Same as “joined” in v2. See note XVII above.
XXXV “meeting” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
XXXVI “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
XXXVII “service” = abodah. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.
XXXVIII “outsider” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.

You yourselves shall perform the duties of the sanctuaryXXXIX and the duties of the altar, so that wrathXL may never againXLI comeXLII upon the Israelites.XLIII 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIX “sanctuary” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v3. See note XXIX above.
XL “wrath” = qetseph. From qatsaph (angry or provoked to wrath; a bursting into anger). This is indignation, rage, strife, foam, a splinter.
XLI “again” = od. Related to “covenant” in v2. From ud (see note XXI above). This is still, yet, again, more.
XLII “come” = hayah. Related to “Lord” In v1. See note I above.
XLIII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note III above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

It is I who nowXLIV takeXLV your brother LevitesXLVI from amongXLVII the Israelites; they are now yours as a gift,XLVIII dedicatedXLIX to the Lord, to performL the service of the tent of meeting. 

Notes on verse 6

XLIV “now” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XLV “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XLVI “Levites” = Levi. Related to “Levi” and “joined” in v2. From Levi (see note XV above). This is Levite, a descendant of Levi.
XLVII “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XLVIII “gift” = mattanah. 17x in OT. From mattan (gift, reward); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively). This is a present, bribe, or offering.
XLIX “dedicated” = natan. Related to “gift” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
L “perform” = abad. Related to “service” in v4. See note XXXVII above.

But you and your sons with you shall diligently performLI your priestly dutiesLII in all that concernsLIII the altar

Notes on verse 7a

LI “perform” = shamar. Same as “perform” in v3. See note XXII above.
LII “priestly duties” = kehunnah. Same as “priesthood” in v1. See note X above.
LIII “concerns” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

and the areaLIV behind the curtain.LV, LVI I giveLVII your priesthood as a gift; any outsider who approaches shall be put to death.”LVIII

Notes on verse 7b

LIV “area” = bayit. Same as “house” in v1. See note V above.
LV “curtain” = paroketh. Perhaps from the same as perek (perhaps from a word meaning fracture or break apart, emphasizing the severity or the break; harshness, severity, cruelty; rigorously). This is something that separates – a screen, curtain, or veil.
LVI {untranslated} = abad + abodah. Literally, “perform service.” Abad is the same as “perform” in v6. See note L above. Abodah is the same as “service” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
LVII “give” = natan. Same as “dedicated” in v6. See note XLIX above.
LVIII “put to death” = mut. Same as “die” in v3. See note XXXIII above.

The Lord spokeLIX to Aaron, “ILX have given you chargeLXI of the offeringsLXII made to me,

Notes on verse 8a

LIX “spoke” = dabar. Related to “concerns” in v7. See note LIII above.
LX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “now” in v6. See note XLIV above.
LXI “charge” = mishmeret. Same as “duties” in v3. See note XXIII above.
LXII “offerings” = terumah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.

all the holy giftsLXIII of the Israelites; I have given them to you and your sons as a priestly portionLXIV dueLXV you in perpetuity.LXVI 

Notes on verse 8b

LXIII “holy gifts” = qadosh. Related to “sanctuary” in v1 & “sanctuary” in v3. From qodesh (see note VIII above). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
LXIV “priestly portion” = mishchah. From mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate). This is the act of anointing, ointment, or a consecrated thing.
LXV “due” = choq. From chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance It is something that is prescribed or something that is owed.
LXVI “in perpetuity” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

This shall beLXVII yours from the most holy things,LXVIII reserved from the fire:LXIX everyLXX offeringLXXI of theirs that they renderLXXII to me as a most holy thing,

Notes on verse 9a

LXVII “be” = hayah. Same as “come” in v5. See note XLII above.
LXVIII “most holy things” = qodesh + qodesh. Literally, “holy of holies.” Same as “sanctuary” in v3. See note XXIX above.
LXIX “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “every” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXXI “offering” = qorban. Related to “bring” in v2. From qarab (see note XII above). This is an oblation or offering, which is to say, a sacrifice.
LXXII “render” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

whetherLXXIII grain offering,LXXIV LXXVpurification offering,LXXVI orLXXVII guilt offering,LXXVIII shall belong to you and your sons. 

