Acts 13:29-38

Acts 13:29-38
Easter Saturday – A Women’s Lectionary


29 When they had carried outA everythingB that was writtenC about him,

Notes on verse 29a

A “carried out” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
B “everything” = pas. This is all or every.
C “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

they took him downD from the treeE and laidF him in a tomb.G 

Notes on verse 29b

D “took…down” = kathaireo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take down, destroy, depose, forcibly yank. It is to lower violently, whether literally or figuratively.
E “tree” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
F “laid” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
G “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

30 But GodH raisedI him from the dead;J 

Notes on verse 30

H “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
I “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
J “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

31 and for manyK daysL he appearedM

Notes on verse 31a

K “many” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
L “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
M “appeared” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

to those who came up withN him from GalileeO to Jerusalem,P and they are now his witnessesQ to the people.R 

Notes on verse 31b

N “came up with” = sunanabaino. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anabaino (to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter); {from ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up with, ascend together.
O “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
P “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
Q “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
R “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

32 And we bring you the good newsS that what God promisedT to our ancestorsU 

Notes on verse 32

S “bring…the good news” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
T “promised” = epaggelia + ginomai. Epaggelia is related to “bring…the good news” in v32. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note S above). This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament. Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
U “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

33 he has fulfilledV for us, their children,W by raisingX Jesus;Y

Notes on verse 33a

V “fulfilled” = ekpleroo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with)}. This is to fill completely, to fulfill.
W “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
X “raising” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
Y “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

as also it is written in the secondZ psalm,AA

‘You are my Son;BB
    todayCC I have begottenDD you.’

Notes on verse 33b

Z “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
AA “psalm” = psalmos. 7x in NT. From psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)}. This is a psalm, a song sung of praise – generally accompanied by a harp or other stringed instrument. It can also refer to the book of Psalms.
BB “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CC “today” = semeron. Related to “days” in v31. From hemera (see note L above). This is today, now, at present.
DD “begotten” = gennao. Related to “promised” in v32. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note T above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

34 As to his raising him from the dead, no moreEE to returnFF to corruption,GG he has spoken in this way,

Notes on verse 34a

EE {untranslated} = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
FF “return” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
GG “corruption” = diaphthora. 6x in NT. From diaphtheiro (to destroy, spoil, corrupt, disintegrate, decay; it can refer to the effect of moral or spiritual impurity); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); {from phthio (perish, waste away)}}. This is destruction, corruption, or decay.

‘I will giveHH you the holyII promisesJJ made to David.’KK

Notes on verse 34b

HH “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
II “holy” = hosios. 8x in NT. This is righteous, pious, holy, devout, or Holy One. This refers to what is worthy or respect or reverence because it corresponds to a higher law, particularly God’s law. It can be contrasted with dikaios (just according to law and statue) & hieros (formally consecrated) & hagios (pure, sacred, free from ritual defilement).
JJ “promises” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
KK “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

35 Therefore he has also said in anotherLL psalm,

‘You will not letMM your Holy One experienceNN corruption.’

36 For David,OO after he had servedPP the purposeQQ of God

Notes on verses 35-36a

LL “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
MM “let” = didomi. Same as “give” in v34. See note HH above.
NN “experience” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v31. See note M above.
OO {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
PP “served” = hupereteo. 3x in NT. From huperetes (originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck; underling, servant, or attendant; in the New Testament, disciples); {from huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row)}. This is to work as a rower. So, it means to work under someone’s immediate authority. Figuratively, it means to minister to, take care of, or serve.
QQ “purpose” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.

in his ownRR generation,SS died,TT was laidUU beside his ancestors, and experienced corruption; 37 but he whom God raised up experienced no corruption. 

Notes on verses 36b-37

RR “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
SS “generation” = genea. Related to “promised” in v32 & “begotten” in v33. From genos (see note DD above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
TT “died” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
UU “laid” = prostithemi. Related to “laid” in v29. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (see note F above). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.

38 Let it be knownVV to you therefore, my brothers,WW that through this man forgivenessXX of sinsYY is proclaimedZZ to you;

Notes on verse 38

VV “known” = gnostos. 15x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is known or acquaintance.
WW “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XX “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT.  From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
YY “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
ZZ “proclaimed” = kataggello. Related to “bring…the good news” and “promised” in v32. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note S above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.

Image credit: “Transfiguration icon by Theofan the Greek” “from Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral in Pereslavl-Zalessky 15thc Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.” Photo by Jim Forest, 2014.

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