Acts 12

Acts 12


About that timeI KingII HerodIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
II “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
III “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See

laidIV violentV handsVI upon some who belonged to the church.VII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “laid” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
V “violent” = kakoo. 6x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is to afflict, mistreat, hurt, embitter, harm, injure. Figuratively, it can mean to exasperate or entreat evil.
VI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
VII “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

He had James,VIII the brotherIX of John,X

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
IX “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
X “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

killedXI with the sword.XII After he sawXIII that it pleasedXIV the Jews,XV

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XI “killed” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
XII “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
XIII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XIV “pleased” = arestos + eimi. Arestos is related to “killed” in v2. 4x in NT. From aresko (to please or be agreeable; implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval; often used for moral agreement; being agreeable or trying to be agreeable); perhaps from airo (see note XI above). This is what is pleasing, satisfactory, or desirable. It can also be satisfactory because it is moral. Eimi is to be, exist.
XV “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

he proceededXVI to arrestXVII PeterXVIII also. (This wasXIX during the FestivalXX of UnleavenedXXI Bread.) 

Notes on verse 3b

XVI “proceeded” = prostithemi. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.
XVII “arrest” = sullambano. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
XVIII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XIX “was” = eimi. Same as “pleased” in v3. See note XIV above.
XX “Festival” = hemera. Literally, “days of.” Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXI “Unleavened” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.

When he had seizedXXII him, he putXXIII him in prisonXXIV

Notes on verse 4a

XXII “seized” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”
XXIII “put” = tithemi. Related to “proceeded” in v3. See note XVI above.
XXIV “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

and handed him overXXV to fourXXVI squadsXXVII of soldiersXXVIII to guardXXIX him,

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “handed…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XXVI “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
XXVII “squads” = tetradion. Related to “four” in v4. 1x in NT. From tessares (see note XXVI above). This is a quaternion or squad of four Roman soldiers.
XXVIII “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIX “guard” = phulasso. Related to “prison” in v4. See note XXIV above.

intendingXXX to bring him outXXXI to the peopleXXXII after the Passover.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 4c

XXX “intending” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
XXXI “bring…out” = anago. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
XXXII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XXXIII “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

WhileXXXIV Peter was keptXXXV in prison, the church prayedXXXVI

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXV “kept” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
XXXVI “prayed” = proseucheeimi. Proseuche is from proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays. Eimi is the same as “pleased” in v3. See note XIV above.

ferventlyXXXVII, XXXVIII to GodXXXIX for him.

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVII “fervently” = ektenos.  2x in NT. From ektenes (stretched fervent zealous); from ekteino (to stretch out, reach, lay hands on; casting an anchor); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain)}. This is stretchted to the greatest extent, so it is fervently or earnestly.
XXXVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXXIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

The very nightXL before Herod was going toXLI bring him out,XLII Peter, boundXLIII with two chains,XLIV

Notes on verse 6a

XL “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
XLI “was going to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XLII “bring…out” = proago. Related to “bring…out” in v4. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
XLIII “bound” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
XLIV “chains” = halusis. 11x in NT. This is a chain or fetter.

was sleepingXLV between twoXLVI soldiers, while guardsXLVII in front of the doorXLVIII were keeping watch overXLIX the prison. 

Notes on verse 6b

XLV “sleeping” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
XLVI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
XLVII “guards” = phulax. Related to “prison” and “guard” in v4. 3x in NT. From phulasso (see note XXIV above). This is a guard, keeper, or watcher.
XLVIII “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XLIX “keeping watch over” = tereo. Same as “kept” in v5. See note XXXV above.

SuddenlyL an angelLI of the LordLII appeared,LIII

Notes on verse 7a

L “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LI “angel” = aggelos. Related to “bring…out” in v4 & “bring…out” in v6. Probably from ago (see note XXXI above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
LII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LIII “appeared” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.

and a lightLIV shoneLV in the cell.LVI

Notes on verse 7b

LIV “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
LV “shone” = lampo. 7x in NT. This is to give light or shine literally or figuratively. This is where the word “lamp” comes from.
LVI “cell” = oikema. 1x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a dwelling. It can refer to a jail cell in particular.