Notes on verse 9b

LXXIII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXXIV “grain offering” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
LXXV {untranslated} = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXXVI “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
LXXVII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXXVIII “guilt offering” = asham. From asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is guilt, sin, wrong, or offense. It is also a sin or guilt offering.

10 As a most holy thing you shall eatLXXIX it; every maleLXXX may eat it; it shall be holyLXXXI to you. 11 This also is yours: I have given to you, together with your sons and daughters,LXXXII as a perpetualLXXXIII due,

Notes on verses 10-11a

LXXIX “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXX “male” = zakar. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is male. Properly, perhaps, it means one who is remembered, which is to say a male.
LXXXI “holy” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v3. See note XXIX above.
LXXXII “daughters” = bat. Related to “sons” and “house” in v1. From ben (see note III above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “perpetual” = olam. Same as “in perpetuity” in v8. See note LXVI above.

whatever is set asideLXXXIV from the giftsLXXXV of all the elevation offeringsLXXXVI of the Israelites; everyoneLXXXVII who is cleanLXXXVIII in your house may eat them. 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIV “whatever is set aside” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
LXXXV “gifts” = mattan. Related to “gift” and “dedicated” in v6. 5x in OT. See note XLVIII above.
LXXXVI “elevation offerings” = tenuphah. From nuph (to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present). This is something that is waved or swung. So, it could be an elevation offering that is offered in that way. It can also refer to someone presenting a weapon in a threatening manner or to imply greater tumult.
LXXXVII “everyone” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
LXXXVIII “clean” = tahor. From taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.

12 All the bestLXXXIX of the oilXC and all the best of the wineXCI and of the grain,XCII the choice produceXCIII that they give to the Lord, I have given to you. 

Notes on verse 12

LXXXIX “best” = cheleb. This is fat, finest, marrow. It is fat in a literal or figurative sense. It refers to the richest or best part.
XC “oil” = yitshar. From tsahar (to press oil or glisten). This is fresh oil, anointed. It is oil as that which is burned to make light; used figuratively to talk about anointing.
XCI “wine” = tirosh. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish).  This is new wine or sweet wine – wine that is freshly squeezed. Sometimes used for fermented wine.
XCII “grain” = dagan. Perhaps from dagah (to multiply, move quickly, breed greatly, grow). This is grain or other cereal.
XCIII “choice produce” = reshit. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.

13 The first fruitsXCIV of all that is in their landXCV that they bringXCVI to the Lord shall be yours; everyone who is clean in your house may eat of it. 14 Every devoted thingXCVII in Israel shall be yours. 

Notes on verses 13-14

XCIV “first fruits” = bikkurim. 18x in OT. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is first fruits – fruit that ripens earliest.
XCV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XCVI “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XCVII “devoted thing” = cherem. From charam (to ban, destroy, devote, seclude; to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction). This is something shut in like a net. Figuratively, it refers to something that is devoted to God or under a ban, often for destruction.

15 XCVIIIThe first issueXCIX of the wombC of all creatures,CI

Notes on verse 15a

XCVIII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
XCIX “first issue” = peter. 12x in OT. From patar (to separate, free, open, shoot out, emit, remove; this is to open up in a literal or figurative way). This is a firstling, firstborn, or opening. It is the thing that is the first to open.
C “womb” = rechem. Related to racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is a womb.
CI “creatures” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.

humanCII and animal,CIII that is offeredCIV to the Lord shall be yours,

Notes on verse 15b

CII “human” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CIII “animal” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
CIV “offered” = qarab. Same as “bring” in v2. See note XII above.

but the firstbornCV of human beingsCVI you shall redeem,CVII and the firstborn of uncleanCVIII animals you shall redeem. 

