Acts 16:16-34

Acts 16:16-34
Narrative Lectionary 442


16 IOne day, as we were goingII to the place of prayer,III

Notes on verse 16a

I {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
III “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.

we metIV a slave-girlV who hadVI a spiritVII of divinationVIII

Notes on verse 16b

IV “met” = hupantao. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.
V “slave-girl” = paidiske. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
VI “had” = echo. This is have, hold, or possess.
VII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
VIII “divination” = puthon. 1x in NT. From Putho (Pytho, the place in Greece where the oracle of Delphi was); probably from Proto-Indo-European dhewb(“depths, hollows, deep bottom”); perhaps related to putho (to rot or decay). This is python, as the mythical creature that Apollo killed. It was thought to be the guard of the oracle and so it had a spirit of divination. So this could be python, divination, or inspiration. See

and broughtIX her ownersX a great dealXI of moneyXII by fortune-telling.XIII 

Notes on verse 16c

IX “brought” = parecho. Related to “had” in v16. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note VI above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
X “owners” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XI “great deal” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XII “money” = ergasia. 6x in NT. From ergon (word, task, action, employment); from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do). This is work, effort, business, performance, profit, or activity.
XIII “fortune-telling” = manteuomai. 1x in NT. From mantis (seer) OR from mainomai (to rage, be insane, rave); {from mao (to long for)}. This is to be a soothsayer or to divine.

17 While she followedXIV PaulXV and us, she would cry out,XVI

Notes on verse 17a

XIV “followed” = katakoloutheo. 2x in NT – also in Luke 23:55 when the women followed to see where Jesus’s body was laid. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow after closely.
XV “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XVI “cry out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.

“These menXVII areXVIII slavesXIX of the Most High God,XX

Notes on verse 17b

XVII “men” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XVIII “are” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XIX “slaves” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

who proclaimXXI to you a wayXXII of salvation.”XXIII 

Notes on verse 17c

XXI “proclaim” = kataggello. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
XXII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XXIII “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

18 She kept doingXXIV this for manyXXV days. But Paul, very much annoyed,XXVI turnedXXVII

Notes on verse 18a

XXIV “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXV “many” = polus. Same as “great deal” in v16. See note XI above.
XXVI “annoyed” = diaponeomai. 2x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poneomai (to work hard) OR from dia (see note above) + ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); {from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day)}. This is to work hard through something, to be exhausted from trouble or grief, to worry.
XXVII “turned” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

and said to the spirit, “I orderXXVIII you in the nameXXIX of JesusXXX ChristXXXI to come outXXXII of her.” And it came out that very hour.XXXIII

Notes on verse 18b

XXVIII “order” = paraggello. Related to “proclaim” in v17. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note XXI above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
XXIX “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXI “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XXXII “come out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is To go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XXXIII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

19 But when her owners sawXXXIV that their hopeXXXV of making money was gone,XXXVI

Notes on verse 19a

XXXIV “saw” = horao. Related to “men” in v17. See note XVII above.
XXXV “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
XXXVI “gone” = exerchomai. Same as “come out” in v18. See note XXXII above.

they seizedXXXVII Paul and SilasXXXVIII and draggedXXXIX them into the marketplaceXL before the authorities.XLI 

Notes on verse 19b

XXXVII “seized” = epilambanomai. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
XXXVIII “Silas” = Silas. 13x in NT. From Aramaic She’ila (Silas; related to “Saul,” meaning “asked of the Lord”); {from shaal (to ask, borrow); related to Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand)} OR from Silouanos (Silvanus, meaning either “asked of the Lord” or “forest”); {from Latin Silvanus (Silvanus, god of forests, sylvan); {from silva (forest, grove); from Proto-Indo-European *sel- or *swell- (board, threshold)}. This is Silas, either a form of Saul, meaning “asked of the Lord,” or of Silvanus, meaning “forest.” See &
XXXIX “dragged” = helko. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
XL “marketplace” = agora. 11x in NT. From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
XLI “authorities” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.

20 When they had broughtXLII them before the magistrates,XLIII they said, “These men are disturbingXLIV our city;XLV they areXLVI JewsXLVII 

Notes on verse 20

XLII “brought” = prosago. Related to “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18. 4x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + ago (see note XXI above). This is to lead near, approach, present, bring.
XLIII “magistrates” = strategos. Related to “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” in v20. 10x in NT. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large, organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); {from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed)} + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note XXI above)}. This is a military leader, general, military governor, magistrate. It can also be a temple leader such as the Levitical head of the temple guard.
XLIV “disturbing” = ektarasso. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tarasso (to trouble, agitate, stir up; motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water). This is to agitate, trouble, create confusion.
XLV “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XLVI “are” = huparcho. Related to “authorities” in v19. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note XLI above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XLVII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

21 and are advocatingXLVIII customsXLIX that are not lawfulL for us as RomansLI to adoptLII or observe.”LIII 

Notes on verse 21

XLVIII “advocating” = kataggello. Same as “proclaim” in v17. See note XXI above.
XLIX “customs” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
L “are…lawful” = exesti. Related to “are” in v17. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XVIII above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
LI “Romans” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
LII “adopt” = paradechomai. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, accept, adopt, admit. It can also mean to find joy in.
LIII “observe” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v18. See note XXIV above.