He tappedLVII Peter on the sideLVIII and wokeLIX him, saying,LX

Notes on verse 7c

LVII “tapped” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
LVIII “side” = pleura. 6x in NT – all other references are to Jesus’s side when pierced on the cross or shown to the disciples after the resurrection. This is a rib or the side.
LIX “woke” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
LX “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Get upLXI quickly.”LXII And the chains fellLXIII off his wrists.LXIV 

Notes on verse 7d

LXI “get up” = anistemi. Related to “appeared” in v7. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LIII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXII “quickly” = tachos. 8x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly or immediately. It is not rushed, but as fast as is reasonable.
LXIII “fell” = ekpipto. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall off, fade away, fail, leave a straight path on the sea, flower withering, be fruitless, be inefficient.
LXIV “wrists” = cheir. Same as “hands” in v1. See note VI above.

The angel said to him, “Fasten your beltLXV and put onLXVI your sandals.”LXVII He didLXVIII so.

Notes on verse 8a

LXV “fasten…belt” = zonnumi. 3x in NT. Perhaps from zone (belt, waistband, purse); probably related to zugos (yoke, set of scales; what unites people in shared work; servitude or obligation); from zeugnumi (to yoke). This is to gird, prepare for an active task; to gird up your loins so that you are able to move fast.
LXVI “put on” = hupodeo. Related to “bound” in v6. 3x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (see note XLIII above). This is to bind under, wear on the feet.
LXVII “sandals” = sandalion. 2x in NT. From sandalon (a sandal; or the sole of a shoe made from wood). This is a sandal or the pad for under the foot. It is where the word “sandal” comes from.
LXVIII “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

Then he said to him, “Wrap your cloakLXIX aroundLXX you and followLXXI me.” 

Peter went outLXXII and followed him; he did not realizeLXXIII that what was happeningLXXIV with the angel’s help was real;LXXV

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LXIX “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
LXX “wrap…around” = periballo. Related to “laid” in v1. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (see note IV above). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
LXXI “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LXXII “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXXIII “realize” = eido. Related to “suddenly” in v7. See note L above.
LXXIV “happening” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXV “real” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

he thoughtLXXVI he was seeingLXXVII a vision.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 9b

LXXVI “thought” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
LXXVII “seeing” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LXXVIII “vision” = horama. Related to “saw” in v3. 12x in NT. From horao (see note XIII above). This is a sight, something seen, a vision. In the New Testament, it is always a supernatural vision.

10 After they had passedLXXIX the firstLXXX and the secondLXXXI guard,LXXXII

Notes on verse 10a

LXXIX “passed” = dierchomai. Related to “went out” in v9. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note LXXII above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LXXX “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
LXXXI “second” = deuteros. Related to “two” in v6. From duo (see note XLVI above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
LXXXII “guard” = phulake. Same as “prison” in v4. See note XXIV above.

they cameLXXXIII before the ironLXXXIV gateLXXXV leadingLXXXVI into the city.LXXXVII

Notes on verse 10b

LXXXIII “came” = erchomai. Related to “went out” in v9 & “passed” in v10. See note LXXII above.
LXXXIV “iron” = sideros. 5x in NT – 1x in Acts 12 & 4x in Revelation (3 rods of iron and one iron breastplate). Perhaps from sideros (made of iron). This is iron.
LXXXV “gate” = pule. 10x in NT. This is gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress. It is often used for an exit way. Figuratively, it can refer to authority and power.
LXXXVI “leading” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

It openedLXXXVIII for them of its own accord,LXXXIX and they went outsideXC

Notes on verse 10c

LXXXVIII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIX “of its own accord” = automatos. 2x in NT. Perhaps from autos (he, she, self, they, same) + perhaps maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); {from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to knead, squeeze)}}. This is of itself, of its own will. So, it is inherently ready without outside pressure or convincing for action – spontaneous. It is where the word “automatic” comes from.
XC “went outside” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v9. See note LXXII above.

and walked alongXCI aXCII lane,XCIII when suddenlyXCIV the angel leftXCV him. 

