Acts 25

Acts 25


ThreeI daysII after FestusIII had arrived inIV the province,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “three” = treis. This is three or three times.
II “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “Festus” = Phestos. 13x in NT– all in Acts. From Latin festus (festive, related to holidays). This is Festus, meaning “festal” or “festive” or “joyful.” See
IV “arrived in” = epibaino. 6x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + baino (to walk, go). This is to step on, embark, get on a horse or ship, ascend.
V “province” = eparchia. 2x in NT– in Acts 23 + 25. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a prefecture or province.

he went upVI from CaesareaVII to Jerusalem,VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “went up” = anabaino. Related to “arrived in” in v1. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note IV above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
VII “Caesarea” = Kaisraeia. 17x in NT. From kaisar (Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors); from Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesarea – part of the name of two cities in Palestine. See
VIII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

where the chief priestsIX and the leadersX of the JewsXI

Notes on verse 2a

IX “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “province” in v1. From archo (see note V above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
X “leaders” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XI “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

gave him a reportXII against Paul.XIII They appealedXIV to him 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “gave…a report” = emphanizo. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.
XIII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XIV “appealed” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

and requested,XV as a favorXVI to them against Paul,XVII to have him transferredXVIII to Jerusalem.

Notes on verse 3a

XV “requested” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XVI “favor” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XVII “Paul” = autos. Literally, “him.”
XVIII “transferred” = metapempo. 9x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send after, summon, invite.

They were, in fact, planningXIX an ambushXX to killXXI him along the way.XXII 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “planning” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XX “ambush” = enedra. 2x in NT– in Acts 23 + 25. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + from hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (a seat)}. This is lying in wait. So, it could be a plot or treachery. Figuratively, it can be a murderous ambush.
XXI “kill” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
XXII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

XXIIIFestus repliedXXIV that Paul was being keptXXV at Caesarea

Notes on verse 4a

XXIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXIV “replied” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
XXV “kept” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.

and that he himself intendedXXVI to goXXVII there shortly.XXVIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “intended” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXVII “go” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
XXVIII “shortly” = en + tachos. Literally, “in quickness.” Tachos is 8x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly or immediately. It is not rushed, but as fast as is reasonable.

“So,” he said,XXIX “let those of you who have the authorityXXX come down withXXXI me,

Notes on verse 5a

XXIX “said” = phemi. Related to “gave…a report” in v2. From phao (to shine) OR phaino (see note XII above). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
XXX “authority” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
XXXI “come down with” = sugkatabaino. Related to “arrived in” and “went up” in v1. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + katabaino (to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower; literal or figurative); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note IV above)}. This is to go down in company with.

and if there isXXXII anything wrongXXXIII about the man,XXXIV let them accuseXXXV him.”

Notes on verse 5b

XXXII “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXXIII “wrong” = atopos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + topos (a place or region; a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people; figuratively, be an opportunity). This is literally out of place. It can be unusual, improper, or amiss. It can also be wrong in a moral sense, improper, harmful, unreasonable.
XXXIV “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXV “accuse” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

After he had stayedXXXVI among them not more thanXXXVII eightXXXVIII or tenXXXIX days,

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVI “stayed” = diatribo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is to spend time, remain, stay, continue. Literally, it is to rub or wear away.
XXXVII “more than” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
XXXVIII “eight” = okto. 10x in NT. This is eight.
XXXIX “ten” = deka. This is ten, a number associated with perfection (to a lesser extent than the number seven). It is where “decade” and “decathlon” come from.

he went downXL to Caesarea; the next dayXLI he took his seatXLII

Notes on verse 6b

XL “went down” = katabaino. Related to “arrived in” and “went up” in v1 & “come down with” in v5. See note XXXI above.
XLI “next day” = epaurion. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, something fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is tomorrow, the next day.
XLII “took…seat” = kathizo. Related to “ambush” in v3. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base); from hedra (see note XX above)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.

on the tribunalXLIII and orderedXLIV Paul to be brought.XLV 

Notes on verse 6c

XLIII “tribunal” = bema. Related to “arrived in” and “went up” in v1 & “come down with” in v5 & “went down” in v6. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (see note IV above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See
XLIV “ordered” = keleuo. Related to “appealed” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLV “brought” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.

