Matthew 8

Matthew 8


When Jesus had come down from the mountain, great crowds followedI him; andII there was a leperIII who came to him and kneltIV before him,

Notes on verses 1-2a

I “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
II {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
III “leper” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
IV “knelt” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

saying, “Lord,V if you choose,VI you canVII make me clean.”VIII 

Notes on verse 2b

V “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
VI “choose” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
VII “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
VIII “make…clean” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.

He stretched outIX his handX and touchedXI him, saying, “I do choose. Be made clean!” ImmediatelyXII his leprosyXIII was cleansed. 

Notes on verse 3

IX “stretched out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
X “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XI “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
XII “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.
XIII “leprosy” = lepra. Related to “leper” in v2. From the same as lepis (see note III above). 4x in NT. This is scaliness, leprosy.

Then JesusXIV said to him, “SeeXV that you say nothing to anyone; but go,XVI showXVII yourself to the priest,XVIII

Notes on verse 4a

XIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XVI “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XVII “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
XVIII “priest” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.

and offerXIX the giftXX that MosesXXI commanded,XXII as a testimonyXXIII to them.”

Notes on verse 4b

XIX “offer” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
XX “gift” = doron. 19x in NT. From didomi (to give in a literal or figurative sense). This is gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily
XXI “Moses” = mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XXII “commanded” = prostasso. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to allot, place, appoint, or instruct. This is allotting with a focus on the one who is making the allotment decisions. Figuratively, this can also mean to enjoin.
XXIII “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.

When he entered Capernaum,XXIV a centurionXXV came to him, appealingXXVI to him 

Notes on verse 5

XXIV “Capernaum” = kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”
XXV “centurion” = hekatontarchos. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
XXVI “appealing” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

6 and saying, “Lord, my servantXXVII is lyingXXVIII at homeXXIX paralyzed,XXX in terribleXXXI distress.”XXXII 

Notes on verse 6

XXVII “servant” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
XXVIII “lying” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
XXIX “home” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XXX “paralyzed” = paralutikos. 10x in NT. From paraluo (to release on the side, weaken, disable, relax, paralyze); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)}. This is someone who is paralyzed. This is where the word “paralyze” comes from.
XXXI “terrible” = deinos. 2x in NT. From the same as deilos (fearful, timid, faithless, fear of losing); from deos (fear, reverence); from deido (to fear). This is terribly, very, excessively.
XXXII “distress” = basanizo. Related to “come down” in v1. 12x in NT. From basanos (touchstone used to test metals; figuratively used for interrogating using torture, torment, pain sickness); perhaps from the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to torture, interrogate by torture, torment, batter with waves, examine, strain.

And he said to him, “I will come and cureXXXIII him.” 

The centurion answered, “Lord, I am not worthyXXXIV to have you come under my roof;XXXV but only speak the word,XXXVI and my servant will be healed.XXXVII 

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXIII “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
XXXIV “worthy” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
XXXV “roof” = stege. 3x in NT. From stego (cover tightly, conceal, endure patiently, to put something under a roof, forbearing) OR from tegos (thatch of a building). This is a roof of a house that is flat.
XXXVI “word” = logos. Related to “saying” in v2. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXXVII “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.

For I also am a manXXXVIII under authority,XXXIX withXL soldiersXLI under me;

Notes on verse 9a

XXXVIII “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXIX “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
XL {untranslated} = tasso. Related to “commanded” in v4. 9x in NT. See note XXII above.
XLI “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.

and I say to one, ‘Go,’XLII and he goes, and to another,XLIII ‘Come,’ and he comes, and to my slave,XLIV ‘Do this,’ and the slave does it.” 