Notes on verse 10d

XCI “walked along” = proerchomai. Related to “went out” in v9 & “passed” and “came” in v10. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + erchomai (see note LXXII above). This is to advance, move forward. It is moving ahead in location or time.
XCII “a” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XCIII “lane” = rhume. 4x in NT. Probably related to rheuma (something that flows; a current); from rheo (to flow, to flow like water, overflow) OR from rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); from eruo (to draw, drag) This is a street or lane – a street alley as crowded.
XCIV “suddenly” = eutheos. Related to “proceeded” in v3 & “put” in v4. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note XVI above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XCV “left” = aphistemi. Related to “appeared” and “get up” in v7. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note LIII above). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.

11 Then Peter cameXCVI to himself and said, “Now I am sureXCVII, XCVIII that the Lord has sentXCIX his angel

Notes on verse 11a

XCVI “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
XCVII “am sure” = eido. Same as “realize” in v9. See note LXXIII above.
XCVIII {untranslated} = alethos. Related to “real” in v9. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note LXXV above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
XCIX “sent” = exapostello. Related to “appeared” and “get up” in v7 & “left” in v10. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {from histemi (see note LIII above)}}. This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.

and rescuedC me from the hands of Herod and from allCI that the JewishCII people were expecting.”CIII

Notes on verse 11b

C “rescued” = exaireo. Related to “killed” in v2 & “pleased” in v3. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + haireo (see note XI above). This is to remove, pluck, tear, or choose. Properly, it refers to a complete removal or a complete rescue.
CI “all” = pas. This is all or every.
CII “Jewish” = Ioudaios. Same as “Jews” in v3. See note XV above.
CIII “expecting” = prosdokia. 2x in NT. From prosdokao (to await, anticipate, expect, look for); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + dokeuo (to watch)}. This is expectation or waiting. It can also be a sense of foreboding.

12 As soon as he realizedCIV this, he wentCV to the houseCVI of Mary,CVII

Notes on verse 12a

CIV “realized” = suneidon. Related to “suddenly” in v7 & “realize” in v9. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (see note L above)}. This is to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of. It is a through understanding or awareness of something.
CV “went” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v10. See note LXXII above.
CVI “house” = oikia. Related to “cell” in v7. From oikos (see note LVI above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CVII “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.

the motherCVIII of John whose other name wasCIX Mark,CX

Notes on verse 12b

CVIII “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CIX “other name was” = epikaleo. Related to “church” in v1. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note VII above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CX “Mark” = Markos. 8x in NT. From Latin Marcus (Marcus); {from Mars (the planet or god)} This is Mark of Marcus, a name meaning “dedicated to Mars.” See

where manyCXI hadCXII gatheredCXIII and were praying.CXIV 

Notes on verse 12c

CXI “many” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CXII “had” = eimi. Same as “pleased” in v3. See note XIV above.
CXIII “gathered” = sunathroizo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + athroizo (to be disheartened, dismayed, broken in spirit); {from a (not, without) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is to assemble or gather together.
CXIV “praying” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayed” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

13 When he knockedCXV at the outerCXVI gate,CXVII a maidCXVIII

Notes on verse 13a

CXV “knocked” = krouo. 9x in NT. To knock, hit a door with a stick in order to enter.
CXVI “outer” = thura. Same as “door” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
CXVII “gate” = pulon. Related to “gate” in v10. 18x in NT. From pule (see note LXXXV above). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.
CXVIII “maid” = paidiske. Related to “tapped” in v7. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note LVII above). This is young girl or female slave or servant.

namedCXIX RhodaCXX cameCXXI to answer.CXXII 

Notes on verse 13b

CXIX “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CXX “Rhoda” = Rhode. 1x in NT. From rhodon (a rose). This is Rhoda, meaning “rose-bush.” See
CXXI “came” = proserchomai. Related to “went out” in v9 & “passed” and “came” and “walked along” in v10. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note LXXII above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CXXII “answer” = hupakouo. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is to listen, to attend to, or obey. It is acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority.

