Matthew 22

Matthew 22


Once more JesusI spoke to them in parables,II saying: “The kingdomIII of heavenIV may be comparedV

Notes on verses 1-2a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “parables” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
III “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
IV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
V “be compared” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.

to aVI kingVII who gave a wedding banquetVIII for his son. 

Notes on verse 2b

VI {untranslated} = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
VII “king” = basileus. Related to “kingdom” in v2. See note III above.
VIII “wedding banquet” = gamos. 16x in NT. This is a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself.

He sentIX his slavesX to callXI those who had been invitedXII to the wedding banquet, but they wouldXIII not come. 

Notes on verse 3

IX “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
X “slaves” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XI “call” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XII “invited” = kaleo. Same as “call” in v3. See note XI above.
XIII “would” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

Again he sent otherXIV slaves, saying, ‘Tell those who have been invited: Look,XV I have preparedXVI my dinner,XVII

Notes on verse 4a

XIV “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XV “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XVI “prepared” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
XVII “dinner” = ariston. 3x in NT. Perhaps from eri (early) + ed (eat) OR from the same as arrhen (male, man); from arsen (male, man) or from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is breakfast or lunch. Literally, it may mean not having a boundary. It is a meal eaten before the evening meal, which is the main one.

my oxenXVIII and my fat calvesXIX have been slaughtered,XX and everything is ready;XXI comeXXII to the wedding banquet.’ 

Notes on verse 4b

XVIII “oxen” = tauros. 4x in NT. This is ox or bull.
XIX “fat calves” = sitistos. 1x in NT. From sitos (any kind of grain that you can eat; usually wheat, but also barley and other grains). This is grain or, perhaps grained in the sense of fattened up. So, it refers to a fatling, a fatted calf.
XX “slaughtered” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
XXI “ready” = hetoimos. Related to “prepared” in v4. 17x in NT. See note XVI above.
XXII “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.

But they made light ofXXIII it and went away, oneXXIV to hisXXV farm,XXVI another to his business,XXVII 

Notes on verse 5

XXIII “made light of” = ameleo. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). This is to neglect, disregard, have no concern, be unaffected. This is seeing something as not having value or making light of it.
XXIV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXV “his” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XXVI “farm” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
XXVII “business” = emporia. 1x in NT. From emporos (merchant or trader; one who travels by ship or more broadly one journeying); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + the base of poreuomai (to go, travel, journey; transportation something from one place to another; focuses on the personal meaning given to getting to the destination); {from poros (passageway, ford)}. This is business, trade, merchandise, or a business trip. It is where the word “emporium” comes from.

while the restXXVIII seizedXXIX his slaves, mistreatedXXX them, and killedXXXI them. 

Notes on verse 6

XXVIII “rest” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
XXIX “seized” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
XXX “mistreated” = hubrizo. 5x in NT. From hubris (insult, damage, harm, reproach, insolence; damage that includes reproach); from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another). This is to insult, mistreat, steal. Figuratively, it is to harm someone so that they experience a loss, particularly to their reputation or honor. So, it is violence or abuse. This is where the word “hubris” comes from.
XXXI “killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

7 The king was enraged.XXXII He sentXXXIII his troops,XXXIV

Notes on verse 7a

XXXII “was enraged” = orgizo. 8x in NT. From orge (impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment); from orgao (something that teems or stews; this is anger rising from prolonged personal contact that is fixed rather than an angry outburst; it can also be anger that stems from an individual’s sense of right and wrong, justice, etc.). This is being angry, enraged, exasperated. It is a fixed, sustained anger.
XXXIII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XXXIV “troops” = strateuma. 8x in NT. From strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is an expedition, soldier, group of soldiers, army.

destroyedXXXV those murderers,XXXVI and burnedXXXVII their city.XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXV “destroyed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XXXVI “murderers” = phoneus. 7x in NT. From phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is a murderer – a killing that is not justified and is done on purpose. It general refers to a criminal act.
XXXVII “burned” = empretho. 1x in NT. Related to empipremi (set on fire); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + pimpremi (to burn or swell) OR from en (see above) + pretho (to blow flame)}. This is to enkindle, burn up, have inflammation.
XXXVIII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

Then he said to his slaves, ‘The weddingXXXIX is ready, but those invited were not worthy.XL GoXLI therefore into the mainXLII streets,XLIII and invite everyone you findXLIV to the wedding banquet.’ 