When he arrived,XLVI the Jews who had gone down from Jerusalem surroundedXLVII him, bringingXLVIII manyXLIX

Notes on verse 7a

XLVI “arrived” = paraginomai. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
XLVII “surrounded” = periistemi. 4x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is to stand around, surround, be a bystander, avoid.
XLVIII “bringing” = kataphero. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to bring down, overcome, vote or make a verdict, pull down into sleep.
XLIX “many” = polus. Related to “more than” in v6. See note XXXVII above.

seriousL chargesLI against him, which they couldLII not prove.LIII 

Notes on verse 7b

L “serious” = barus. Related to “arrived in” and “went up” in v1 & “come down with” in v5 & “went down” and “tribunal” in v6. 6x in NT. Perhaps from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (foot, step, pace) {from baino (see note IV above). This is heavy, burdensome, oppressive, serious. It is weighty in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “charges” = aitiama. Related to “requested” in v3. 1x in NT. From aitia (a cause or reason; a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case); from aiteo (see note XV above). This is a charge, accusation, or complaint.
LII “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LIII “prove” = apodeiknumi. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to demonstrate or show with proof. It is showing that something is what it claims.

Paul said in his defense,LIV “I have in no way committed an offenseLV against the lawLVI of the Jews or against the templeLVII or against the emperor.”LVIII 

Notes on verse 8

LIV “said in…defense” = apologeomai. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court. It is to present proof or evidence using sound logic.
LV “committed an offense” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
LVI “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
LVII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v2. From hieros (see note IX above). This is the word for temple.
LVIII “emperor” = Kaisar. Related to “Caesarea” in v1. See note VII above.

But Festus, wishingLIX to doLX the Jews a favor, askedLXI Paul, “Do you wish to go up to Jerusalem and be triedLXII there before me on these charges?” 

Notes on verse 9

LIX “wishing” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LX “do” = katatithemi. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay down, seek favor, deposit.
LXI “asked” = apokrinomai. Same as “replied” in v4. See note XXIV above.
LXII “tried” = krino. Related to “replied” in v4. See note XXIV above.

10 Paul said, “I am standingLXIII before the emperor’s tribunal; this is where I shouldLXIV be tried. I have done no wrongLXV to the Jews, as you very wellLXVI know.LXVII 

Notes on verse 10

LXIII “standing” = histemi. Related to “surrounded” in v7. See note XLVII above.
LXIV “should” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXV “done…wrong” = adikeo. Related to “prove” in v7. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (see note LIII above)}. This is to harm, damage, behave in an unjust way. It can also refer to an offender. It is moral wrong, especially caused by neglecting justice.
LXVI “very well” = kallion. 1x in NT. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is better than many.
LXVII “know” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.

11 Now ifLXVIII I am in the wrongLXIX and have committedLXX something

Notes on verse 11a

LXVIII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXIII above.
LXIX “am in the wrong” = adikeo. Same as “done…wrong” in v10. See note LXV above.
LXX “committed” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.

for which I deserveLXXI to die,LXXII I am not trying to escapeLXXIII death,LXXIV

Notes on verse 11b

LXXI “deserve” = axios. Literally, “worthy of death.” Related to “brought” in v6. From ago (see note XLV above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
LXXII “die” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
LXXIII “trying to escape” = paraiteomai. Related to “requested” in v3 & “charges” in v7. 12x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + aiteo (see note XV above). This is to beg off, refuse, avoid, request.
LXXIV “death” = apothnesko. Related to “die” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note LXXII above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

but if there is nothing to their chargesLXXV against me, no one canLXXVI turn me overLXXVII to them. I appealLXXVIII to the emperor.” 