14 On recognizingCXXIII Peter’s voice,CXXIV she was so overjoyedCXXV that, instead of opening the gate,CXXVI

Notes on verse 14a

CXXIII “recognizing” = epiginosko. Related to “named” in v13. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note CXIX above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
CXXIV “voice” = phone. Related to “light” in v7. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note LIV above) or phaino (see note LIV above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXXV “overjoyed” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
CXXVI “gate” = pulon. Same as “gate” in v13. See note CXVII above.

she ran inCXXVII and announcedCXXVIII that Peter was standingCXXIX at the gate.CXXX 

Notes on verse 14b

CXXVII “ran in” = eistrecho. 1x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run in.
CXXVIII “announced” = apaggello. Related to “bring…out” in v4 & “bring…out” in v6 & “angel” in v7. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (see note LI above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CXXIX “’standing” = histemi. Related to “appeared” and “get up” in v7 & “left” in v10 & “sent” in v11. See note LIII above.
CXXX “gate” = pulon. Same as “gate” in v13. See note CXVII above.

15 They said to her, “You are out of your mind!”CXXXI But she insistedCXXXII that it wasCXXXIII so.

They said, “It is his angel.” 

Notes on verse 15

CXXXI “are out of…mind” = mainomai. 5x in NT. Perhaps from mao (long for). This is to be insane, to rage. It is behaving like one has lost their mind, but only on a temporary basis. This is where the words “maniac” and “mania” come from.
CXXXII “insisted” = diischurizomai. 2x in NT– both in Luke-Acts. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + ischurizomai (to depend on, feel confident); {from ischuros (strong –physical strength; figuratively, forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure); from ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}}. This is to confidently affirm, lean on. It is generally used for assert something in the face of opposition.
CXXXIII “was” = echo. Related to “insisted” in v15. See note CXXXII above.

16 Meanwhile Peter continuedCXXXIV knocking, and when they opened the gate they sawCXXXV him and were amazed.CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 16

CXXXIV “continued” = epimeno. 17x in NT.  From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.
CXXXV “saw” = horao. Same as “saw” in v3. See note XIII above.
CXXXVI “were amazed” = existemi. Related to “appeared” and “get up” in v7 & “left” in v10 & “sent” in v11 & “standing” in v14. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note LIII above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.

17 He motionedCXXXVII to them with his hand to be silentCXXXVIII and describedCXXXIX for them how the Lord had broughtCXL him out of the prison.

Notes on verse 17a

CXXXVII “motioned” = kataseio. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From kata (down, against, according to) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is to shake in order to call for quiet, to motion or signal.
CXXXVIII “be silent” = sigao. 10x in NT. From sige (silence, hush); perhaps from sizo (to hiss or hush). This is to be silent or hold peace.
CXXXIX “described” = diegeomai. Related to “bring…out” in v4 & “bring…out” in v6 & “angel” in v7 & “announced” in v14. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXXI above)}. This is to describe fully, narrate, declare, tell something clearly so that one knows what is most important.
CXL “brought” = exago. Related to “bring…out” in v4 & “bring…out” in v6 & “angel” in v7 & “announced” in v14 & “described” in v17. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.

And he added, “TellCXLI this to James and to the brothers and sisters.” Then he leftCXLII and wentCXLIII to anotherCXLIV place.CXLV

Notes on verse 17b

CXLI “tell” = apaggello. Same as “announced” in v14. See note CXXVIII above.
CXLII “left” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v9. See note LXXII above.
CXLIII “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CXLIV “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CXLV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

18 When morningCXLVI came,CXLVII there was no smallCXLVIII commotionCXLIX among the soldiers over what had becomeCL of Peter. 

