Acts 2:1-21

Acts 2:1-21
Pentecost Vigil – A Women’s Lectionary
Pentecost C28
Narrative Lectionary 446
Pentecost – A Women’s Lectionary


1 When the day of PentecostA had come,B they were all together in one place. And suddenlyC from heavenD there came a soundE

Notes on verses 1-2a

A “Pentecost” = pentekoste. 3x in NT. From pentekonta (fifty); {from pente (five) + deka (ten or -teen)}. This is fiftieth, used specially for Pentecost, the fiftieth day after Passover.
B “come” = sumpleroo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or individual capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with)}. This is to fill entirely, a boat swamped with water, or fulfill. It can also be come or approach.
C “suddenly” = aphno. 3x in NT. Perhaps from aphanes (invisible, hidden, not apparent); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}. This is suddenly or unawares.
D “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
E “sound” = echos. 4x in NT. From eche (noise or sound). This is a loud sound, roaring, or echo. It can also be a report, rumor, or fame. This is where the word “echo” comes from.

like the rushF of a violentG wind,H and it filledI the entireJ houseK where they were sitting.L 

Notes on verse 2b

F “rush” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense
G “violent” = biaios. 1x in NT. From bia (strength, force, violence). This is violent, strong, or mighty.
H “wind” = pnoe. 2x in NT. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is breath, blowing, gust, or wind.
I “filled” = pleroo. Related to “come” in v1. See note B above.
J “entire” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
K “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
L “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

DividedM tongues,N as of fire,O appearedP among them, and a tongue rested on each of them. 

Notes on verse 3

M “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
N “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue ina literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
O “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
P “appeared” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

4 All of them were filledQ with the HolyR SpiritS and beganT to speak in other languages,U as the Spirit gave them ability.V

Notes on verse 4

Q “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
R “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
S “Spirit” = pneuma. Related to “wind” in v1. From pneo (see note H above). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
T “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or to rule.
U “languages” = glossa. Same as “tongues” in v3. See note N above.
V “ability” = apophtheggomai. Related to “suddenly” in v2. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phtheggomai (to speak out loud; can also be to speak in a way that cannot be understood or generally to speak out); {related to pheggos (light, radiance, splendor); related to phos (see note C above)}.This is to declare, pronounce, or speak clearly.

5 Now there were devoutW JewsX from every nationY under heaven livingZ in Jerusalem.AA 

Notes on verse 5

W “devout” = eulabes. 4x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is literally handling well or grasping what is good. So, cautious or circumspect. By extension, it refers to devout, pious, or God fearing
X “Jews” = ioudaios + aner. Literally “Jews, men.” Ioudaios is from Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea. Aner is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
Y “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
Z “living” = katoikeo. Related to “house” in v2. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note K above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
AA “Jerusalem” = ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

And at this soundBB the crowdCC gathered and was bewildered,DD because each one heardEE them speaking in the nativeFF languageGG of each. 

Notes on verse 6

BB “sound” = phone. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “ability” in v4. Probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) OR from phaino (see note C above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CC “crowd” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
DD “was bewildered” = sugcheo. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + cheo (to pour). This is literally to pour together, which is to say confuse, stir up, or bewilder. So, it could be to agitate a gathered group or inner perplexity.
EE “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
FF “native” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
GG “language” = dialektos. 6x in NT. From dialegomai (to discuss, preach, reason, argue, lecture); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is speech, language, tongue, or dialect. It can also be mode of discourse. It is the root where “dialect” and “dialogue” come from.

AmazedHH and astonished,II they asked, “Are notJJ all these who are speaking Galileans?KK 8 And how is it that we hear, each of us, in our own nativeLL language? 

Notes on verses 7-8

HH “amazed” = existemi. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed an flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
II “astonished” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
JJ {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
KK “Galileans” = galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
LL “native” = en + hos + gennao. Literally “in which we were born.” From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

Parthians,MM Medes,NN Elamites,OO and residentsPP of Mesopotamia,QQ

Notes on verse 9a

MM “Parthians” = parthos. 1x in NT. From Old Persian parthava (of the Parthians; perhaps meaning “strong man” or “champion”). This is Parthian, east of the Roman Empire. See
NN “Medes” = medos. 1x in NT. From Old Persian Mada (Mede); possibly from Proto-Iranian madyah (“in the middle”). This is Mede or Median. Someone from east of Assyria. See
OO “Elamites” = elamites. 1x in NT. From Hebrew elam (Elam, his lineage, and their land; meaning hidden or distant); probably from alam (to conceal, hide, melt, shut, neglect, escape, or melt). This is Elamite, one from north of the Persian Gulf.
PP “residents” = katoikeo. Same as “living” in v5.
QQ “Mesopotamia” = Mesopotamia. 2x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); {perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)}  + potamos (river, stream, water, flooded waterbed following heavy rain or snow that has melted); {from pino (to drink literally or figuratively)}. This is Mesopotamia – the land between two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates.