Notes on verses 8-9

XXXIX “wedding” = gamos. Same as “wedding banquet” in v2. See note VIII above.
XL “worthy” = axios. From ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
XLI “go” = poreuomai. Related to “business” in v5. From poros (see note XXVII above). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XLII “main” = diexodos. 1x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + exodos (exit, departure, death); {from ek (from, from out of) + hodos (way, road, path, journey)}. This is an outlet – somewhere public within a city. It is a crossroads, perhaps an open square.
XLIII “streets” = hodos. Related to “main” in v9. See note XLII above.
XLIV “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

10 Those slaves went out into the streets and gatheredXLV all whom they found, both goodXLVI and bad;XLVII so the wedding hallXLVIII was filledXLIX with guests.L

Notes on verse 10

XLV “gathered” = sunago. Related to “worthy” in v8. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XL above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XLVI “good” = agathos. In Greek word order is “bad both and good.” This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
XLVII “bad” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
XLVIII “wedding hall” = gamos. Same as “wedding banquet” in v2. See note VIII above.
XLIX “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
L “guests” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.

11 “But when the king came in to seeLI the guests, he noticedLII a manLIII there who was not wearingLIV a wedding robe,LV 12 and he said to him, ‘Friend,LVI how did you get in here without a wedding robe?’ And he was speechless.LVII 

Notes on verses 11-12

LI “see” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
LII “noticed” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LIII “man” = anthropos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
LIV “wearing” = enduo. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (to go down, sink, or set)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
LV “robe” = enduma. Related to “wearing” in v11. 8x in NT. From enduo (see note LIV above). This is clothing, especially outer robes. This is clothing as something one sinks into.
LVI “friend” = hetairos. 3x in NT. From etes (cousin or member of one’s clan). This is a friend, companion, comrade. It is a friend like one’s own family.
LVII “was speechless” = phimoo. 8x in NT. From phimos (a muzzle). This is to muzzle so speechless, silence, quiet.

13 Then the king said to the attendants,LVIII ‘BindLIX him handLX and foot, and throwLXI him into the outer darkness,LXII

Notes on verse 13a

LVIII “attendants” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
LIX “bind” = deo. Perhaps related to “slaves” in v3. See note X above.
LX “hand” = cheir. Word order in Greek is “feet and hand.” This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LXI “throw” = ekballo. Related to “parables” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note II above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.

where there will be weepingLXIII and gnashingLXIV of teeth.’ 14 For many are called,LXV but few are chosen.”LXVI

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXIII “weeping” = klauthmos. 9x in NT. From klaio (to weep, lament, or sob; weeping aloud). This is weeping, lamentation, shrieks, intense pain.
LXIV “gnashing” = brugmos. 7x in NT. From brucho (to bite, grind, grate teeth – in rage or pain). This is biting, grinding, grating teeth.
LXV “called” = kletos. Related to “call” in v3. 11x in NT. From the same as klesis (calling, invitation); from kaleo (see note XI above). This is the called, invited, calling. Used in the NT as God’s calling.
LXVI “chosen” = eklektos. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a person choice – a favorite.

15 Then the PhariseesLXVII went and plottedLXVIII to entrapLXIX him in what he said.LXX 

Notes on verse 15

LXVII “Pharisees” = pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
LXVIII “plotted” = sumboulion + lambano. Literally “took counsel.” Sumboulion is 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.
LXIX “entrap” = pagideuo. 1x in NT. From pagis (a trap or snare; particularly, a trap used on birds; figuratively, a wile, trick, or stratagem); from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is to entrap in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “what he said” = logos. Related to “chosen” in v14. From lego (see note LXVI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

16 So they sent their disciplesLXXI to him, along with the Herodians,LXXII saying, “Teacher,LXXIII we knowLXXIV that you are sincere,LXXV

Notes on verse 16a

LXXI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LXXII “Herodians” = Herodianoi. 3x in NT. From Herodes (Herod, perhaps meaning “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic”); {perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale) [from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale) {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}] OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above)}. This is Herodian – one who followed Herod Antipas. See
LXXIII “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LXXIV “know” = eido. Related to “look” in v4. See note XV above.
LXXV “sincere” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

and teachLXXVI the wayLXXVII of GodLXXVIII in accordance with truth,LXXIX and show deferenceLXXX to no one;

Notes on verse 16b

LXXVI “teach” = didasko. Related to “Teacher” in v16. See note LXXIII above.
LXXVII “way” = hodos. Same as “streets” in v9. See note XLIII above.
LXXVIII “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXIX “truth” = aletheia. Related to “sincere” in v16. From alethes (see note LXXV above). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
LXXX “show deference” = melo. Related to “made light of” in v5. 10x in NT. See note XXIII above.

for you do not regardLXXXI peopleLXXXII with partiality.LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 16c

LXXXI “regard” = blepo + eis + prosopon. Blepo is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware. Prosopon is from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
LXXXII “people” = anthropos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
LXXXIII Literally “for you do not look on the appearance of people.”

