John 21

John 21


After these things JesusI showedII himself again to the disciplesIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “showed” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
III “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

by the SeaIV of Tiberias,V and he showed himself in this way. Gathered there togetherVI wereVII

Notes on verses 1b-2a

IV “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
V “Tiberias” = Tiberias. 3x in NT. From Tiberios (Tiberius, as the emperor); from Latin Tiberius (Tiberius, which means from the Tiber); from Tiberis (the river Tiber); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *teh₂- (“to flow, to melt”). This is Tiberias, a city in Galilee or another name for the Sea of Galilee. See
VI “together” = homou. 4x in NT. From homos (same). This is together.
VII “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

SimonVIII Peter,IX ThomasX calledXI the Twin,XII 

Notes on verse 2b

VIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
IX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
X “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
XI “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XII “twin” = didumos. 3x in NT. From dis (twice, utterly, again); from duo (two, both). This is Didymus, which means twin or double in Greek.

NathanaelXIII of CanaXIV in Galilee,XV

Notes on verse 2c

XIII “Nathanael” = Nathanael. 6x in NT. From Hebrew nethanel (Nethanel, “given of God”); {from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively) + el (God, god)}. This is Nathanael, meaning “given of God.”
XIV “Cana” = Kana. 4x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew qaneh (reed, branch, measuring rod); perhaps from qanah (to get, buy, redeem, create, possess). This is Cana, meaning “reed.”
XV “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

the sons of Zebedee,XVI and twoXVII othersXVIII of his disciples. 

Notes on verse 2d

XVI “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v1. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
XVII “two” = duo. Related to “twin” in v2. See note XII above.
XVIII “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

Simon Peter saidXIX to them, “I am goingXX fishing.”XXI

They said to him, “We will goXXII with you.”

Notes on verse 3a

XIX “said” = lego. Same as “called” in v2. See note XI above.
XX “going” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XXI “fishing” = halieuo. Related to “sea” in v1. 1x in NT. From halieus (fisher – one on salt water); from hals (see note IV above). This is to fish.
XXII “go” = erchomai. This is to come or go.

They went outXXIII and gotXXIV into the boat,XXV but that night they caughtXXVI nothing.

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “go” in v3. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XXII above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XXIV “got” = embaino. 17x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to step onto – embark on a boat.
XXV “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
XXVI “caught” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”

Just afterXXVII daybreak,XXVIII Jesus stoodXXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVII {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXVIII “daybreak” = proia. 2x in NT. From proios (at early morning); from proi (early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch); from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early morning, dawn.
XXIX “stood” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.

on the beach,XXX butXXXI the disciples did not knowXXXII that it was Jesus. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “beach” = aigialos. Related to “sea” in v1 & “fishing” in v3. 6x in NT. From aix (a wave) OR from aisso (to rush) + hals (see note IV above). This is the seashore, a sandy beach, or land.
XXXI “but” = mentoi. 8x in NT. From men (truly, indeed, even, in fact; often, not translated, but used for affirmation) + toi (therefore). This is yet, however, indeed.
XXXII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

Jesus said to them, “Children,XXXIII you haveXXXIV no fish,XXXV have you?”

They answeredXXXVI him, “No.” 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIII “children” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
XXXIV “have” = echo. This is have, hold, possess.
XXXV “fish” = prosphagion. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phago (to eat, devour, consume; eat in a literal or figurative sense). This is something eaten with bread, generally refers to fish or meat. It could also be relish.
XXXVI “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.

He said to them, “CastXXXVII the netXXXVIII to the rightXXXIX sideXL of the boat, and you will findXLI some.”

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVII “cast” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
XXXVIII “net” = diktuon. 12x in NT. From dikein (to cast); probably from diko (to cast). A fishing net or any net used in hunting.
XXXIX “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XL “side” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
XLI “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

So they cast it, and now they were not ableXLII to haulXLIII it in because there were so manyXLIV fish.XLV 

Notes on verse 6b

XLII “able” = ischuo. Related to “have” in v5. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXXIV above)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIII “haul” = helko. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
LXIV “so many” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XLV “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See

That disciple whom Jesus lovedXLVI said to Peter, “It is the Lord!”XLVII When Simon Peter heardXLVIII that it was the Lord, he put onXLIX

Notes on verse 7a

XLVI “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XLVII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLVIII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLIX “put on” = diazonnumi. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + zonnumi (to gird, prepare for an active task; to gird up your loins so that you are able to move fast); {perhaps from zone (belt, waistband, purse); probably related to zugos (yoke, set of scales; what unites people in shared work; servitude or obligation); from zeugnumi (to yoke)}. This is to tie or gird around.

his outer garment,L for he had taken it off,LI and jumpedLII into the sea. 

Notes on verse 7b

L “outer garment” = ependutes. 1x in NT. From ependuomai (to clothe oneself aptly, have a garment on over); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + enduo  (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}}. This is an outer tunic, any kind of outer garment, a coat.
LI “taken…off” = eimigumnos. Eimi is the same as “were” in v2. See note VII above. Gumnos is 15x in NT. This is naked. Generally, it refers to someone who is not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out. Rarely, it can mean completely naked. It can be naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad. This is where “gymnasium” comes from.
LII “jumped” = ballo. Same as “cast” in v6. See note XXXVII above.

But the other disciples cameLIII in the boat,LIV draggingLV the net full of fish,LVI

Notes on verse 8a

LIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “go” in v3. See note XXII above.
LIV “boat” = ploiarion. Related to “boat” in v3. 5x in NT– all in the gospels. From ploion (see note XXV above). This is a little boat or vessel.
LV “dragging” = suro. Related to “haul” in v6. 5x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (see note XLIII above). This is to drag, sweep away.
LVI “fish” = ichthus. Same as “fish” in v6. See note XLV above.

for they were not farLVII from the land,LVIII only about a hundredLIX yardsLX off.

Notes on verse 8b

LVII “far” = makran. 9x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting); from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
LVIII “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
LIX “hundred” = diakosioi. Related to “twin” and “two” in v2. 8x in NT. From dis (see note XII above) + hekaton (hundred). This is two hundred.
LX “yards” = pechus. 4x in NT. This is forearm or cubit, a unit measuring around a foot and a half.

When they had goneLXI ashore,LXII they sawLXIII

Notes on verse 9a

LXI “gone” = apobaino. Related to “got” in v3. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + baino (see note XXIV above). This is to go out, become, happen, disembark.
LXII “ashore” = ge. Same as “land” in v8. See note LVIII above.
LXIII “saw” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.

a charcoal fireLXIV there,LXV with fishLXVI onLXVII it, and bread.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 9b

LXIV “charcoal fire” = anthrakia. 2x in NT– here and during Holy Week when Peter is in the courtyard, while Jesus is being questioned. From anthrax (coal, a live coal). This is burning coals piled together. This is where the words “anthrax” and also “anthracite” come from.
LXV “there” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.
LXVI “fish” = opsarion. 5x in NT. Diminutive of opson (cooked food) OR from optos (roasted, cooked); {related to hepso (to steep)}. This is fish or little fish. It can also refer to a cooked sauce or salted fish served as a condiment.
LXVII “on” = epikeimai. Related to “there” in v9. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + keimai (see note LXV above). This is to lie up, impose, insist, oblige, press on.
LXVIII “bread” = artos. Related to “haul” in v6 & “dragging” in v8. Perhaps from airo (see note XLIII above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

10 Jesus said to them, “BringLXIX some of the fishLXX that you have just caught.” 11 So Simon Peter went aboardLXXI and hauled the net ashore, full ofLXXII largeLXXIII fish,LXXIV

Notes on verses 10-11a

LXIX “bring” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “fish” = opsarion. Same as “fish” in v9. See note LXVI above.
LXXI “went abroad” = anabaino. Related to “got” in v3 & “gone” in v9. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note XXIV above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
LXXII “full of” = mestos. 9x in NT. This is filled with in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “large” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXXIV “fish” = ichthus. Same as “fish” in v6. See note XLV above.

a hundredLXXV fiftyLXXVI-threeLXXVII of them, and though there were so many, the net was not torn.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXV “hundred” = hekaton. Related to “hundred” in v8. 17x in NT. See note LIX above.
LXXVI “fifty” = pentekonta. 7x in NT. From pente (five; perhaps symbolically linked with the Temple or redemption) + deka (ten or -teen). This is fifty.
LXXVII “three” = treis. This is three.
LXXVIII “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).

12 Jesus said to them, “ComeLXXIX and have breakfast.”LXXX

Now none of the disciples daredLXXXI to askLXXXII him, “Who are you?” because they knew it was the Lord. 