Notes on verse 11c

LXXV “charges” = kategoreo. Same as “accuse” in v5. See note XXXV above.
LXXVI “can” = dunamai. Related to “authority” in v5. See note XXX above.
LXXVII “turn…over” = charizomai. Related to “favor” in v3. From charis (see note XVI above). This is to extend grace or favor, to grant forgiveness, to pardon or rescue.
LXXVIII “appeal” = epikaleo. Related to “appealed” in v2 & “ordered” in v6. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note XIV above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.

12 Then Festus, after he had conferredLXXIX with his council,LXXX replied, “You have appealedLXXXI to the emperor; to the emperor you will go.”LXXXII

Notes on verse 12

LXXIX “conferred” = sullaleo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}. This is to talk together, discuss.
LXXX “council” = sumboulion. 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.
LXXXI “appealed” = epikaleo. Same as “appeal” in v11. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXII “go” = poreuomai. Related to “go” in v4. See note XXVII above.

13 After several days had passed,LXXXIII KingLXXXIV AgrippaLXXXV

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXIII “passed” = diaginomai. Related to “arrived” in v7. 3x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + ginomai (see note XLVI above). This is to go through, often referring to the passage of time. It can also mean to intervene or elapse.
LXXXIV “King” = Basileus. Related to “arrived in” and “went up” in v1 & “come down with” in v5 & “went down” and “tribunal” in v6 & “serious” in v7. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note IV above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
LXXXV “Agrippa” = Agrippas. Related to “brought” in v6 & “deserve” in v11. 11x in NT – all in Acts. Perhaps from agrios (related to the country or fields. It can mean natural, wild, or fierce); {from agros (a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle; a farm or lands); perhaps from ago (see note XLV above)} + hippos (horse) OR from agrippos (wildish olive); {from agros (see above)}. This is Arippa, meaning “wild-horse tamer” or “beginning to be cultivated” or “originally wild but becoming bultured by prolonged use.” See

and BerniceLXXXVI arrivedLXXXVII at Caesarea to welcomeLXXXVIII Festus. 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXVI “Bernice” = Bernike. Related to “bringing” in v7. 3x in NT – all in Acts. Perhaps a Macedonian form of the words phero (see note XLVIII above) + nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is Bernice or Berenice, whose name means “victorious” or “bringer of victory.”
LXXXVII “arrived” = katantao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.
LXXXVIII “welcome” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.

14 Since they were staying there severalLXXXIX days, Festus laid Paul’s caseXC beforeXCI the king, saying,XCII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXIX “several” = pleion. Same as “more than” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
XC “case” = ho + kata. Literally, “the things relating to.”
XCI “laid…before” = anatithemi. Related to “do” in v9. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + tithemi (see note LX above). This is to lay before, communicate, submit, propound.
XCII “saying” = lego. Related to “said in…defense” in v8. See note LIV above.

“There is a man here who was leftXCIII in prisonXCIV by Felix.XCV 

Notes on verse 14b

XCIII “left” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
XCIV “prison” = desmios. Related to “should” in v10. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (see note LXIV above). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
XCV “Felix” = Phelix. 9x in NT– all in Acts. From Latin felix (fruitful, fertile, abundant, lucky, happy); from feo (to bear, produce). This is Felix, meaning “fortunate” or “happy” or “lucky” or “fruitful.” See

15 When I wasXCVI in Jerusalem, the chief priests and the eldersXCVII of the Jews informedXCVIII me about him and askedXCIX for a sentenceC against him. 

Notes on verse 15

XCVI “was” = ginomai. Related to “arrived” in v7 & “passed” in v13. See note XLVI above.
XCVII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XCVIII “informed” = emphanizo. Same as “gave…a report” in v2. See note XII above.
XCIX “asked” = aiteo. Same as “requested” in v3. See note XV above.
C “sentence” = katadikazo. Related to “prove” in v7 & “done…wrong” in v10. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + dike (see note LXV above). This is to condemn, to judge as in giving a sentence. It is judgment in a particular, personal instance – to find guilty.

