Acts 16

Acts 16


Paul went onI also to DerbeII and to Lystra,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “went on” = katantao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.
II “Derbe” = Derbe. 3x in NT– all in Acts. Perhaps from Persian Darband (Derbe); {from dar (gate) + band (bar)}. This is Derbe, perhaps meaning “barred gate” or “narrow pass” or “narrow gate entrance.” See
III “Lystra” = Lustra. 6x in NT– 5x in Acts & 1x in 2 Timothy. Perhaps from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld) + tranoo (to make clear) or trauma (wound); {from titrosko (to wound)} + tribos (path, road, rut; a path worn in by repeated use); {from trizo (to grate, gnash teeth, creak, squeak)}. This is Lystra, perhaps meaning “loose goats” or “pain relief” or “city of madness.” See

whereIV there wasV a discipleVI namedVII

Notes on verse 1b

IV {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
V “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VI “disciple” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

Timothy,VIII the sonIX of a JewishX womanXI

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “Timothy” = Timoutheou. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; can be esteem or dignity; precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)} + Theos (God or a god). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”
IX “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
X “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XI “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

who was a believer,XII but his fatherXIII was a Greek.XIV 

Notes on verse 1d

XII “believer” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
XIII “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XIV “Greek” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See

He was well spoken ofXV by the brothersXVI and sisters in Lystra and Iconium.XVII 

Notes on verse 2

XV “was well spoken of” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
XVI “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XVII “Iconium” = Ikonion. 6x in NT– 5x in Acts & 1x in 2 Timothy 3. Perhaps from eikon (a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation; a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow; an image in a figurative sense); {from eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield)}. This is Iconium, which may mean “image-like” or “city of the image.” See

PaulXVIII wantedXIX TimothyXX to accompanyXXI him,

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XIX “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XX “Timothy” = houtos. Literally, “this one.”
XXI “accompany” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

and he tookXXII him and had him circumcisedXXIII because of the JewsXXIV who were in those places,XXV

Notes on verse 3b

XXII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXIII “circumcised” = peritemno. 18x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is to circumcise – literally to cut around.
XXIV “Jews” = Ioudaios. Same as “Jewish” in v1. See note X above.
XXV “places” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

for they allXXVI knewXXVII that his father wasXXVIII a Greek. As they went fromXXIX townXXX to town,XXXI

Notes on verses 3c-4a

XXVI “all” = hapas. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
XXVII “knew” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XXVIII “was” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XXIX “went from” = diaporeuomai. 5x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to travel through, pass.
XXX “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XXXI Literally, “were passing through the cities.”

they deliveredXXXII to them for observanceXXXIII the decisionsXXXIV

Notes on verse 4b

XXXII “delivered” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XXXIII “observance” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIV “decisions” = dogma. 5x in NT. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion). This is opinion, ordinance, or decree. It could be civil or religious. It is where the word “dogma” comes from.

that had been reachedXXXV by the apostlesXXXVI and eldersXXXVII who were in Jerusalem.XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXV “reached” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
XXXVI “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XXXVII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XXXVIII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

So theXXXIX churchesXL were strengthenedXLI in the faithXLII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XL “churches” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
XLI “strengthened” = stereoo. Related to “apostles” in v4. 3x in NT. From stereos (hard, solid, steadfast, sure, stable; solid in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from histemi (see note XXXVI above). This is to strengthen, make stable, establish, or confirm in a literal or figurative sense.
XLII “faith” = pistis. Related to “believer” in v1. From peitho (see note XII above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

and increasedXLIII in numbersXLIV daily.XLV

Notes on verse 5b

XLIII “increased” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
XLIV “numbers” = arithmos. 18x in NT. From airo (to raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a number or total that has been counted to together. It shares a root with “arithmetic,” which literally means the “art of counting.” See
XLV “daily” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

They went throughXLVI the regionXLVII of PhrygiaXLVIII and Galatia,XLIX

Notes on verse 6a

XLVI “went through” = dierchomai. Related to “accompany” in v3. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
XLVII “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
XLVIII “Phrygia” = Phrugia. 3x in NT. From phrux (Phrygian); perhaps from Phrygian Bryges (ancient Balkan tribe); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high, mountain, hill”). This is Phrygia or Phrygian. It was northeastern Asia Province (Asia Minor). See
XLIX “Galatia” = Galatikos. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From Galatia (Galatia, a Roman province in Asia Minor); {from Celt (Celt, barbarian) OR from Gerek gala (milk) OR from Latin gallus (rooster)}. This is Galatian or related to the Galatian province. It may mean “land of Celts,” “land of barbarians,” “land of milk,” “land of roosters,” “milky land,” “rooster land,” or “land of the criers” See

having been forbiddenL by the HolyLI SpiritLII

Notes on verse 6b

L “forbidden” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
LI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

to speakLIII the wordLIV in Asia.LV 

Notes on verse 6c

LIII “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
LIV “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LV “Asia” = Asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See