JudeaRR and Cappadocia,SS PontusTT and Asia,UU 

Notes on verse 9b

RR “Judea” = ioudaia. Related to “Jews” in v5. See ioudaios (see note X above). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
SS “Cappadocia” = kappadokia. 2x in NT. From Old Persian katpatuka (Cappadocia); from Luwian (low country) or Hittite (place below). This is Cappadocia, a province in central-eastern Asia Minor. See
TT “Pontus” = pontos. 2x in NT. This is Pontus, which means “sea” – a region on the Black Sea.
UU “Asia” = asia. 18x in NT. Perhaps from Hittite assuwa (22 allied ancient states in Anatolia) OR Aegean asis (muddy, silty) OR Semitic root asu (rising or light; Asia as land to the east). This is Asia, the Roman province, which consisted of western Asia Minor. See

10 PhrygiaVV and Pamphylia,WW EgyptXX and the parts of LibyaYY belonging to Cyrene,ZZ

Notes on verse 10a

VV “Phrygia” = phrugia. 3x in NT. From phrux (Phrygian); perhaps from Phrygian Bryges (ancient Balkan tribe); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high, mountain, hill”). This is Phrygia or Phrygian. It was northeastern Asia Province (Asia Minor). See
WW “Pamphylia” = pamphulia. 5x in NT. From pas (all, every, every kind of) + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to prouce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is Pamphylia, meaning every tribe. It is a province on the southern coast of Asia Minor
XX “Egypt” = aiguptos. From Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (Egypt; literally “the temple of the ka of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt”); from ḥwt (hut, large structure, palace, temple, estate) + ka (“a spiritual part of the soul in Egyptian mythology, which survived after death”; “something like ‘life-force’; the part of the soul which the living have and the dead do not…goodwill – especially of the king) + ptah (“a god of creativity and craftsmen, sometimes also identified with gods of death and the birth of the sun”; “Ptah, creator god and patron of craftsmen, worshipped at Memphis”). This is Egypt, meaning “the temple of the ka of Ptah.” See
YY “Libya” = libue. 1x in NT. Perhaps from lips (southwest wind – which carries rain, the southwest). This is Libya, west of the Nile in North Africa.
ZZ “Cyrene” = kurene. 1x in NT. Perhaps from kure (a spring); from kuros (power). This is a city in North Africa on the Mediterranean. Cyrene means perhaps “powerful one” or” high social standing.” See

and visitorsAAA from Rome,BBB both Jews and proselytes,CCC 

Notes on verse 10b

AAA “visitors” = epidemeo. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + demos district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is to be at home – so, to sojourn, visit, or otherwise live temporarily in a foreign city.
BBB “Rome” = rhomaios. 12x in NT. From rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See
CCC “proselytes” = proselutos. 4x in NT. From proserhcomai (to approach, draw near, come up to; figuratively to worship); {from pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go)}. This is a proselyte as a newcomer to Judaism. A convert to Judaism would have been circumcised and begun to follow the Law. It could also be a foreigner.

11 CretansDDD and ArabsEEE—in our ownFFF languages we hear them speaking about God’sGGG deeds of power.”HHH 

Notes on verse 11

DDD “Cretans” = kres. 2x in NT. From krete (Crete, a Mediterranean island); {from krus (a hero of myth) OR from Luwian kursatta or kursawar (island) or Luwian kursattar (cutting, silver)}. This is Crete or Cretan. See
EEE “Arabs” = araps. 1x in NT. From arabia (Arabia); from Hebrew arab (Arabia, “steppe dwellers”); from arab (grow dark, become evening); from ereb (evening, sunset, night) OR from Arabic ‘arab (Arabic, declare, trade). This is Arabia. See
FFF “own” = hemeteros. 8x in NT. From hemeis (we ourselves); from ego (I, me). This is our, our own – it is not a simple possessive pronounce, but one that is intensified.
GGG “God’s” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
HHH “deeds of power” = megaleios. 1x in NT. From mega (great, exceeding, abundant; big in a literal or figurative sense). This is magnificent, grand, perfection, mighty deed.