Notes on verse 9b

XLII “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XLIII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XLIV “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

10 When Jesus heardXLV him, he was amazedXLVI and said to those who followed him, “TrulyXLVII I tell you, in no one in IsraelXLVIII have I foundXLIX such faith.L 

Notes on verse 10

XLV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLVI “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
XLVII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XLVIII “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
XLIX “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
L “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

11 I tell you, many will comeLI from eastLII and westLIII

Notes on verse 11a

LI “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “east” = anatole. 11x in NT. From anatello (rise, shine, or dawn; most often used of the sun; figuratively, achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps); {from ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax)}. This is rising, as in the place where the sun rises. So, it refers to the east.
LIII “west” = dusme. 6x in NT. From duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is a setting i.e. the west, the region to the west, or the sunset.

and will eatLIV with AbrahamLV and IsaacLVI and JacobLVII in the kingdomLVIII of heaven,LIX 

Notes on verse 11b

LIV “eat” = anaklino. 6x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is to lay down, recline, lie back, or sit down.
LV “Abraham” = abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
LVI “Isaac” = isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
LVII “Jacob” = iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Jacob, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LVIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LIX “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

12 while the heirsLX of the kingdom will be thrownLXI into the outer darkness,LXII where there will be weepingLXIII and gnashingLXIV of teeth.” 

Notes on verse 12

LX “heirs” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXI “thrown” = ekballo. Related to “lying” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note XXVIII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
LXIII “weeping” = klauthmos. 9x in NT. From klaio (to weep, lament, or sob; weeping aloud). This is weeping, lamentation, shrieks, intense pain.
LXIV “gnashing” = brugmos. 7x in in NT. From brucho (to bite, grind, grate teeth – in rage or pain). This is biting, grinding, grating teeth.

13 And to the centurion Jesus said, “Go; let it be doneLXV for you according to your faith.”LXVI And the servant was healed in that hour.LXVII

Notes on verse 13

LXV “be done” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another. This is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXVI “faith” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v10. From pistis (see note L above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXVII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

14 When Jesus entered Peter’sLXVIII house, he saw his mother-in-law lying in bedLXIX with a fever;LXX 15 he touched her hand, and the feverLXXI leftLXXII her, and she got up and began to serveLXXIII him. 

Notes on verses 14-15

LXVIII “Peter’s” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LXIX “lying in bed” = ballo. Same as “lying” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXX “fever” = puresso. 2x in NT. From pur (fire, lightning, heat from the sun; figuratively, strife or trials). This is being on fire or sick with a fever.
LXXI “fever” = puretos. Related to “fever” in v14. 6x in NT. From pur (see note LXX above). This is inflamed or fever.
LXXII “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LXXIII “serve” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.

16 That evening they broughtLXXIV to him many who were possessed with demons;LXXV and he cast outLXXVI the spiritsLXXVII with a word, and cured all who were sick.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 16

LXXIV “brought” = prosphero. Same as “offer” in v4. See note XIX above.
LXXV “were possessed with demons” = daimonizomai. 13x in NT. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is being demon-possessed or under an evil spirit’s power. This root is where the word “demon” comes from.
LXXVI “cast out” = ekballo. Same as “thrown” in v12. See note LXI above.
LXXVII “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXVIII “sick” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.

17 This was to fulfillLXXIX what had been spoken through the prophetLXXX Isaiah,LXXXI “He took our infirmitiesLXXXII and boreLXXXIII our diseases.”LXXXIV

Notes on verse 17

LXXIX “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LXXX “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXXI “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Jesus” in v4. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note XIV above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XIV above)}}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”
LXXXII “infirmities” = astheneia. From asthenes (without strength, sick, deprivation; weak in a moral or physical sense); {From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is weakness, frailty, illness, suffering, or calamity. It is any kind of sickness or injury that includes weakness or diminishes your ability to enjoy or accomplish what you would choose.
LXXXIII “bore” = bastazo. Related to “come down” in v1 & “distress” in v6. May be from basis (see note XXXII above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
LXXXIV “diseases” = nosos. 11x in NT. This refers to a disease that is chronic and enduring. It can also be used for a moral failing.

18 Now when Jesus saw great crowds around him, he gave ordersLXXXV to go over to the other side. 19 A scribeLXXXVI then approached and said, “Teacher,LXXXVII I will follow you wherever you go.” 

Notes on verses 18-19

LXXXV “gave orders” = keleuo. Related to “appealing” in v5. See note XXVI above.
LXXXVI “scribe” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
LXXXVII “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.