When they had comeLVI opposite Mysia,LVII they attemptedLVIII

Notes on verse 7a

LVI “come” = erchomai. Related to “accompany” in v3 & “went through” in v6. See note XXI above.
LVII “Mysia” = Musia. 2x in NT – both in Acts 16. Perhaps from muo (to cover, to be underneath the surface). This is Mysia, a Roman province in Asia Minor. It may mean “hidden” or “covered” or “dirt” or “defilement.” See
LVIII “attempted” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.

to goLIX into Bithynia,LX but the Spirit of JesusLXI did not allowLXII them; 

Notes on verse 7b

LIX “go” = poreuomai. Related to “went from” in v4. See note XXIX above.
LX “Bithynia” = Bithunia. 2x in NT. Perhaps from Bithunos (a member of the Bithyni); {from Thracian Bithyni (Bithyni)}. This is Bithynia, meaning uncertain. See
LXI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXII “allow” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to allow, leave, put up with something.

so, passing byLXIII Mysia, they went downLXIV to Troas.LXV 

Notes on verse 8

LXIII “passing by” = parerchomai. Related to “accompany” in v3 & “went through” in v6 & “come” in v7. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
LXIV “went down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LXV “Troas” = Troas. 6x in NT. From Troias (Trojan); from Tros (Troy). This is Troas, a city in Troy’s plain. See

During the nightLXVI Paul hadLXVII a vision:LXVIII thereLXIX stoodLXX

Notes on verse 9a

LXVI “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or a figurative sense.
LXVII “had” = horao. Related to “vision” in v9. See note LXVIII below.
LXVIII “vision” = horama. 12x in NT. From horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is a sight, something seen, a vision. In the New Testament, it is always a supernatural vision.
LXIX {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note V above.
LXX “stood” = histemi. Related to “apostles” in v4 & “strengthened” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

a manLXXI of MacedoniaLXXII pleadingLXXIII with him

Notes on verse 9b

LXXI “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LXXII “Macedonia” = Makedon. 5x in NT. Perhaps from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonian, perhaps meaning “the tall ones” or “highlanders.” See
LXXIII “pleading” = parakaleo. Related to “churches” in v5. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note XL above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

and saying,LXXIV “Come overLXXV to MacedoniaLXXVI and helpLXXVII us.” 

Notes on verse 9c

LXXIV “saying” = lego. Related to “word” in v6. See note LIV above.
LXXV “come over” = diabaino. Related to “went down” in v8. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + baino (see note LXIV above). This is to pass through or step across.
LXXVI “Macedonia” = Makedonia. Related to “Macedonia” in v9. From Makedon (see note LXXII above). This is Macedonia in Greece, perhaps meaning “the tall ones” or “highlanders.” See
LXXVII “help” = boetheo. 8x in NT. From boethos (helping or helper; one meeting urgent need); perhaps from boe (to cry, shout for aid; mimics the sound of a desperate shout for help with deep emotion); {from boao (cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance); from boe (a cry, shout)} + theo (to run). This is running to help someone who has made an urgent call for help – coming to their rescue. Originally, this was used in a military context, but came to apply more generally to assistance in time of intense distress.

10 When he had seenLXXVIII the vision, we immediatelyLXXIX triedLXXX to cross overLXXXI to Macedonia,LXXXII

Notes on verse 10a

LXXVIII “seen” = horao. Same as “had” in v9. See note LXVII above.
LXXIX “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
LXXX “tried” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXXXI “cross over” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
LXXXII “Macedonia” = Makedonia. Same as “Macedonia” in v9. See note LXXVI above.

being convincedLXXXIII that GodLXXXIV had calledLXXXV us to proclaim the good newsLXXXVI to them.

Notes on verse 10b

LXXXIII “convinced” = sumbibazo. Related to “went down” in v8 & “come over” in v9. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as basis (foot, step, pace) {from baino (see note LXIV above)} OR sun (with, together with) + bibazo (to force); {from the same as basis (see above)}. This is joining together, considering, uniting, concluding, proving, or teaching. It is building reasoning – working through the steps to grasp truth by weaving ideas together to form a judgment or a conclusion. By extension, it is applying that understanding to showing or teaching.
LXXXIV “God” = Theos. Related to “Timothy” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXXXV “called” = proskaleo. Related to “churches” in v5 & “pleading” in v9. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note XL above). This is to call to oneself, summon.
LXXXVI “proclaim the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “immediately” in v10. From eu (see note LXXIX above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