22 The crowd joined in attackingLIV them, and the magistrates had them strippedLV of their clothingLVI and orderedLVII them to be beaten with rods.LVIII 

Notes on verse 22

LIV “joined in attacking” = sunephistemi. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ephistemi (to stand upon, happen, be present; usually used in a literal sense); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to rise or stand together. It can also mean resisting or attacking together.
LV “stripped” = periregnumi. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear off or strip.
LVI “clothing” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
LVII “ordered” = keleuo. From kelomai (to urge on). This is to command, order, or direct.
LVIII “beaten with rods” = rhabdizo. 2x in NT. From rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to strike with a rod, to scourge.

23 After theyLIX had givenLX them a severe flogging,LXI they threwLXII them into prisonLXIII

Notes on verse 23a

LIX “they” = polus. Same as “great deal” in v16. See note XI above.
LX “given” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
LXI “severe flogging” = plege. From plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is a blow, stroke, wound, affliction, plague, calamity.
LXII “threw” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LXIII “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).

and orderedLXIV the jailerLXV to keepLXVI them securely.LXVII 

Notes on verse 23b

LXIV “ordered” = paraggello. Same as “order” in v18. See note XXVIII above.
LXV “jailer” = desmophulax. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “prison” in v23. 3x in NT. From desmos (a bond, chain, infirmity, impediment, ligament); {from deo (see note XIX above)} + phulaks (see note LXIII above). This is a jailer – one who keeps prisoners.
LXVI “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
LXVII “securely” = asphalos. 3x in NT. From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is securely in a literal or figurative sense. Also, it’s certainly, steadfastly, or assuredly.

24 FollowingLXVIII these instructions,LXIX he putLXX them in the innermost cellLXXI and fastenedLXXII their feetLXXIII in the stocks.LXXIV

Notes on verse 24

LXVIII “following” = lambano. Related to “seized” in v19. See note XXXVII above.
LXIX “instructions” = paraggelia. Related to “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20. 5x in NT. From paraggello (see note XXVIII above). This is a charge, precept, or mandate.
LXX “put” = ballo. Same as “threw” in v23. See note LXII above.
LXXI “cell” = phulake. Same as “prison” in v23. See note LXIII above.
LXXII “fastened” = asphalizo. Related to “securely” in v23. 4x in NT. From asphales (see note LXVII above). This is to make secure, fasten, make firm. Used of binding a prison in stocks. Related to the word “asphalt.”
LXXIII “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIV “stocks” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.

25 About midnight Paul and Silas were prayingLXXV and singing hymnsLXXVI to God, and the prisonersLXXVII were listeningLXXVIII to them. 

Notes on verse 25

LXXV “praying” = proseuchomai. Related to “prayer” in v16. See note III above.
LXXVI “singing hymns” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc.); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.
LXXVII “prisoners” = desmios. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (see note XIX above). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
LXXVIII “listening” = epakroaomai. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as akroaterion (to listen); {perhaps from akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is to listen to, to hear in an attentive way.

26 SuddenlyLXXIX there wasLXXX an earthquake,LXXXI so violentLXXXII that the foundationsLXXXIII

Notes on verse 26a

LXXIX “suddenly” = aphno. 3x in NT. Perhaps from aphanes (invisible, hidden, not apparent); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is suddenly or unawares.
LXXX “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note I above.
LXXXI “earthquake” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
LXXXII “violent” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXXXIII “foundations” = themelios. Related to “given” in v23. 16x in NT. From tithemi (see note LX above). This is related to a foundation, building substructure. It is a foundation in a literal or figurative sense.

of the prisonLXXXIV were shaken;LXXXV and immediately all the doorsLXXXVI were openedLXXXVII and everyone’s chainsLXXXVIII were unfastened.LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 26b

LXXXIV “prison” = desmoterion. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25. 4x in NT. From desmos (see note LXV above) + -terion (a place). This is a prison or dungeon.
LXXXV “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.
LXXXVI “doors” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
LXXXVII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in  literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVIII “chains” = desmos. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25 & “prison” in v26. 18x in NT. See note LXV above.
LXXXIX “unfastened” = aniemi. 4x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + hiemi (to send). This is to let go, loosen, send up, refrain from, abandon, loosen, leave.