16 I toldCI them that it was not the customCII of the RomansCIII

Notes on verse 16a

CI “told” = apokrinomai. Same as “replied” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CII “custom” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
CIII “Romans” = Rhomaios. 12x in NT. From rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome, Roman, or Roman citizen. See

to hand overCIV anyoneCV before the accused had metCVI the accusersCVII faceCVIII to face

Notes on verse 16b

CIV “hand over” = charizomai. Same as “turn…over” in v11. See note LXXVII above.
CV “anyone” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v5. Probably from aner (see note XXXIV above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CVI “met” = echo. Related to “could” in v7. See note LII above.
CVII “accusers” = kategoros. Related to “accuse” in v5. 7x in NT. See note XXXV above.
CVIII “face” = prosopon. Related to “anyone” in v16. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note CV above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.

and had been given an opportunityCIX to makeCX a defenseCXI against the charge.CXII 

Notes on verse 16c

CIX “opportunity” = topos. Related to “wrong” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CX “make” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CXI “defense” = apologia. Related to “said in…defense” in v8 & “saying” in v14. 8x in NT. From apologeomai (see note LIV above). This is a verbal defense, especially in a legal setting, that is well reasoned to respond to the issue at hand. It is an apology, clearing, plea, or vindication.
CXII “charge” = egklema. Related to “appealed” in v2 & “ordered” in v6 & “appeal” in v11. 2x in NT. From egkaleo (to call in, accuse, call to account); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + kaleo (see note XIV above)}. This is an accusation or charge.

17 So when they metCXIII here, I lost no timeCXIV but on the nextCXV day took my seat on the tribunal and ordered the man to be brought.CXVI 

Notes on verse 17

CXIII “met” = sunerchomai. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CXIV “lost no time” = anabole + medeis + poieo. Literally, “made no delay.” Anabole is 1x in NT. From anaballo (to postpone, defer); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a postponement or delay. Medeis is literally “not even one.” Poieo is the same as “planning” in v3. See note XIX above.
CXV “next” = hexes. Related to “could” in v7 & “met” in v16. 5x in NT. From echo (see note LII above). This is next, soon, following.
CXVI “brought” = ago. Same as “brought” in v6. See note XLV above.

18 When the accusers stood up, they did not chargeCXVII him with any of the crimesCXVIII that I was expecting.CXIX 

Notes on verse 18

CXVII “charge” = aitia + phero. Aitia is related to “requested” in v3 & “charges” in v7 & “trying to escape” in v11. See note LI above. Phero is related to “bringing” in v7 & “Bernice” in v13. See note XLVIII above.
CXVIII “crimes” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
CXIX “expecting” = huponoeo. Related to “know” in v10. 3x in NT– all in Acts. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note LXVII above)}. This is to conjecture, think, expect.

19 Instead, they hadCXX certain points of disagreementCXXI with him about their ownCXXII religionCXXIII

Notes on verse 19a

CXX “had” = echo. Same as “met” in v16. See note CVI above.
CXXI “points of disagreement” = zetema. 5x in NT– all in Acts. From zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is a question, controversy, issue, debate, search.
CXXII “their own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CXXIII “religion” = deisidaimonia. 1x in NT. From deisidaimon (fearing the gods); {from deido (to fear) + daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); {perhaps from daio (giving out destinies)}}. This is literally “fearing demons” or “fearing gods.” It refers to a religion or superstition.

and about a certain Jesus,CXXIV who had diedCXXV but whom Paul assertedCXXVI to be alive.CXXVII 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXXV “died” = thnesko. Related to “die” and “death” in v11. 9x in NT. See note LXXII above.
CXXVI “asserted” = phasko. Related to “gave…a report” in v2 & “said” in v5. 3x in NT. Probably from the same as phemi (see note XXIX above). This is to affirm, assert, or profess.
CXXVII “be alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

20 Since I was at a lossCXXVIII how to investigate these questions,CXXIX I asked whether he wishedCXXX to goCXXXI to Jerusalem and be tried there on these charges. 