20 And Jesus said to him, “FoxesLXXXVIII have holes,LXXXIX and birdsXC of the airXCI have nests;XCII

Notes on verse 20a

LXXXVIII “foxes” = alopex. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European wel (to steal, tear). This is a fox or figuratively someone who is crafty or cunning. This is also where the word “alopecia” comes from. See
LXXXIX “holes” = pholeos. 2x in NT. This is a hole, burrow, den, or lair.
XC “birds” = peteinon. 14x in NT. From petomai (to fly). This is something with wings i.e. a bird.
XCI “air” = ouranos. Same as “heaven” in v11. See note LIX above.
XCII “nests” = kataskenosis. 2x in NT. From kataskenoo (to live, nest, dwell, pitch a tent, haunt, rest); {from (down, against, throughout, among) + skenoo (to encamp, pitch a tent, dwell); {from skenos (tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling)}}. This is a nest or other kind of lodging, perch, encampment.

but the SonXCIII of ManXCIV has nowhere to layXCV his head.”XCVI 

Notes on verse 20b

XCIII “Son” = huios. Same as “heirs” in v12. See note LX above.
XCIV “Man” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v9. See note XXXVIII above.
XCV “lay” = klino. Related to “eat” in v11. 7x in NT. See note LIV above.
XCVI “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

21 AnotherXCVII of his disciplesXCVIII said to him, “Lord, first letXCIX me go and buryC my father.” 

22 But Jesus said to him, “Follow me, and let the deadCI bury their own dead.”

Notes on verses 21-22

XCVII “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
XCVIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XCIX “let” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
C “bury” = thapto. 11x in NT. This is to bury or hold a funeral.
CI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

23 And when he got into the boat,CII his disciples followed him. 24 CIIIA windstormCIV aroseCV on the sea,CVI so great that the boat was being swampedCVII by the waves;CVIII

Notes on verses 23-24a

CII “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
CIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note II above.
CIV “windstorm” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
CV “arose” = ginomai. Same as “be done” in v13. See note LXV above.
CVI “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CVII “swamped” = kalupto. 8x in NT. Related to kalube (hut, cabin). This is to cover, hide, veil, or conceal. Figuratively, it can mean to keep hidden or secret
CVIII “waves” = kuma. 5x in NT. From kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is a wave, billow, curve, or bend.

but he was asleep.CIX 25 And they went and wokeCX him up, saying, “Lord, saveCXI us! We are perishing!”CXII 

Notes on verses 24b-25

CIX “was asleep” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CX “woke” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CXI “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.        
CXII “perishing” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

26 And he said to them, “Why are you afraid,CXIII you of little faith?”CXIV Then he got upCXV and rebukedCXVI the windsCXVII and the sea;

Notes on verse 26a

CXIII “afraid” = deilos. Related to “terrible” in v6. 4x in NT. See note XXXI above.
CXIV “of little faith” = oligopistos. Related to “faith” in v10 & “faith” in v13. 6x in NT– 5 in Matthew & 1 in Luke. From oligos (few, small, short, brief, puny) + pistis (see note L above). This is of little faith – incredulous, lacking confidence.
CXV “got up” = egeiro. Same as “woke” in v25. See note CX above.
CXVI “rebuked” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
CXVII “winds” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.

and there wasCXVIII a deadCXIX calm.CXX 

Notes on verse 26b

CXVIII “was” = ginomai. Same as “be done” in v13. See note LXV above.
CXIX “dead” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXX “calm” = galena. 3x in NT. Perhaps akin to gelao (to laugh or smile because of joy or being satisfied). This is calm or tranquility as a sea being still. This is where the ancient Greek physician Galen’s name comes from.

27 TheyCXXI were amazed, saying, “What sort of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obeyCXXII him?”

28 When he came to the other side, to the countryCXXIII of the Gadarenes,CXXIV two demoniacs coming out of the tombsCXXV metCXXVI him.