12 All were amazed and perplexed,III saying to one another, “What does this mean?”JJJ 13 But others sneeredKKK and said, “They are filledLLL with new wine.”MMM

Notes on verses 12-13

III “perplexed” = diaporeo. 4x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + aporeo (perplexed, in doubt; mentally at a loss); {from a (not, without) + poros (way, resource)}. This is in trouble or doubt, having difficulty. This is being perplexed because you can’t find a solution.
JJJ “what does this mean” = tis + thelo + houtos + eimi. Literally “what does this wish to be?” Thelo is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
KKK “sneered” = chleuazo. 2x in NT. From chleue (jest or joke) OR from a derivative of cheilos (lip, shore, brink; figuratively, language or dialect, brim of a pitcher); from the same as chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn); from chao (to gape or yawn). This is to throw one’s lip at, jeer, joke, sneer, mock, ridicule.
LLL “filled” = mestoo. 1x in NT. From mestos (full or filled with in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fill or replenish, used to imply intoxication.
MMM “new wine” = gleukos. 1x in NT. From glukus (sweet, fresh). This is sweet new wine. This root is where “glucose” comes from.

14 But Peter,NNN standing with the eleven, raisedOOO his voice and addressedPPP them, “Men of Judea and all who live in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listenQQQ to what I say.RRR 

Notes on verse 14

NNN “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
OOO “raised” = epairo. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
PPP “addressed” = apophtheggomai. Same as “ability” in v4. See note V above.
QQQ “listen” = enotizomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ous (the ear, the ability to hear/perceive). This is to listen or give ear.
RRR “what I say” = ho + rhema + ego. Literally “my words.” Rhema is from rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

15 Indeed, these are not drunk, as you suppose, for it is only nine o’clock in the morning.SSS 16 No, this is what was spoken through the prophetTTT Joel:UUU

Notes on verses 15-16

SSS “nine o’clock in the morning” = hora + tritos + ho + hemera. Literally “third hour of the day.”
TTT “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet. One who speaks with inspiration from God
UUU “Joel” = ioel. 1x in NT. From Hebrew yo’el (Joel, meaning “the Lord is God”); {from YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); {from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)} + el (God, a god)}. This is Joel, meaning “the Lord is God.”

17 ‘In the lastVVV days it will be, God declares,
that I will pour outWWW my Spirit upon all flesh,XXX
    and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy,YYY

Notes on verse 17a

VVV “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
WWW “pour out” = ekcheo. Related to “was bewildered” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note DD above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
XXX “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
YYY “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “prophet” in v16. From prophetes (see note TTT above). This is to prophesy, tell forth, or foretell.

and your young menZZZ shall seeAAAA visions,BBBB
    and your old menCCCC shall dreamDDDD dreams.EEEE

Notes on verse 17b

ZZZ “young men” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
AAAA “see” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v3. See note P above.
BBBB “visions” = horasis. Related to “appeared” in v3. 4x in NT. From horao (see note P above). This is appearance, act of seeing, or vision.
CCCC “old men” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early Church.
DDDD “dream” = enupniazomai. Related to “dreams” in v17. From enupnion (see note EEEE below). This is to dream as a vision in sleep or a dreamer.
EEEE “dreams” = enupnion. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + hupnos (sleep literal or figurative); {perhaps related to hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}. This is a dream or vision.

18 Even upon my slaves,FFFF both men and women,GGGG
    in those days I will pour out my Spirit;
        and they shall prophesy.

19 And I will show portentsHHHH in the heaven above
    and signsIIII on the earth below,
        blood,JJJJ and fire, and smokyKKKK mist.LLLL

Notes on verses 18-19

FFFF “slaves” = doulos. Related to “visitors” in v10. Perhaps from deo (see note AAA above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
GGGG “women” = doule. Related to “visitors” in v10 & “slaves” in v18. 3x in NT. From doulos (see note FFFF above). This is female slave or bondmaid.
HHHH “portents” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
IIII “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
JJJJ “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
KKKK “smoky” = kapnos. 13x in NT – 1x in Acts on Pentecost and all others in the book of Revelation. This is smoke.
LLLL “mist” = atmis. 2x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is breath, steam, vapor, or mist.

20 The sun shall be turnedMMMM to darknessNNNN
    and the moonOOOO to blood,
        before the coming of the Lord’sPPPP great and gloriousQQQQ day.

21 Then everyone who calls on the nameRRRR of the Lord shall be saved.’SSSS

Notes on verses 20-21

MMMM “turned” = metastrepho. 3x in NT. From meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, change, distort, corrupt, or transmute.
NNNN “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
OOOO “moon” = selene. 9x in NT. From selas (bright flame). This is moon.
PPPP “Lord’s” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
QQQQ “glorious” = epiphanes. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “ability” in v4 & “sound” in v6. From epiphaino (to shine on, give light to); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (see note C above)}. This is visible, notable, or manifest. It an also be splendid, memorable, or glorious.
RRRR “name” = onoma. Perhaps related to “known” in v14. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
SSSS “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

Image credit: “Pentecost” at Our Lady of Pentecost Church in Quezon City, Philippines by Ronald Kraut, 2003.

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