11 We therefore set sailLXXXVII from Troas and took a straight courseLXXXVIII to Samothrace,LXXXIX

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXVII “set sail” = anago. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note LXXXVI above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
LXXXVIII “took a straight course” = euthudromeo. Related to “immediately” and “proclaim the good news” in v10. 2x in NT. From euthus (see note LXXIX above) + dromos (a course, track, career, race); {from dramein (to run) or from trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way)}. This is to run or sail in a direct or straight trajectory.
LXXXIX “Samothrace” = Samothrake. 1x in NT. From Samos (Samos); {from samos (“seaside hill, dune, height”); from Phoenician sama (high)} + Thrake (Thrace); {from Thraix (Thracian); from thrasso (to stir, trouble)}. This is Samothrace, meaning Samos of Thrace. See

the following dayXC to Neapolis,XCI 12 and from there to Philippi,XCII which is a leadingXCIII cityXCIV

Notes on verses 11b-12a

XC “following day” = epiousa. 5x in NT– all from Acts. Perhaps related to epeimi (to com after, follow); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + related to exeimi (to go out, leave, escape)} OR from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + hiemi (to go). This is next, following – the following day or evening.
XCI “Neapolis” = Neos + Polis. Neos is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek). Polis is the same as “town” in v4. See note XXX above.
XCII “Philippi” = Philippoi. 4x in NT. From Philippos (Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse)}. This is Philippi, a city in Macedonia.
XCIII “leading” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XCIV “city” = polis. Same as “town” in v4. See note XXX above.

of the districtXCV of MacedoniaXCVI andXCVII a Roman colony.XCVIII We remainedXCIX in this city for some days.C 

Notes on verse 12b

XCV “district” = meris. From meros (a part or share, portion); from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion). This is portion, share, district. It can be literal or figurative.
XCVI “Macedonia” = Makedonia. Same as “Macedonia” in v9. See note LXXVI above.
XCVII {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note V above.
XCVIII “colony” = kolonia. 1x in NT. From Latin colonia (settlement, colonist); from colonus (farmer, colonist); from colo (“till, cultivate, worship”). This is a colony, citizen, city that has a garrison in it. It is where the word “colony” comes from. See
XCIX “remained” = diatribo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is to spend time, remain, stay, continue. Literally, it is to rub or wear away.
C “days” = hemera. Same as “daily” in v5. See note XLV above.

13 On the SabbathCI day we wentCII outside the gateCIII by the river,CIV

Notes on verse 13a

CI “Sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
CIII “gate” = pule. 10x in NT. This is gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress. It is often used for an exit way. Figuratively, it can refer to authority and power.
CIV “river” = potamos. 17x in NT. From pino (to drink). This is a river, brook, or water. It can also be a riverbed flowing with heavy rain or melted snow (like an arroyo).

where we supposedCV there was a place of prayer,CVI and we sat downCVII and spoke to the women who had gatheredCVIII there. 

Notes on verse 13b

CV “supposed” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CVI “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
CVII “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CVIII “gathered” = sunerchomai. Related to “accompany” in v3 & “went through” in v6 & “come” in v7 & “passing by” in v8. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.

14 A certain woman named Lydia,CIX a worshiperCX of God, was listeningCXI to us;

Notes on verse 14a

CIX “Lydia” = Ludia. 2x in NT. From Ludos (the name Lydus); {from Ludia (a region); from ludia (beautiful, noble); Ludos (a king)} or from Hebrew Lod (Lod, a town). This is Lydia, meaning “from Lud” or “from Lydia” or “from the bender” or “from the almond tree.” See &
CX “worshiper” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.
CXI “listening” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

she was from the city of ThyatiraCXII and a dealer in purple cloth.CXIII The LordCXIV

Notes on verse 14b

CXII “Thyatira” = Thuateira. 4x in NT. From Lydian (“castle of Thya”); {from dya (a name)}. This is Thyatira. See
CXIII “dealer in purple cloth” = porphuropolis. 1x in NT. From porphura (purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth; ranged from violet to scarlet to blue; dye made from a snail; symbolized royalty, wealth, or power); {perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet)} + poleo (to barter or sell; the thing that is sold); {from pelomai (to be busy, trade)}}. This is someone who sells purple fabric.
CXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

openedCXV her heartCXVI to listen eagerlyCXVII to what was saidCXVIII by Paul. 

Notes on verse 14c

CXV “opened” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.
CXVI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXVII “listen eagerly” = prosecho. From pros (at, toward) + echo (have, hold, possess). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
CXVIII “said” = laleo. Same as “speak” in v6. See note LIII above.