Notes on verses 27-28a

CXXI “they” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v9. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXII “obey” = hupakouo. Related to “heard” in v10. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (see note XLV above). This is to listen, to attend to, or obey. It is acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority.
CXXIII “country” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
CXXIV “Gadarenes” = Gadarenos. 1x in NT. From Gadara (Gadara, capital of Perea); from Hebrew geder (wall); from gader (a wall that encircles); from gadar (to wall up or off). This is Gadarene – connected to Gadara, a city in the Decapolis. See
CXXV “tombs” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CXXVI “met” = hupantao. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.

They were so fierceCXXVII that no one couldCXXVIII pass that way.CXXIX 

Notes on verse 28b

CXXVII “fierce” = chalepos. Related to “country” in v28. 2x in NT. Perhaps from chalepto (to oppress, annoy) OR perhaps from chalao (let down, slacken, loosen); {from chasma (see note CXXIII above)}. This is difficult, harsh, violent, dangerous, perilous, furious, burdensome and hard to cope with.
CXXVIII “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIX “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

29 SuddenlyCXXX they shouted,CXXXI “What have you to do with us, Son of God?CXXXII Have you come here to tormentCXXXIII us before the time?”CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 29

CXXX “suddenly” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note II above.
CXXXI “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXXXII “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXXXIII “torment” = basanizo. Same as “distress” in v6. See note XXXII above.
CXXXIV “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.

30 Now a large herdCXXXV of swineCXXXVI was feedingCXXXVII at some distance from them. 31 The demonsCXXXVIII beggedCXXXIX him, “If you cast us out, sendCXL us into the herd of swine.” 

Notes on verses 30-31

CXXXV “herd” = agele. Related to “go” in v4. 7x in NT. From ago (see note XVI above). This is flock, herd, drove.
CXXXVI “swine” = choiros. 12x in NT– do not throw your pearls before swine (Mt 7:6), the Gadarene or Gerasene demoniac (Mt 8, Mk 5, and Lk 8), son who had to feed the pigs in the Parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15). This is a swine.
CXXXVII “feeding” = bosko. 9x in NT – 6x of the Gadarene/Gerasene demoniacs, 2x of Jesus appearing to Peter saying “tend my lambs” and “feed my sheep,” and 1x of the Prodigal Son feeding the pigs. This is to feed or pasture a flock. Figuratively, it can mean to nourish spiritually.
CXXXVIII “demons” = daimon. Related to “were possessed with demons” in v16. 1x in NT. See note LXXV above.
CXXXIX “begged” = parakaleo. Same as “appealing” in v5. See note XXVI above.
CXL “send” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

32 And he said to them, “Go!” So they came out andCXLI entered the swine; and suddenly,CXLII the whole herd rushedCXLIII down the steep bankCXLIV into the sea and perishedCXLV in the water. 

Notes on verse 32

CXLI {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note II above.
CXLII “suddenly” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note II above.
CXLIII “rushed” = hormao. 5x in NT. From horme (onrush, quick motion forward, attempt, inclination, attempt). This is to rush, run, start, or spur on.
CXLIV “steep bank” = kremnos. 3x in NT – all in Gerasene/Gadarene Demoniac parallels. From kremannumi (to hang, suspend, depend). This is an overhanging like a crag or precipice.
CXLV “perished” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

33 The swineherdsCXLVI ran off,CXLVII and on going into the town, they toldCXLVIII the whole story about what had happened to the demoniacs. 34 ThenCXLIX the whole town came out to meetCL Jesus; and when they saw him, they begged him to leave their neighborhood.CLI

Notes on verses 33-34

CXLVI “swineherds” = bosko. Same as “feeding” in v30. See note CXXXVII above.
CXLVII “ran off” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
CXLVIII “told” = apaggello. Related to “go” in v4 & “herd” in v30. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger probably from ago (see note XVI above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CXLIX {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note II above.
CL “meet” = hupantesis. Related to “met” in v28. 3x in NT. From hupantao (see note CXXVI above). This is meeting or encounter.
CLI “neighborhood” = horion. 12x in NT. From horos (limit, boundary). This is a boundary on land or a coast. It could be district, region, territory, or frontier.

Image credit: “Jesus with the Disciples in the Storm” by Waldemar Flaig by 1932.

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