17 Tell us, then, what you think.LXXXIV Is it lawfulLXXXV to payLXXXVI taxesLXXXVII to the emperor,LXXXVIII or not?” 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXIV “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
LXXXV “is…lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
LXXXVI “pay” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “taxes” = kensos. 4x in NT. From Latin census (a census of people and goods; the record of a census; gifts, wealth); from censeo (to think, decree, determine, count, judge, assess); from Proto-Italic kenseo; from Proto-Indo-European *ḱn̥s-é-ti, *ḱn̥s-eyé-ti, from *ḱens- (to announce). This is an annual tax based on a census. It can also refer to the money collected in that census. This is a tax paid to Rome as tribute. It is where the word “census” comes from. See
LXXXVIII “emperor” = kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See

18 But Jesus, awareLXXXIX of their malice,XC said, “Why are you putting me to the test,XCI you hypocrites?XCII 

Notes on verse 18

LXXXIX “aware” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XC “malice” = poneria. Related to “bad” in v10. 7x in NT. From poneros (see note XLVII above). This is iniquity, wickedness, pain-ridden evil. It is the drudgery of evil and sin. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
XCI “putting…to the test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XCII “hypocrites” = hupokrites. 18x in NT. From hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.)}. This is literally an actor. Figuratively, it is someone playing out a role, which is to say, lying, pretending, or being a hypocrite. This is where the word “hypocrite” comes from.

19 ShowXCIII me the coinXCIV used for the tax.” And they broughtXCV him a denarius.XCVI 20 Then he said to them, “Whose headXCVII is this, and whose title?”XCVIII 

Notes on verses 19-20

XCIII “show” = epideiknumi. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to show, demonstrate, prove, or display.
XCIV “coin” = nomisma. 1x in NT. From nomizo (to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom; thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law); from nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is something that has a particular value. It is a coin, money, or a custom. This is related to the root of the word for studying and collecting coins “numismatics.”
XCV “brought” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
XCVI “denarius” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
XCVII “head” = eikon. From eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield). This is a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation. It implies a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow. It can be an image in a figurative sense as well. This is where the word “icon” comes from.
XCVIII “title” = epigraphe. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (to write, describe)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.

21 They answered, “The emperor’s.”

Then he said to them, “GiveXCIX therefore to the emperor the things that are the emperor’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” 22 When they heardC this, they were amazed;CI and they leftCII him and went away.

Notes on verses 21-22

XCIX “give” = apodidomi. Related to “pay” in v17.  From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note LXXXVI above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
C “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CI “amazed” = thaumazo. Related to “see” in v11. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); perhaps from a form of theaomai (see note LI above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CII “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.

23 The same day some SadduceesCIII came to him, saying there is no resurrection;CIV and they asked him a question,CV saying, 

Notes on verse 23

CIII “Sadducees” = Saddoukaios. 14x in NT. Probably from Hebrew tsadoq (Zadok, a personal name); from tsadaq (to be just or righteous, do justice); from tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is a Sadducee. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders.
CIV “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “sent” in v3. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note IX above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
CV “asked…a question” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.

24 “Teacher, MosesCVI said, ‘If a man diesCVII childless,CVIII

Notes on verse 24a

CVI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CVII “dies” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CVIII “childless” = me + echo + teknon. Literally “not having children.” Teknon is from tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

his brotherCIX shall marryCX the widow,CXI and raise upCXII childrenCXIII for his brother.’ 

Notes on verse 24b

CIX “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CX “marry” = epigambreuo. Related to “wedding banquet” in v2. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + gambros (connection through marriage) OR epi (see above) + gamos (see note VIII above). This is to marry, particularly a levirate marriage.
CXI “widow” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CXII “raise up” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v3 & “resurrection” in v23. See note CIV above.
CXIII “children” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.

25 Now there were sevenCXIV brothers among us; the first married,CXV and diedCXVI childless,CXVII leaving the widow to his brother. 26 The second did the same,CXVIII so also the third, down to the seventh. 

Notes on verses 25-26

CXIV “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
CXV “married” = gameo. Related to “wedding banquet” in v2 & “marry” in v24. From gamos (see note VIII above). This is to marry.
CXVI “died” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
CXVII “childless” = me + echo + sperma. Literally “not having seed.” Sperma is the same as “children” in v24. See note CXIII above.
CXVIII “same” = homoios. Related to “be compared” in v2. See note V above. This is likewise or similarly.

27 Last of all, the womanCXIX herself died.CXX 28 In the resurrection, then, whose wifeCXXI of the seven will she be? For all of them had married her.”