15 When she and her householdCXIX were baptized,CXX she urgedCXXI us, saying, “If you have judgedCXXII me to be faithfulCXXIII to the Lord,

Notes on verse 15a

CXIX “household” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
CXX “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
CXXI “urged” = parakaleo. Same as “pleading” in v9. See note LXXIII above.
CXXII “judged” = krino. Same as “reached” in v4. See note XXXV above.
CXXIII “faithful” = pistos. Same as “believer” in v1. See note XII above.

comeCXXIV and stayCXXV at my home.”CXXVI And she prevailedCXXVII upon us.

Notes on verse 15b

CXXIV “come” = eiserchomai. Related to “accompany” in v3 & “went through” in v6 & “come” in v7 & “passing by” in v8 & “gathered” in v13. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXV “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CXXVI “home” = oikos. Same as “household” in v15. See note CXIX above.
CXXVII “prevailed” = parabiazomai. 2x in NT. From para (by, beside) + biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence); or from bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to urge, press, use powerful, persuasive words to accomplish a goal.

16 CXXVIIIOne day as we were goingCXXIX to the place of prayer, we metCXXX a female slaveCXXXI

Notes on verse 16a

CXXVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Related to “woman” in v1. See note XI above.
CXXIX “going” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v7. See note LIX above.
CXXX “met” = hupantao. Related to “went on” in v1. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (see note I above) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.
CXXXI “female slave” = paidiske. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is young girl or female slave or servant.

who hadCXXXII a spiritCXXXIII of divinationCXXXIV

Notes on verse 16b

CXXXII “had” = echo. Related to “listen eagerly” in v14. See note CXVII above.
CXXXIII “spirit” = pneuma. Same as “Spirit” in v6. See note LII above.
CXXXIV “divination” = puthon. 1x in NT. From Putho (Pytho, the place in Greece where the oracle of Delphi was); probably from Proto-Indo-European dhewb(“depths, hollows, deep bottom”); perhaps related to putho (to rot or decay). This is python, as the mythical creature that Apollo killed. It was thought to be the guard of the oracle and so it had a spirit of divination. So this could be python, divination, or inspiration. See

and broughtCXXXV her ownersCXXXVI a great dealCXXXVII of moneyCXXXVIII by fortune-telling.CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 16c

CXXXV “brought” = parecho. Related to “listen eagerly” in v14 & “had” in v16. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note CXVII above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
CXXXVI “owners” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v14. See note CXIV above.
CXXXVII “great deal” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CXXXVIII “money” = ergasia. 6x in NT. From ergon (word, task, action, employment); from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do). This is work, effort, business, performance, profit, or activity.
CXXXIX “fortune-telling” = manteuomai. 1x in NT. From mantis (seer) OR from mainomai (to rage, be insane, rave); {from mao (to long for)}. This is to be a soothsayer or to divine.

17 While she followedCXL Paul and us, she would cry out,CXLI, CXLII

Notes on verse 17a

CXL “followed” = katakoloutheo. 2x in NT– also in Luke 23:55 when the women followed to see where Jesus’s body was laid. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow after closely.
CXLI “cry out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXLII {untranslated} = lego. Same as “saying” in v9. See note LXXIV above.

“These menCXLIII are slavesCXLIV of the Most HighCXLV God,

Notes on verse 17b

CXLIII “men” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v9 & to “vision” and “had” in v9. Probably from aner (see note LXXI above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LXVIII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXLIV “slaves” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CXLV “Most High” = Hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.

who proclaimCXLVI to you the wayCXLVII of salvation.”CXLVIII 

Notes on verse 17c

CXLVI “proclaim” = kataggello. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note LXXXVI above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
CXLVII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
CXLVIII “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

18 She kept doingCXLIX this for manyCL days. But Paul, very much annoyed,CLI turnedCLII

Notes on verse 18a

CXLIX “kept doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CL “many” = polus. Same as “great deal” in v16. See note CXXXVII above.
CLI “annoyed” = diaponeomai. 2x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poneomai (to work hard) OR from dia (see note above) + ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); {from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day)}. This is to work hard through something, to be exhausted from trouble or grief, to worry.
CLII “turned” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

and said to the spirit, “I orderCLIII you in the nameCLIV of Jesus ChristCLV to come outCLVI of her.” And it came outCLVII that very hour.CLVIII

Notes on verse 18b

CLIII “order” = paraggello. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note LXXXVI above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
CLIV “name” = onoma. Same as “named” in v1. See note VII above.
CLV “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CLVI “come out” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
CLVII “came out” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
CLVIII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

19 But when her owners saw that their hopeCLIX of making money was gone,CLX they seizedCLXI Paul and SilasCLXII

Notes on verse 19a

CLIX “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
CLX “gone” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
CLXI “seized” = epilambanomai. Related to “took” in v3. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (see note XXII above). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
CLXII “Silas” = Silas. 13x in NT. From Aramaic She’ila (Silas; related to “Saul,” meaning “asked of the Lord”); {from shaal (to ask, borrow); related to Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand)} OR from Silouanos (Silvanus, meaning either “asked of the Lord” or “forest”); {from Latin Silvanus (Silvanus, god of forests, sylvan); {from silva (forest, grove); from Proto-Indo-European *sel- or *swell- (board, threshold)}. This is Silas, either a form of Saul, meaning “asked of the Lord,” or of Silvanus, meaning “forest.” See &

and draggedCLXIII them into the marketplaceCLXIV before the authorities.CLXV 

Notes on verse 19b

CLXIII “dragged” = helko. Related to “numbers” in v5. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (see note XLIV above)}. This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
CLXIV “marketplace” = agora. 11x in NT. From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
CLXV “authorities” = archon. Related to “was” in v3. From archo (see note XXVIII above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.

20 When they had broughtCLXVI them before the magistrates,CLXVII they said, “These men,CLXVIII these Jews, areCLXIX disturbingCLXX our city 

Notes on verse 20

CLXVI “brought” = prosago. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18. 4x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + ago (see note LXXXVI above). This is to bring, approach, summon, present.
CLXVII “magistrates” = strategos. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” in v20. 10x in NT. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large, organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); {from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed)} + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note LXXXVI above)}. This is a military leader, general, military governor, magistrate. It can also be a temple leader such as the Levitical head of the temple guard.
CLXVIII “men” = anthropos. Same as “men” in v17. See note CXLIII above.
CLXIX “are” = huparcho. Same as “was” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CLXX “disturbing” = ektarasso. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tarasso (to trouble, agitate, stir up; motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water). This is to agitate, trouble, create confusion.

21 and are advocatingCLXXI customsCLXXII that are not lawfulCLXXIII for us,

Notes on verse 21a

CLXXI “advocating” = kataggello. Same as “proclaim” in v17. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXII “customs” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
CLXXIII “are…lawful” = exesti. Related to “was” in v1. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note V above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.

beingCLXXIV Romans,CLXXV to adoptCLXXVI or observe.”CLXXVII 

Notes on verse 21b

CLXXIV “being” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXV “Romans” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
CLXXVI “adopt” = paradechomai. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, accept, adopt, admit. It can also mean to find joy in.
CLXXVII “observe” = poieo. Same as “kept doing” in v18. See note CXLIX above.

22 The crowdCLXXVIII joined in attackingCLXXIX them, and the magistrates had them strippedCLXXX

Notes on verse 22a

CLXXVIII “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “listen eagerly” in v14 & “had” and “brought” in v16. Perhaps from echo (see note CXVII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
CLXXIX “joined in attacking” = sunephistemi. Related to “apostles” in v4 & “strengthened” in v5 & “stood” in v9. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ephistemi (to stand upon, happen, be present; usually used in a literal sense); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XXXVI above)}. This is to rise or stand together. It can also mean resisting or attacking together.
CLXXX “stripped” = periregnumi. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear off or strip.

of their clothingCLXXXI and orderedCLXXXII them to be beaten with rods.CLXXXIII 23 After theyCLXXXIV had givenCLXXXV them a severe flogging,CLXXXVI

Notes on verses 22b-23a

CLXXXI “clothing” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CLXXXII “ordered” = keleuo. Related to “churches” in v5 & “pleading” in v9 & “called” in v10. See note XL above.
CLXXXIII “beaten with rods” = rhabdizo. 2x in NT. From rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to strike with a rod, to scourge.
CLXXXIV “they” = polus. Same as “great deal” in v16. See note CXXXVII above.
CLXXXV “given” = epitithemi. Related to “immediately” in v10 & “took a straight course” in v11. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note LXXIX above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
CLXXXVI “severe flogging” = plege. From plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is a blow, stroke, wound, affliction, plague, calamity.

they threwCLXXXVII them into prisonCLXXXVIII and orderedCLXXXIX

Notes on verse 23b

CLXXXVII “threw” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
CLXXXVIII “prison” = phulake. Related to “observance” in v4. From phulasso (see note XXXIII above). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
CLXXXIX “ordered” = paraggello. Same as “order” in v18. See note CLIII above.

the jailerCXC to keepCXCI them securely.CXCII 

Notes on verse 23c

CXC “jailer” = desmophulax. Related to “slaves” in v17 & to “observance” in v4 & “prison” in v23. 3x in NT. From desmos (a bond, chain, infirmity, impediment, ligament); {from deo (see note CXLIV above)} + phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher); {from phulasso (see note XXXIII above)}. This is a jailer – one who keeps prisoners.
CXCI “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
CXCII “securely” = asphalos. 3x in NT. From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is securely in a literal or figurative sense. Also, it’s certainly, steadfastly, or assuredly.