Notes on verse 18

CXLVI “morning” = hemera. Same as “Festival” in v3. See note XX above.
CXLVII “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CXLVIII “small” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
CXLIX “commotion” = tarachos. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From tarache (`disorder) OR from tarasso (trouble, agitate, stir up; motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water). This is trouble, commotion, or tumult.
CL “become” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXVIII above.

19 When Herod had searched forCLI him and could not findCLII him, he examinedCLIII the guards

Notes on verse 19a

CLI “searched for” = epizeteo. 13x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to desire, search for, seek, or want. It is following through on a personal goal by seeking.
CLII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLIII “examined” = anakrino. 16x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). 16x in NT. This is to scrutinize, examine, investigate, judge, or discern. Properly, it refers to very thorough investigation or careful study. It was used to talk about investigating crimes in the ancient world. It can also be used to talk about interrogation that uses torture.

and orderedCLIV them to be put to death.CLV Then he went downCLVI

Notes on verse 19b

CLIV “ordered” = keleuo. Related to “church” in v1 & “other name was” in v12. See note VII above.
CLV “put to death” = apago. Related to “bring…out” in v4 & “bring…out” in v6 & “angel” in v7 & “announced” in v14 & “described” and “brought” in v17. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
CLVI “went down” = katerchomai. Related to “went out” in v9 & “passed” and “came” and “walked along” in v10 & “came” in v13. 16x in NT.

from JudeaCLVII to CaesareaCLVIII and stayedCLIX there.

Notes on verse 19c

CLVII “Judea” = Ioudaia. Related to “Jews” in v3. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XV above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
CLVIII “Caesarea” = Kaisareia. 17x in NT. From kaisar (Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors); from Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesarea – part of the name of two cities in Palestine. See
CLIX “stayed” = diatribo. 9x in NT.  From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is to spend time, remain, stay, continue. Literally, it is to rub or wear away.

20 Now Herod was angryCLX with the people of TyreCLXI and Sidon.CLXII

Notes on verse 20a

CLX “angry” = thumomacheo. Related to “gathered” in v12 & to “sword” in v2. 1x in NT. From thumos (see note CXIII above) + machomai (see note XII above). This is to be greatly anger. It can also mean to fight furiously.
CLXI “people of Tyre” = Turios. 1x in NT. From Turos (Tyre); From Phoenician t-s-r (rock; “after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built”). This is someone from Tyre. It means “rock.” See
CLXII “people of…Sidon” = Sidonios. 2x in NT. From Sidon (Sidon); from Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is someone from Sidon. It means “fishery” or “fishing town.” See &

So they cameCLXIII to him in a body,CLXIV and after winning overCLXV Blastus,CLXVI

Notes on verse 20b

CLXIII “came” = pareimi. Related to “pleased” in v3. From para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note XIV above). This is to be near, to be there, to come.
CLXIV “in a body” = homothumadon. Related to “gathered” in v12 & “angry” in v20. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (see note CXIII above)}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
CLXV “winning over” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
CLXVI “Blastus” = Blastos. 1x in NT. Perhaps from the same as blastano (to sprout, germinate, bud, bring forth; can imply yielding fruit); perhaps from blastos (a sprout). This is Blastus, meaning “sprout” or “shoot.” See

the king’s personal attendant,CLXVII they asked forCLXVIII a reconciliation,CLXIX

Notes on verse 20c

CLXVII “personal attendant” = koiton. Related to “sleeping” in v6. 1x in NT. From koite (a bed; can imply living with someone; by extension, can refer to promiscuity or sperm); from keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is a bedroom or chamberlain.
CLXVIII “asked for” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CLXIX “reconciliation” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

because their countryCLXX depended on the king’s countryCLXXI for food.CLXXII 

Notes on verse 20d

CLXX “country” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
CLXXI “king’s country” = basilikos. Related to “king” in v1. 5x in NT. From basileus (see note II above). This is royal, something suitable to or otherwise connected to a king. It can also be a royal official, the king’s country, attire, or dignity.
CLXXII “food” = trepho. 9x in NT. Perhaps from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation). This is to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse. Properly, it is to enlarge through proper nourishment.