27 When the jailer woke upXC, XCI and saw the prison doors wide open, he drewXCII his swordXCIII

Notes on verse 27a

XC “woke up” = exupnos. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hupnos (sleep – literal or figurative); {perhaps from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}. This is to awake from sleep.
XCI {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note I above.
XCII “drew” = spao. 2x in NT. This is to pull, to draw a sword.
XCIII “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

and was about toXCIV killXCV himself, since he supposedXCVI that the prisoners had escaped.XCVII 

Notes on verse 27b

XCIV “was about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XCV “kill” = anaireo. Related to “dragged” in v19. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note XXXIX above). This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
XCVI “supposed” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
XCVII “escaped” = ekpheugo. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pheugo (to run away in a literal or figurative sense; to flee, escape, shun, or vanish). This is to flee away or escape.

28 But Paul shoutedXCVIII in a loudXCIX voice,C “DoCI not harmCII yourself, for we are all here.” 

Notes on verse 28

XCVIII “shouted” = phoneo. Related to “suddenly” in v26. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note LXXIX above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
XCIX “loud” = megas. Same as “violent” in v26. See note LXXXII above.
C “voice” = phone. Related to “suddenly” in v26 & “shouted” in v28. See note XCVIII above.
CI “do” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.
CII “harm” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.

29 The jailer called forCIII lights,CIV and rushing in,CV he fell downCVI tremblingCVII, CVIII before Paul and Silas. 

Notes on verse 29

CIII “called for” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CIV “lights” = phos. Related to “suddenly” in v26 & “shouted” and “voice” in v28. See note LXXIX above.
CV “rushing in” = eispedao. 3x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + pedao (to leap or spring). This is to rush in or spring in.
CVI “fell down” = prospipto. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall on or fall before. It can be a violent attack, bowing before, or beat against.
CVII “trembling” = entromos. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by with) + tromos (trembling, shaking, or quaking from fear); {from tremo (shaking, particularly from fear or dread); from treo (to dread or terrify)}. This is being afraid, shaking because of fear.
CVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note I above.

30 Then he broughtCIX them outside and said,CX “Sirs,CXI what mustCXII I doCXIII to be saved?”CXIV 

Notes on verse 30

CIX “brought” = proago. Related to “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20 & “instructions” in v24. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XXI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CX “said” = phemi. Related to “suddenly” in v26 & “shouted” and “voice” in v28. See note XCVIII above.
CXI “sirs” = kurios. Same as “owners” in v16. See note X above.
CXII “must” = dei. Related to “slaves” in v17 & “jailer” in v23 & “prisoners” in v25 & “prison” and “chains” in v26. From deo (see note XIX above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXIII “do” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v18. See note XXIV above.
CXIV “saved” = sozo. Related to “salvation” in v17. See note XXIII above.

31 They answered, “BelieveCXV on the LordCXVI Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.”CXVII 

Notes on verse 31

CXV “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CXVI “Lord” = Kurios. Same as “owners” in v16. See note X above.
CXVII “household” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

32 They spoke the wordCXVIII of the Lord to him and to all who were in his house.CXIX 33 At the same hour of the night he tookCXX them and washedCXXI their wounds;CXXII

Notes on verses 32-33a

CXVIII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXIX “house” = oikia. Related to “household”” in v31. From oikos (see note CXVII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CXX “took” = paralambano. Related to “seized” in v19 & “following” in v24. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XXXVII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CXXI “washed” = louo. 5x in NT. This is bathing and washing. It can be literal or ritual cleansing, but refers particularly to the whole body.
CXXII “wounds” = plege. Same as “severe flogging” in v23. See note LXI above.

then he and his entire family were baptizedCXXIII without delay. 34 He brought them upCXXIV into the houseCXXV and set foodCXXVI beforeCXXVII them;

Notes on verses 33b-34a

CXXIII “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
CXXIV “brought…up” = anago. Related to “proclaim” in v17 & “order” in v18 & “brought” and “magistrates” in v20 & “instructions” in v24 & “brought” in v30. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note XXI above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
CXXV “house” = oikos. Same as “household” in v31. See note CXVII above.
CXXVI “food” = trapeza. Related to “feet” in v24. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (see note LXXIII above)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
CXXVII “set…before” = paratithemi. Related to “given” in v23 & “foundations” in v26. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (see note LX above). This is properly, to se beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).

and he and his entire householdCXXVIII rejoicedCXXIX that he had become a believerCXXX in God.

Notes on verse 34b

CXXVIII “entire household” = panoikei. Related to “household” in v31 & “house” in v32. 1x in NT. From pas (all, every, every kind of) + oikos (see note CXVII above). This is with the whole family or entire household.
CXXIX “rejoiced” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
CXXX “become a believer” = pisteuo. Same as “believe” in v31. See note CXV above.

Image credit: “St. Paul” stained glass window at l’église Saint-Pierre Saint-Paul.

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