24 FollowingCXCIII these instructions,CXCIV he putCXCV them in the innermostCXCVI

Notes on verse 24a

CXCIII “following” = lambano. Same as “took” in v3. See note XXII above.
CXCIV “instructions” = paraggelia. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20. 5x in NT. From paraggello (see note CLIII above). This is strict orders, instructions, precept, or mandate.
CXCV “put” = ballo. Same as “threw” in v23. See note CLXXXVII above.
CXCVI “innermost” = esoteros. 2x in NT. From eso (inner, inside); from eis (to, into, for, among). This is inner, interior part.

cellCXCVII and fastenedCXCVIII their feetCXCIX in the stocks.CC

Notes on verse 24b

CXCVII “cell” = phulake. Same as “prison” in v23. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CXCVIII “fastened” = asphalizo. Related to “securely” in v23. 4x in NT. From asphales (see note CXCII above). This is to make secure, fasten, make firm. Used of binding a prison in stocks. Related to the word “asphalt.”
CXCIX “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
CC “stocks” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.

25 About midnightCCI Paul and Silas were prayingCCII and singing hymnsCCIII to God, and the prisonersCCIV were listeningCCV to them. 

Notes on verse 25

CCI “midnight” = mesonuktion. Related to “night” in v9. 4x in NT. From mesonuktios (at midnight); {from mesos (middle, among, center); {perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)} + nux (see note LXVI above)}. This is at midnight. It is often used to refer to the midnight watch.
CCII “praying” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayer” in v13. See note CVI above.
CCIII “singing hymns” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc.); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.
CCIV “prisoners” = desmios. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (see note CXLIV above). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
CCV “listening” = epakroaomai. Related to “listening” in v14. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as akroaterion (to listen); {perhaps from akouo (see note CXI above)}. This is to listen to, to hear in an attentive way.

26 SuddenlyCCVI there wasCCVII an earthquakeCCVIII

Notes on verse 26a

CCVI “suddenly” = aphno. 3x in NT. Perhaps from aphanes (invisible, hidden, not apparent); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is suddenly or unawares.
CCVII “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXVIII above.
CCVIII “earthquake” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.

so violentCCIX that the foundationsCCX of the prisonCCXI were shaken,CCXII

Notes on verse 26b

CCIX “violent” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CCX “foundations” = themelios. Related to “immediately” in v10 & “took a straight course” in v11 & “given” in v23. 16x in NT. From tithemi (see note LXXIX above). This is related to a foundation, building substructure. It is a foundation in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXI “prison” = desmoterion. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25. 4x in NT. From desmos (see note CXC above) + -terion (a place). This is a prison or dungeon.
CCXII “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.

and immediatelyCCXIII allCCXIV the doorsCCXV

Notes on verse 26c

CCXIII “immediately” = parachrema. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary)}. This is immediately or soon.
CCXIV “all” = pas. Related to “all” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CCXV “doors” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.

were openedCCXVI and everyone’sCCXVII chainsCCXVIII were unfastened.CCXIX 

Notes on verse 26d

CCXVI “opened” = anoigo. Related to “opened” in v14. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (see note CXV above). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
CCXVII “everyone’s” = pas. Same as “all” in v26. See note CCXIV above.
CCXVIII “chains” = desmos. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25 & “prison” in v26. 18x in NT. See note CXC above.
CCXIX “unfastened” = aniemi. 4x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + hiemi (to send). This is to let go, loosen, send up, refrain from, abandon, loosen, leave.

27 When the jailer woke upCCXX and saw the prisonCCXXI doors wide open,CCXXII he drewCCXXIII his swordCCXXIV

Notes on verse 27a

CCXX “woke up” = exupnosginomai. Exupnos is 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hupnos (sleep – literal or figurative); {perhaps from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}. This is to awake from sleep. Ginomai is the same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXVIII above.
CCXXI “prison” = phulake. Same as “prison” in v23. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CCXXII “wide open” = anoigo. Same as “opened” in v26. See note CCXVI above.
CCXXIII “drew” = spao. 2x in NT. This is to pull, to draw a sword.
CCXXIV “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

and was about toCCXXV killCCXXVI himself, since he supposed that the prisoners had escaped.CCXXVII 

Notes on verse 27b

CCXXV “was about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CCXXVI “kill” = anaireo. Related to “numbers” in v5 & “dragged” in v19. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note CLXIII above). This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
CCXXVII “escaped” = ekpheugo. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pheugo (to run away in a literal or figurative sense; to flee, escape, shun, or vanish). This is to flee away or escape.

28 But Paul shoutedCCXXVIII in a loudCCXXIX voice,CCXXX, CCXXXI

Notes on verse 28a

CCXXVIII “shouted” = phoneo. Related to “suddenly” in v26. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note CCVI above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CCXXIX “loud” = megas. Same as “violent” in v26. See note CCIX above.
CCXXX “voice” = phone. Related to “suddenly” in v26 & “shouted” in v28. See note CCXXVIII above.
CCXXXI {untranslated} = lego. Same as “saying” in v9. See note LXXIV above.

“DoCCXXXII not harmCCXXXIII yourself, for we are allCCXXXIV here.” 

Notes on verse 28b

CCXXXII “do” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.
CCXXXIII “harm” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
CCXXXIV “all” = hapas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXVI above.

29 The jailer called forCCXXXV lights,CCXXXVI and rushing in,CCXXXVII, CCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 29a

CCXXXV “called for” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CCXXXVI “lights” = phos. Related to “suddenly” in v26 & “shouted” and “voice” in v28. See note CCVI above.
CCXXXVII “rushing in” = eispedao. 3x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + pedao (to leap or spring). This is to rush in or spring in.
CCXXXVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXVIII above.

he fell downCCXXXIX tremblingCCXL before Paul and Silas. 30 Then he broughtCCXLI them outside and said,CCXLII

Notes on verses 29b-30a

CCXXXIX “fell down” = prospipto. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall on or fall before. It can be a violent attack, bowing before, or beat against.
CCXL “trembling” = entromos. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by with) + tromos (trembling, shaking, or quaking from fear); {from tremo (shaking, particularly from fear or dread); from treo (to dread or terrify)}. This is being afraid, shaking because of fear.
CCXLI “brought” = proago. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20 & “instructions” in v24. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note LXXXVI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CCXLII “said” = phemi. Related to “suddenly” in v26 & “shouted” and “voice” in v28. See note CCXXVIII above.

“Sirs,CCXLIII what mustCCXLIV I doCCXLV to be saved?”CCXLVI 

Notes on verse 30b

CCXLIII “sirs” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v14. See note CXIV above.
CCXLIV “must” = dei. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25 & “prison” and “chains” in v26. From deo (see note CXLIV above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CCXLV “do” = poieo. Same as “kept doing” in v18. See note CXLIX above.
CCXLVI “saved” = sozo. Related to “salvation” in v17. See note CXLVIII above.

31 They answered, “BelieveCCXLVII in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.” 32 They spoke the word of the Lord to him and to allCCXLVIII who were in his house.CCXLIX 

Notes on verses 31-32

CCXLVII “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “believer” in v1 & “faith” in v5. From pistis (see note XLII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCXLVIII “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v26. See note CCXIV above.
CCXLIX “house” = oikia. Related to “household” in v15. From oikos (see note CXIX above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.

33 At the same hour of the night he tookCCL them and washedCCLI their wounds;CCLII then he and his entireCCLIII family were baptized without delay.CCLIV 

Notes on verse 33

CCL “took” = paralambano. Related to “took” in v3 & “seized” in v19. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XXII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CCLI “washed” = louo. 5x in NT. This is bathing and washing. It can be literal or ritual cleansing, but refers particularly to the whole body.
CCLII “wounds” = plege. Same as “severe flogging” in v23. See note CLXXXVI above.
CCLIII “entire” = pas. Same as “all” in v26. See note CCXIV above.
CCLIV “without delay” = parachrema. Same as “immediately” in v26. See note CCXIII above.

34 He broughtCCLV them up into the house and set foodCCLVI beforeCCLVII them,

Notes on verse 34a

CCLV “brought” = anago. Same as “set sail” in v11. See note LXXXVII above.
CCLVI “food” = trapeza. Related to “feet” in v24. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (see note CXCIX above)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
CCLVII “set…before” = paratithemi. Related to “immediately” in v10 & “took a straight course” in v11 & “given” in v23 & “foundations” in v26. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (see note LXXIX above). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).

and he and his entire householdCCLVIII rejoicedCCLIX that he had become a believerCCLX in God.

Notes on verse 34b

CCLVIII “entire household” = panoikei. Related to “all” in v3 & “all” in v26 & to “household” in v15 & “house” in v32. 1x in NT. From pas (see note XXVI above) + oikos (see note CXIX above). This is with the entire house or family.
CCLIX “rejoiced” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
CCLX “become a believer” = pisteuo. Same as “believe” in v31. See note CCXLVII above.

35 When morningCCLXI came,CCLXII the magistrates sentCCLXIII the police,CCLXIV saying, “Let those menCCLXV go.”CCLXVI 

Notes on verse 35

CCLXI “morning” = hemera. Same as “daily” in v5. See note XLV above.
CCLXII “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXVIII above.
CCLXIII “sent” = apostello. Related to “apostles” in v4 & “strengthened” in v5 & “stood” in v9 & “joined in attacking” in v22. See note XXXVI above.
CCLXIV “police” = rhabdouchos. Related to “beaten with rods” in v22 & to “listen eagerly” in v14 & “had” and “brought” in v16 & “crowd” in v22. 2x in NT. From rhabdos (see note CLXXXIII above) + echo (see note CXVII above). This is someone who holds a rod. So, it would be someone in an office who could give a punishment like  alictor, police, or executioner.
CCLXV “men” = anthropos. Same as “men” in v17. See note CXLIII above.
CCLXVI “let…go” = apoluo. Related to “Lystra” in v1. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note III above). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

36 And the jailer reportedCCLXVII the messageCCLXVIII to Paul, saying, “The magistrates sent word to let you go; therefore come outCCLXIX now and goCCLXX in peace.”CCLXXI 

Notes on verse 36

CCLXVII “reported” = apaggello. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20 & “instructions” in v24 & “brought” in v30. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (see note LXXXVI above). This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CCLXVIII “message” = logos. Same as “word” in v6. See note LIV above.
CCLXIX “come out” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
CCLXX “go” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v7. See note LIX above.
CCLXXI “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

37 But Paul replied,CCLXXII “They have beatenCCLXXIII us in public,CCLXXIV uncondemned,CCLXXV

Notes on verse 37a

CCLXXII “replied” = phemi. Same as “said” in v30. See note CCXLII above.
CCLXXIII “beaten” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
CCLXXIV “in public” = demosios. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25 & “prison” and “chains” in v26 & “must” in v30. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); from deo (see note CXLIV above). This is public, common, or openly.
CCLXXV “uncondemned” = akatakritos. Related to “reached” in v4. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + katakrino (judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn; a decisive judgment of guilt; also to damn someone); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note XXXV above)}. This is someone who hasn’t been condemned. It could be one who has not been tried or someone still to be tried.

menCCLXXVI who areCCLXXVII Romans, and have thrown us into prison,CCLXXVIII and now are they going to dischargeCCLXXIX us

Notes on verse 37b

CCLXXVI “men” = anthropos. Same as “men” in v17. See note CXLIII above.
CCLXXVII “are” = huparcho. Same as “was” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CCLXXVIII “prison” = phulake. Same as “prison” in v23. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CCLXXIX “discharge” = ekballo. Related to “threw” in v23. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note CLXXXVII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.

in secret?CCLXXX Certainly not! Let them comeCCLXXXI and take us outCCLXXXII themselves.” 

Notes on verse 37c

CCLXXX “in secret” = lathra. 4x in NT. From lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is secretly or privately.
CCLXXXI “come” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v7. See note LVI above.
CCLXXXII “take…out” = exago. Related to “proclaim the good news” in v10 & “set sail” in v11 & “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20 & “instructions” in v24 & “brought” in v30 & “reported” in v36. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note LXXXVI above). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.

38 The police reported these wordsCCLXXXIII to the magistrates, and they were afraidCCLXXXIV when they heardCCLXXXV that they were Romans, 

Notes on verse 38

CCLXXXIII “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CCLXXXIV “were afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CCLXXXV “heard” = akouo. Same as “listening” in v14. See note CXI above.

39 so they cameCCLXXXVI and apologizedCCLXXXVII to them. And they took them outCCLXXXVIII and askedCCLXXXIX them to leaveCCXC the city. 

Notes on verse 39

CCLXXXVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v7. See note LVI above.
CCLXXXVII “apologized” = parakaleo. Same as “pleading” in v9. See note LXXIII above.
CCLXXXVIII “took…out” = exago. Same as “take…out” in v37. See note CCLXXXII above.
CCLXXXIX “asked” = erotao. Related to “words” in v38. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note CCLXXXIII above). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CCXC “leave” = aperchomai. Related to “accompany” in v3 & “went through” in v6 & “come” in v7 & “passing by” in v8 & “gathered” in v13 & “come” in v15. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXI above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.

40 After leavingCCXCI the prisonCCXCII they wentCCXCIII to Lydia’s home, and when they had seen and encouragedCCXCIV the brothers and sisters there, they departed.CCXCV

Notes on verse 40

CCXCI “leaving” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.
CCXCII “prison” = phulake. Same as “prison” in v23. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CCXCIII “went” = eiserchomai. Same as “come” in v15. See note CXXIV above.
CCXCIV “encouraged” = parakaleo. Same as “pleading” in v9. See note LXXIII above.
CCXCV “departed” = exerchomai. Same as “accompany” in v3. See note XXI above.

Image credit: “Saint Timothy” at Holy Infant of Atocha Chapel of Our Lady of Mount Carmel by Gustavo A. Madero in Mexico City. Photo by Enrique López-Tamayo Biosca.

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