Notes on verse 15c

CV “firstborn” = bekor. Related to “firstfruits” in v13. From bakar (see note XCIV above). This is firstborn or chief.
CVI “human beings” = adam. Same as “human” in v15. See note CII above.
CVII “redeem” = padah + padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CVIII “unclean” = tame. From tame (to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense). This is unclean, ill, or ritually impure.

16 Their redemption price, reckoned from one month of age,CIX you shall fixCX at fiveCXI

Notes on verse 16a

CIX “redemption price, reckoned from one month of age” = padah + ben + chodesh + padah. Literally, “you shall redeem those redeemed of the devoted things when one month old, according to your valuation for.” Padah is the same as “redeem” See note CVII above. Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note III above. Chodesh is from chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
CX “fix” = erek. From arak (to arrange by setting in a row; to set a battle, estimate, put in order, or compare). This is order, arrangement, price, estimate, value. It refers to something that is brought into order.
CXI “five” = chamesh. This is five.

shekelsCXII of silver,CXIII according to the shekel of the sanctuaryCXIV (that is, twentyCXV gerahs).CXVI 

Notes on verse 16b

CXII “shekels” = sheqel. From shaqal (to weigh, spend, trade). This is shekel or sheqel. It is a unit of weight, generally used in trade.
CXIII “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
CXIV “sanctuary” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v3. See note XXIX above.
CXV “twenty” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
CXVI “gerahs” = gerah. 5x in OT. From garar (to drag or drag off in a rough fashion, chew, sweep, destroy; to chew the cud). This is a gerah – a twentieth part of a shekel. It may come from the sense of a kernel for its roundness. A gerah could be a unit of weight or a coin of that weight.

17 But the firstborn of a cowCXVII or the firstborn of a sheepCXVIII or the firstborn of a goatCXIX you shall not redeem; they are holy. You shall dashCXX their bloodCXXI on the altar

Notes on verse 17a

CXVII “cow” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
CXVIII “sheep” = keseb. 13x in OT. From kebes (root may mean to dominate; a young male sheep at the age of butting other sheep). This is apparently the same word as kebes, but with the consonants mixed up. It is a young lamb or sheep.
CXIX “goat” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
CXX “dash” = zaraq. This is to scatter or sprinkle, whether a liquid or a solid.
CXXI “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.

and turn their fatCXXII into smokeCXXIII as an offering by fireCXXIV for a pleasingCXXV odorCXXVI to the Lord, 

Notes on verse 17b

CXXII “fat” = cheleb. Same as “best” in v12. See note LXXXIX above.
CXXIII “turn…into smoke” = qatar. Perhaps from qetoreth (smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned); from the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is to make an offering, particular one of burned incense. It focuses on the fragrance made from the sacrificial fire. This is generally used to refer to worship.
CXXIV “offering by fire” = ishsheh. Related to “fire” in v9. From eshshah (a fire); from esh (see note LXIX above). This is an offering by fire or a burnt offering. More broadly, it can refer to any kind of sacrifice.
CXXV “pleasing” = nichoach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is soothing, restful, sweet, pleasant.
CXXVI “odor” = reyach. From ruach (to blow, breath; smell, anticipate; figuratively, to perceive, understand). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.

18 but their fleshCXXVII shall be yours, just as the breastCXXVIII that is elevatedCXXIX and as the rightCXXX thighCXXXI are yours. 

Notes on verse 18

CXXVII “flesh” = basar. Same as “creatures” in 15. See note CI above.
CXXVIII “breast” = chazeh. 13x in OT. Perhaps from chazah (to gaze at – to see or behold; perceiving as a mental process or looking at something with pleasure; seeing a vision). This is an animal breast.
CXXIX “elevated” = tenuphah. Same as “elevation offerings” in v11. See note LXXXVI above.
CXXX “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
CXXXI “thigh” = shoq. 19x in OT. Perhaps from shuq (to overflow, run after). This is leg, thigh, or hip.