Notes on verse 20

CXXVIII “was at a loss” = aporeo. Related to “go” in v4 & “go” in v12. 6x in NT. From a (not) + poros (see note XXVII above). This is feeling like you have no way out, being perplexed or doubting.
CXXIX “questions” = zetesis. Related to “points of disagreement” in v19. 8x in NT. From zeteo (see note CXXI above). This is a search, controversy, discussion, or debate.
CXXX “wished” = boulomai. Related to “council” in v12. See note LXXX above.
CXXXI “go” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v12. See note LXXXII above.

21 But when Paul had appealedCXXXII to be kept in custodyCXXXIII for the decisionCXXXIV

Notes on verse 21a

CXXXII “appealed” = epikaleo. Same as “appeal” in v11. See note LXXVIII above.
CXXXIII “kept in custody” = tereo. Same as “kept” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXXIV “decision” = diagnosis. Related to “know” in v10 & “expecting” in v18. 1x in NT. From diaginosko (to distinguish, determine, thoroughly know, enquire) {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ginosko (see note LXVII above)}. This is a distinguishing or discernment. It can be a judicial examination or diagnosis.

of his Imperial Majesty,CXXXV I ordered him to be heldCXXXVI until I could sendCXXXVII him to the emperor.” 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXV “Imperial Majesty” = Sebastos. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From sebazomai (to fear, be in awe, worship, adore); from sebo (to worship, revere, adore, be devout; properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect). This is reverend, august, or venerated. It is the Greek word that was officially used for the title Augustus.
CXXXVI “held” = tereo. Same as “kept” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXXVII “send” = anapempo. Related to “transferred” in v3. 5x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + pempo (see note XVIII above). This is to send up, back, or again.

22 Agrippa said to Festus, “I would likeCXXXVIII to hear the manCXXXIX myself.”

“Tomorrow,”CXL he said,CXLI “you will hearCXLII him.”

Notes on verse 22

CXXXVIII “would like” = boulomai. Same as “wished” in v20. See note CXXX above.
CXXXIX “man” = anthropos. Same as “anyone” in v16. See note CV above.
CXL “tomorrow” = aurion. Related to “next day” in v6. 14x in NT. See note XLI above.
CXLI “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v5. See note XXIX above.
CXLII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

23 So on the next dayCXLIII Agrippa and Bernice cameCXLIV with greatCXLV pomp,CXLVI

Notes on verse 23a

CXLIII “next day” = epaurion. Same as “next day” in v6. See note XLI above.
CXLIV “came” = erchomai. Related to “met” in v17. See note CXIII above.
CXLV “great” = polus. Same as “many” in v7. See note XLIX above.
CXLVI “pomp” = phantasia. Related to “gave…a report” in v2 & “said” in v5 & “asserted” in v19. 1x in NT. From phantazo (to become visible or apparent); related to phaino (see note XII above). This is imagination or a display of fantasy.

and they enteredCXLVII the audience hallCXLVIII with the military tribunesCXLIX

Notes on verse 23b

CXLVII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “met” in v17 & “came” in v23. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note CXIII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLVIII “audience hall” = akroaterion. 1x in NT. From akroates (a hearer); from akraomai (to listen). This is a place where listening happens so it could be an auditorium, courtroom, or recital hall.
CXLIX “military tribunes” = chiliarchos. Related to “province” in v1 & “chief priests” in v2. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (see note V above)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.

and the prominentCL menCLI of the city.CLII Then Festus gave the orderCLIII and Paul was brought in.CLIV 

Notes on verse 23c

CL “prominent” = exoche. Related to “could” in v7 & “met” in v16 & “next” in v17. 1x in NT. From execho (to project from); {from ek (from, from out of) + echo (see note LII above)}. This is a projection. Figuratively, it is excellence or prominence.
CLI “men” = aner. Same as “man” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CLII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CLIII “gave the order” = keleuo. Same as “ordered” in v6. See note XLIV above.
CLIV “brought in” = ago. Same as “brought” in v6. See note XLV above.