21 On an appointedCLXXIII dayCLXXIV Herod put onCLXXV his royalCLXXVI robes,CLXXVII

Notes on verse 21a

CLXXIII “appointed” = taktos. 1x in NT. From tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is appointed, arranged, fixed.
CLXXIV “day” = hemera. Same as “Festival” in v3. See note XX above.
CLXXV “put on” = enduo. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (to go down, sink, or set)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
CLXXVI “royal” = basilikos. Same as “king’s country” in v20. See note CLXXI above.
CLXXVII “robes” = esthes. 8x in NT. From hennumi (to clothe). This is robe, clothing, dress. It is used of both human and angelic apparel.

took his seatCLXXVIII on the platform,CLXXIX and delivered a public addressCLXXX to them. 

Notes on verse 21b

CLXXVIII “took…seat” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CLXXIX “platform” = bema. Related to “king” in v1 & “king’s country” in v20. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (see note II above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See
CLXXX “delivered a public address” = demegoreo. Related to “bound” in v6 & “put on” in v8 & to “woke” in v7. 1x in NT. From demegoros (popular orator); {from demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {perhaps from deo (see note XLIII above)} + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR from demos (see abve) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}. This is to give a speech in public to a large number of people – to orate.

22 The peopleCLXXXI kept shouting,CLXXXII “The voice of a godCLXXXIII and not of a mortal!”CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 22

CLXXXI “people” = demos. Related to “bound” in v6 & “put on” in v8 & “delivered a public address” in v21. 4x in NT. See note CLXXX above.
CLXXXII “shouting” = epiphoneo. Related to “light” in v7 & “voice” in v14. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + phoneo (to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument); {from phone (see note CXXIV above)} This is to shout, exclaim, call out.
CLXXXIII “god” = theos. Same as “God” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
CLXXXIV “mortal” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v3 & “vision” in v9. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XIII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

23 And immediately,CLXXXV because he had not givenCLXXXVI the gloryCLXXXVII to God,

Notes on verse 23a

CLXXXV “immediately” = parachrema. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary)}. This is immediately or soon.
CLXXXVI “given” = didomi. Related to “handed…over” in v4. See note XXV above.
CLXXXVII “glory” = doxa. Related to “thought” in v9. From dokeo (see note LXXVI above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

an angel of the Lord struckCLXXXVIII him down, and he wasCLXXXIX eaten by wormsCXC and died.CXCI

Notes on verse 23b

CLXXXVIII “struck” = patasso. Same as “tapped” in v7. See note LVII above.
CLXXXIX “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CXC “eaten by worms” = skolekobrotos. 1x in NT. From skolex (worm, maggot; figuratively, gnawing anguish) + bibrosko (to eat); {similar to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually)}. This is eaten by worms – infested with maggots.
CXCI “died” = ekpsucho. 3x in NT– all in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + psucho (to breathe, blow, to cool). This is to have one’s final breath, to die.

24 But the wordCXCII of God continued to advanceCXCIII and gain adherents.CXCIV 

Notes on verse 24

CXCII “word” = logos. Related to “saying” in v7. From lego (see note LX above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXCIII “continued to advance” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
CXCIV “gain adherents” = plethuno. 12x in NT. From plethos (fullness, multitude, great number); from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to increase, multiply, or abound. It is filling to its greatest potential or utmost capacity.

25 Then after completingCXCV their missionCXCVI BarnabasCXCVII

Notes on verse 25a

CXCV “completing” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXCVI “mission” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.
CXCVII “Barnabas” = Banabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See

and SaulCXCVIII returnedCXCIX to JerusalemCC and brought withCCI them John, whose other name was Mark.

Notes on verse 25b

CXCVIII “Saul” = Saulos. 15x in NT. From Saoul (Saul); from Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”
CXCIX “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CC “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CCI “brought with” = sumparalambano. Related to “arrest” in v3. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + paralambano (to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with; to take on an office or to learn); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XVII above)} This is to take, to bring along as a friend.

Image credit: “Peter Escapes from Prison” by Lars-Goran Ronnberg.

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