19 All the holy offeringsCXXXII that the Israelites presentCXXXIII to the Lord I have given to you, together with your sons and daughters, as a perpetual due; it is a covenantCXXXIV of saltCXXXV

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXII “offerings” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
CXXXIII “present” = rum. Related to “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
CXXXIV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
CXXXV “salt” = melach. Perhaps from malach (properly, to pulverize, temper together, dissipate; also to season or salt). This is powder; used for salt or salt pit.

foreverCXXXVI beforeCXXXVII the Lord for you and your descendantsCXXXVIII as well.”CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXVI “forever” = olam. Same as “in perpetuity” in v8. See note LXVI above.
CXXXVII “before” = paneh. Same as “in front of” in v2. See note XIX above.
CXXXVIII “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CXXXIX “as well” = et. Literally, “with you.” Same as “alone” in v1. See note IX above.

20 Then the Lord said to Aaron, “You shall have no allotmentCXL in their land, nor shall you haveCXLI any shareCXLII amongCXLIII them; I am your share and your possessionCXLIV amongCXLV the Israelites.

Notes on verse 20

CXL “have…allotment” = nachal. From nachalah (properly something that was inherited; can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate; can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion). This is to gain as a possession, divide for inheritance. Also, to occupy for any reason.
CXLI “have” = hayah. Same as “come” in v5. See note XLII above.
CXLII “share” = cheleq. From chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter). This is a division, lot, inheritance, legacy, or portion. It can also refer to a smooth tongue.
CXLIII “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v6. See note XLVII above.
CXLIV “possession” = nachalah. Related to “have…allotment” in v20. See note CXL above.
CXLV “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v6. See note XLVII above.

21 “To the LevitesCXLVI, CXLVII I have given every titheCXLVIII in Israel for a possession in returnCXLIX for the service that they perform,CL the service in the tent of meeting. 

Notes on verse 21

CXLVI “Levites” = ben + Levi. Literally, “children of Levi.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note III above. Levi is the same as “Levi” in v2. See note XV above.
CXLVII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “now” in v6. See note XLIV above.
CXLVIII “tithe” = maaser. Related to “twenty” in v16. From the same as eser (see note CXV above). This is a tenth, often used to refer to a tithe.
CXLIX “return” = cheleph. 2x in OT – both in this passage. From chalaph (to slide by or rush; to pass through, change, sprout, renew, break a promise, pierce, or violate). This is an exchange or return.
CL “perform” = abad. Same as “perform” in v6. See note L above.

22 From now on the Israelites shall no longerCLI approach the tent of meeting, or else they will incurCLII guiltCLIII and die. 23 But the LevitesCLIV shall performCLV the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear responsibility for their own offenses;

Notes on verses 22-23a

CLI “longer” = od. Same as “again” in v5. See note XLI above.
CLII “incur” = nasa. Same as “bear responsibility” in v1. See note VI above.
CLIII “guilt” = chet. Related to “purification offering” in v9. From chata (see note LXXVI above). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.
CLIV “Levites” = Levi. Same as “Levites” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CLV “perform” = abad. Same as “perform” in v6. See note L above.

it shall be a perpetual statuteCLVI throughout your generations.CLVII But amongCLVIII the Israelites they shall haveCLIX no allotment,CLX 

Notes on verse 23b

CLVI “statute” = chuqqah. Related to “due” in v8. From choq (see note LXV above). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
CLVII “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
CLVIII “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v6. See note XLVII above.
CLIX “have” = nachal. Same as “have…allotment” in v20. See note CXL above.
CLX “allotment” = nachalah. Same as “possession” in v20. See note CXLIV above.

24 because I have given to the LevitesCLXI as their portionCLXII the tithe of the Israelites, which they set apartCLXIII as an offeringCLXIV to the Lord.

Notes on verse 24a

CLXI “Levites” = Levi. Same as “Levites” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CLXII “portion” = nachalah. Same as “possession” in v20. See note CXLIV above.
CLXIII “set apart” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXIV “offering” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.

ThereforeCLXV I have said of them that they shall haveCLXVI no allotmentCLXVII amongCLXVIII the Israelites.”

Notes on verse 24b

CLXV “therefore” = al + ken. Ken is related to “but” in v3. Perhaps from kun (see note XXVI above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CLXVI “have” = nachal. Same as “have…allotment” in v20. See note CXL above.
CLXVII “allotment” = nachalah. Same as “possession” in v20. See note CXLIV above.
CLXVIII “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v6. See note XLVII above.