24 And Festus said,CLV “King Agrippa and allCLVI here present withCLVII us, youCLVIII seeCLIX this man

Notes on verse 24a

CLV “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v5. See note XXIX above.
CLVI “all” = pas. This is all or every.
CLVII “here present with” = sumpareimi. Related to “is” in v5. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pareimi (to be present, have come) {from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (see note XXXII above)}. This is to be present together now.
CLVIII {untranslated} = aner. Literally, “men.” Same as “man” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CLIX “see” = theoreo. Related to “kept” in v4. See note XXV above.

about whom the wholeCLX JewishCLXI communityCLXII

Notes on verse 24b

CLX “whole” = hapas. Related to “all” in v24. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note CLVI above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CLXI “Jewish” = Ioudaios. Same as “Jews” in v2. See note XI above.
CLXII “community” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.

petitionedCLXIII me, both in Jerusalem and here, shoutingCLXIV that he oughtCLXV not to liveCLXVI any longer. 

Notes on verse 24c

CLXIII “petitioned” = entugchano. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about)}. This is to encounter, appeal, please, chance upon, confer with, intercede, or petition. It is to meet someone in order to consult with them.
CLXIV “shouting” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
CLXV “ought” = dei. Same as “should” in v10. See note LXIV above.
CLXVI “live” = zao. Same as “be alive” in v19. See note CXXVII above.

25 But I foundCLXVII that he had doneCLXVIII nothing deservingCLXIX death,CLXX and when he appealed toCLXXI his Imperial Majesty,

Notes on verse 25a

CLXVII “found” = katalambano. Related to “make” in v16. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (see note CX above). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.
CLXVIII “done” = prasso. Same as “committed” in v11. See note LXX above.
CLXIX “deserving” = axios. Same as “deserve” in v11. See note LXXI above.
CLXX “death” = thanatos. Same as “die” in v11. See note LXXII above.
CLXXI “appealed to” = epikaleo. Same as “appeal” in v11. See note LXXVIII above.

I decidedCLXXII to sendCLXXIII him. 26 But I have nothing definiteCLXXIV to writeCLXXV to our sovereignCLXXVI about him.

Notes on verses 25b-26a

CLXXII “decided” = krino. Same as “tried” in v9. See note LXII above.
CLXXIII “send” = pempo. Related to “transferred” in v3 & “send” in v21. See note XVIII above.
CLXXIV “definite” = asphales. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail). This is certain, reliable, secure, or definite. It is literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip. It is used in a is literal or figurative sense. It also shares a root with the word “asphalt.”
CLXXV “write” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CLXXVI “sovereign” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

Therefore I have broughtCLXXVII him before all of you, and especiallyCLXXVIII before you, King Agrippa, so that, after we have examinedCLXXIX him, I may have something to write, 

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXVII “brought” = proago. Related to “brought” in v6 & “deserve” in v11 & “Agrippa” in v13. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XLV above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CLXXVIII “especially” = malista. 12x in NT. From mala (very, very much). This is most, especially, chiefly.
CLXXIX “examined” = anakrisis+ ginomai. Anakrisis is related to “replied” in v4 & “tried” in v9. 1x in NT. From anakrino (to scrutinize, examine, investigate, judge, or discern; properly, very thorough investigation or careful study; investigating crimes; interrogation that uses torture). This is a preliminary inquiry, an investigation before the trial. Ginomai is the same as “was” in v15. See note XCVI above.

27 for it seemsCLXXX to me unreasonableCLXXXI to sendCLXXXII a prisoner without indicatingCLXXXIII the chargesCLXXXIV against him.”

Notes on verse 27

CLXXX “seems” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CLXXXI “unreasonable” = alogos. Related to “said in…defense” in v8 & “saying” in v14 & “defense” in v16. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + logos (see note LIV above). This is without reason, irrational, absurd.
CLXXXII “send” = pempo. Same as “send” in v25. See note CLXXIII above.
CLXXXIII “indicating” = semaino. 6x in NT. From sema (a sign or mark). This is to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known, communicate. In John’s Gospel miracles are referred to as signs.
CLXXXIV “charges” = aitia. Same as “charge” in v18. See note CXVII above.

Image credit: “Opening of the Roman Market in Braga, Portugal” by Joseolgon, 2010.

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