Notes on verse 12

LXXIX “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
LXXX “have breakfast” = aristao. Related to “haul” in v6 & “dragging” in v8 & “bread” in v9. 3x in NT. From ariston (breakfast or lunch; literally not having a boundary); {perhaps from eri (early) + ed (to eat) or from the same as arrhen (male); {from arsen (man)} or from airo (see note XLIII above)}. This is to have breakfast or lunch. It is the meal one has in about the middle of one’s day. It can be at any time before evening supper.
LXXXI “dared” = tolmao. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax); from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.
LXXXII “ask” = exetazo. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + etazo (examine). This is to inquire, examine thoroughly, meticulously. It can also be ascertain or interrogate.

13 Jesus cameLXXXIII and tookLXXXIV the bread and gaveLXXXV it to them and did the sameLXXXVI with the fish.LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “go” in v3. See note XXII above.
LXXXIV “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LXXXV “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVI “same” = homoios. Related to “together” in v2.  From the same as homou (see note VI above). This is similar to, resembling, like.
LXXXVII “fish” = opsarion. Same as “fish” in v9. See note LXVI above.

14 This was now the third timeLXXXVIII that Jesus appearedLXXXIX to the disciples after he was raisedXC from the dead.XCI

Notes on verse 14

LXXXVIII “third time” = tritos. Related to “three” in v11. From treis (see note LXXVII above). This is third.
LXXXIX “appeared” = phaneroo. Same as “showed” in v1. See note II above.
XC “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XCI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

15 When they had finished breakfast,XCII Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon son of John,XCIII do you love me moreXCIV than these?”

Notes on verse 15a

XCII “finished breakfast” = aristao. Same as “have breakfast” in v12. See note LXXX above.
XCIII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “Zebedee” in v2. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note I above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XCIV “more” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.

He said to him, “Yes,XCV Lord; you know that I loveXCVI you.”

Jesus said to him, “FeedXCVII my lambs.”XCVIII 

Notes on verse 15b

XCV “yes” = nai. This is yes, truly, indeed. It is a strong affirmation.
XCVI “love” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
XCVII “feed” = bosko– 6x of the Gadarene/Gerasene demoniacs, 2x of Jesus appearing to Peter saying “tend my lambs” and “feed my sheep,” and 1x of the Prodigal Son feeding the pigs.. This is to feed or pasture a flock. Figuratively, it can mean to nourish spiritually.
XCVIII “lambs” = arnion. Related to “haul” in v6 & “dragging” in v8 & “bread” in v9 & “have breakfast” in v12. From aren (sheep, male lamb); perhaps from the same as arren (see note XCVIII above). This is a lamb. In earlier usage this was a diminutive (i.e. a little lamb). At this point, it may have meant young lamb. Figuratively, it was someone pure or innocent.

16 A second timeXCIX he said to him, “Simon son of John, do you loveC me?”

He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I loveCI you.”

Jesus said to him, “TendCII my sheep.”CIII 

Notes on verse 16

XCIX “second time” = deuteros. Related to “twin” and “two” in v2 & “hundred” in v8. From duo (see note XII above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
C “love” = agapao. Same as “loved” in v7. See note XLVI above.
CI “love” = phileo. Same as “love” in v15. See note XCVI above.
CII “tend” = poimaino. 11x in NT. From poimen (shepherd in a literal or figurative sense – one who feeds, protects, rules). This is to tend, care for, shepherd. It focuses on tending, guiding, and protecting rather than feeding. Figuratively, it can mean to govern.
CIII “sheep” = probaton. Related to “got” in v3 & “gone” in v9 & “went abroad” in v11. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note LXXII above)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.

17 He said to him the third time, “Simon son of John, do you loveCIV me?”

Peter felt hurtCV because he said to him the third time, “Do you loveCVI me?”

And he said to him, “Lord, you know everything;CVII you knowCVIII that I loveCIX you.”

Notes on verse 17a

CIV “love” = phileo. Same as “love” in v15. See note XCVI above.
CV “felt hurt” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
CVI “love” = phileo. Same as “love” in v15. See note XCVI above.
CVII “everything” = pas. This is all or every.
CVIII “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
CIX “love” = phileo. Same as “love” in v15. See note XCVI above.

Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep. 18 Very truly,CX I tellCXI you, when you were younger,CXII

Notes on verses 17b-18a

CX “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXI “tell” = lego. Same as “called” in v2. See note XI above.
CXII “younger” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).

you used to fasten your own beltCXIII and to goCXIV wherever you wished.CXV

Notes on verse 18b

CXIII “fasten…belt” = zonnumi. Related to “put on” in v7. 3x in NT. See note XLIX above.
CXIV “go” = peripateo. Related to “children” in v5. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (see note XXXIII above)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
CXV “wished” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

But when you grow old,CXVI you will stretch outCXVII your hands,CXVIII and someone elseCXIX will fasten a belt around you and takeCXX you where you do not wish to go.” 

Notes on verse 18c

CXVI “grow old” = gerasko. 2x in NT. From geras (old age); related to geron (old, old person). This is to become old. It shares a root with “geriatric.”
CXVII “stretch out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
CXVIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CXIX “someone else” = allos. Same as “others” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CXX “take” = phero. Same as “bring” in v10. See note LXIX above.

19 (He said this to indicateCXXI the kind of deathCXXII by which he would glorifyCXXIII God.)CXXIV

After this he said to him, “FollowCXXV me.”

Notes on verse 19

CXXI “indicate” = semaino. 6x in NT. From sema (a sign or mark). This is to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known, communicate. In John’s Gospel miracles are referred to as signs.
CXXII “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CXXIII “glorify” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CXXIV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXXV “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

20 Peter turnedCXXVI and saw the disciple whom Jesus lovedCXXVII following them; he was the one who had reclinedCXXVIII

Notes on verse 20a

CXXVI “turned” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CXXVII “loved” = agapao. Same as “loved” in v7. See note XLVI above.
CXXVIII “reclined” = anapipto. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.

next toCXXIX Jesus at the supperCXXX and had said, “Lord, who is it that is going to betrayCXXXI you?” 

Notes on verse 20b

CXXIX “next to” = epi + ho + stethos + autos. Literally, “on his chest.” Stethos is related to “stood” in v4. 5x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is chest or breast.
CXXX “supper” = deipnon. 16x in NT. From the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening.
CXXXI “betray” = paradidomi. Related to “gave” in v13. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note LXXXV above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

21 When Peter sawCXXXII him, he said to Jesus, “Lord, what about him?” 

22 Jesus said to him, “If it is my willCXXXIII that he remainCXXXIV until I come,CXXXV what is that to you? Follow me!” 

Notes on verses 21-22

CXXXII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CXXXIII “is…will” = thelo. Same as “wished” in v18. See note CXV above.
CXXXIV “remain” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CXXXV “come” = erchomai. Same as “go” in v3. See note XXII above.

23 So the rumorCXXXVI spreadCXXXVII among the brothersCXXXVIII and sisters that this disciple would not die.CXXXIX Yet Jesus did not say to him that he would not die, but, “If it is my will that he remain until I come,CXL what is that to you?”

Notes on verse 23

CXXXVI “rumor” = logos. Related to “called” in v2. From lego (see note XI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXXVII “spread” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXXXVIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXXXIX “die” = apothnesko. Related to “death” in v19. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note CXXII above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CXL “come” = erchomai. Same as “go” in v3. See note XXII above.

24 This is the disciple who is testifyingCXLI to these things and has writtenCXLII them, and we knowCXLIII that his testimonyCXLIV is true.CXLV 

Notes on verse 24

CXLI “testifying” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CXLIII “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v4. See note XXXII above.
CXLIV “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testifying” in v24. From martureo (see note CXLI above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CXLV “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

25 But there are also manyCXLVI other things that Jesus did;CXLVII if every oneCXLVIII of them were written down, I supposeCXLIX

Notes on verse 25a

CXLVI “many” = polus. Related to “more” in v15. See note XCIV above.
CXLVII “did” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXLVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CXLIX “suppose” = oiomai. 3x in NT. Perhaps from hoios (such as, what kind of); from ho (the)}. This is to suppose, think, imagine, intend, expect.

that the worldCL itself could not containCLI the booksCLII that would be written.

Notes on verse 25b

CL “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
CLI “contain” = choreo. 10x in NT. From choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is to leave in order to make room or space. It can also be to advance, receive, accept, or make progress. Figuratively, it can also refer to being open-hearted.
CLII “books” = biblion. From biblos (the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll; could also have an association with the sacred); perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is paper, book, scroll, certificate. It is where the word “Bible” comes from.

Image credit: “Peter is Restored” by Paula Nash Giltner for Good News Productions Int.

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