25 The Lord spoke to Moses,CLXIX saying, 26 “You shall sayCLXX to the Levites:CLXXI When you receiveCLXXII from the Israelites the tithe that I have given you from them for your portion, you shall set apartCLXXIII an offeringCLXXIV from it to the Lord, a tithe of the tithe. 

Notes on verses 25-26

CLXIX “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CLXX “say” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v8. See note LIX above.
CLXXI “Levites” = Levi. Same as “Levites” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CLXXII “receive” = laqach. Same as “take” in v6. See note XLV above.
CLXXIII “set apart” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXXIV “offering” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.

27 It shall be reckonedCLXXV to you as your gift,CLXXVI the same as the grainCLXXVII

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXV “reckoned” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
CLXXVI “gift” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
CLXXVII “grain” = dagan. Same as “grain” in v12. See note XCII above.

of the threshing floorCLXXVIII and the fullnessCLXXIX of the winepress.CLXXX 

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXVIII “threshing floor” = goren. Root may mean to smooth. It is a threshing floor, barn, or open areas more generally.
CLXXIX “fullness” = meleah. 8x in OT. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fullness, abundance of harvest.
CLXXX “winepress” = yeqeb. 16x in OT. This is wine vat or wine press. Root may mean to excavate – so it would be the trough as excavated. Specifically, it could refer to a vat that collects wine or an upper vat where grapes are crushed.

28 ThusCLXXXI you also shall set apartCLXXXII an offeringCLXXXIII to the Lord from all the tithes that you receive from the Israelites, and from them you shall give the Lord’s offeringCLXXXIV to the priestCLXXXV Aaron. 

Notes on verse 28

CLXXXI “thus” = ken. Same as “therefore” in v24. See note CLXV above.
CLXXXII “set apart” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXXXIII “offering” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
CLXXXIV “offering” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
CLXXXV “priest” = kohen. Related to “priesthood” in v1. See note X above.

29 Out of all the giftsCLXXXVI to you, you shall set apartCLXXXVII every offeringCLXXXVIII due to the Lord; the best of all of them is the part to be consecrated.CLXXXIX 

Notes on verse 29

CLXXXVI “gifts” = mattanah. Same as “gift” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
CLXXXVII “set apart” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXXXVIII “offering” = terumah. Same as “offerings” in v8. See note LXII above.
CLXXXIX “part to be consecrated” = miqdash. Same as “sanctuary” in v1. See note VIII above.

30 Say also to them: When you have set apartCXC the best of it, then the rest shall be reckonedCXCI to the LevitesCXCII as produceCXCIII of the threshing floor and as produce of the winepress. 

Notes on verse 30

CXC “set apart” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note CXXXIII above.
CXCI “reckoned” = chashab. Same as “reckoned” in v27. See note CLXXV above.
CXCII “Levites” = Levi. Same as “Levites” in v6. See note XLVI above.
CXCIII “produce” = tebuah. Related to “bring” in v13. From bo (see note XCVI above). This is produce, increase or gain – can be literal or figurative.

31 You may eat it in anyCXCIV place,CXCV you and your households,CXCVI for it is your paymentCXCVII forCXCVIII your service in the tent of meeting. 

Notes on verse 31

CXCIV “any” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XXV above.
CXCV “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXCVI “households” = bayit. Same as “house” in v1. See note V above.
CXCVII “payment” = sakar. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
CXCVIII “for” = cheleph. Same as “return” in v21. See note CXLIX above.

32 You shall incur no guilt by reason of it, when you have offeredCXCIX the best of it. But you shall not profaneCC the holy gifts of the Israelites, on pain of death.”CCI

Notes on verse 32

CXCIX “offered” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note CXXXIII above.
CC “profane” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
CCI “on pain of death” = lo + mut. Literally, “lest you die.” Same as “die” in v3. See note XXXIII above.

Image credit: “Kievan Psalter” – artist unknown, 1397.

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