29 Jesus answered them, “You are wrong,CXXII because you know neither the scripturesCXXIII nor the powerCXXIV of God. 

Notes on verses 27-29

CXIX “woman” = gune. Same as “widow” in v24. See note CXI above.
CXX “died” = apothnesko. Same as “dies” in v24. See note CVII above.
CXXI “wife” = gune. Same as “widow” in v24. See note CXI above.
CXXII “are wrong” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
CXXIII “scriptures” = graphe. Related to “title” in v20. From grapho (see note XCVIII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXXIV “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

30 For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage,CXXV but are like angelsCXXVI, CXXVII in heaven. 31 And as for the resurrection of the dead,CXXVIII have you not readCXXIX what was said to you by God, 

Notes on verses 30-31

CXXV “given in marriage” = gamisko. Related to “wedding banquet” in v2 & “marry” in v24 & “married” in v25. 8x in NT. From gamos (see note VIII above). This is to give a daughter in marriage.
CXXVI “angels” = aggelos. Related to “worthy” in v8 & “gathered” in v10. Probably from ago (see notes XL above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CXXVII {untranslated} = theos. Literally “angels of God.” See note LXXVIII above.
CXXVIII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
CXXIX “read” = anaginosko. Related to “aware” in v18. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note LXXXIX above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.

32 ‘I am the God of Abraham,CXXX the God of Isaac,CXXXI and the God of Jacob’?CXXXII He is God not of the dead, but of the living.” 33 And when the crowd heard it, they were astoundedCXXXIII at his teaching.CXXXIV

Notes on verses 32-33

CXXX “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CXXXI “Isaac” = Isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CXXXII “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CXXXIII “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CXXXIV “teaching” = didache. Related to “Techer” in v16 & “teach” in v16. From didasko (see note LXXIII above). This is teaching or doctrine.

34 When the Pharisees heard that he had silencedCXXXV the Sadducees, they gathered together, 35 and one of them, a lawyer,CXXXVI asked him a question to test him. 36 “Teacher, which commandmentCXXXVII in the lawCXXXVIII is the greatest?” 

Notes on verses 34-36

CXXXV “silenced” = phimoo. Same as “was speechless” in v12. See note LVII above.
CXXXVI “lawyer” = nomikos. Related to “coin” in v19. 9x in NT. From nomos (see note XCIV above). This is about the law or one who is knowledgeable in the law, a lawyer. It refers to the law of and derived from the Old Testament – Jewish law including the tradition of the elders. This is someone with a level of expertise beyond that of a scribe. Ezra would be a lawyer.
CXXXVII “commandment” = entole. Related to “died” in v25. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish) [from telos (see note CXVI above)}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
CXXXVIII “law” = nomos. Related to “coin” in v19 & “lawyer” in v35. See note XCIV above.

37 He saidCXXXIX to him, “‘You shall loveCXL the LordCXLI your God with allCXLII your heart,CXLIII and with all your soul,CXLIV and with all your mind.’CXLV 

Notes on verse 37

CXXXIX “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
CXL “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CXLI “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXLII “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXLIII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXLIV “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXLV “mind” = dianoia. 12x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is thought, intellect, or insight. It is thorough, critical thinking to reason through issues to reach a conclusion that is both logically sound and personal.

38 This is the greatest and first commandment. 39 And a second is likeCXLVI it: ‘You shall love your neighborCXLVII as yourself.’ 40 On these two commandments hangCXLVIII all the law and the prophets.”CXLIX

41 Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them this question: 42 “What do you think of the Messiah?CL Whose son is he?”

They said to him, “The son of David.”CLI 

Notes on verses 38-42

CXLVI “like” = homoios. Related to “be compared” in v2 & “same” in v26. See note V above. This is similar to, resembling, like.
CXLVII “neighbor” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
CXLVIII “hang” = kremannumi. 7x in NT. This is to hang or suspend. Figuratively, it means to depend.
CXLIX “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “said” in v37. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CXXXIX above) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CL “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CLI “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

43 He said to them, “How is it then that David by the SpiritCLII calls him Lord, saying,

44 ‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“SitCLIII at my right hand,CLIV
    until I putCLV your enemiesCLVI underCLVII your feet”’?

Notes on verses 43-44

CLII “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLIII “sit” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CLIV “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CLV “put” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
CLVI “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
CLVII “under” = hupokato. 11x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + kato (down, below, lower, bottom, under); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among)}. This is down under so below, beneath, sole.

45 If David thus calls him Lord, how can he be his son?” 46 No one was ableCLVIII to give him an answer,CLIX nor from that day did anyone dareCLX to ask him any more questions.

Notes on verses 45-46

CLVIII “was able” = dunamai. Related to “power” in v29. See note CXXIV above.
CLIX “answer” = logos. Same as “what he said” in v15. See note LXX above.
CLX “dare” = tolmao. Related to “died” in v25 & “commandment” in v36. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (see note CXVI above). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.

Image credit: “The Pharisees and the Sadducees Come to Tempt Jesus” by James Tissot, between 1886 and 1894.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply