Acts 7

Acts 7


Then the high priestI asked him, “AreII these things so?” 

And Stephen replied:III

Notes on verses 1-2a

I “high priest” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
II “are” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
III “replied” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.

IVBrothersV and fathers,VI listenVII to me.

Notes on verse 2b

IV {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
V “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
VI “fathers” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
VII “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

The GodVIII of gloryIX appearedX

Notes on verse 2c

VIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
IX “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
X “appeared” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

to our ancestorXI AbrahamXII when he wasXIII in Mesopotamia,XIV

Notes on verse 2d

XI “ancestor” = pater. Same as “fathers” in v2. See note VI above.
XII “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
XIII “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIV “Mesopotamia” = Mesopotamia. 2x in NT. From mesos (middle, among, center); {perhaps from meta (with, among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action)} + potamos (a river, brook, or water; a riverbed flowing with heavy rain or melted snow, like an arroyo); {from pino (to drink)}. This is Mesopotamia, the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Literally, it means “between rivers.” See

before he livedXV in Haran,XVI and said to him, ‘LeaveXVII your countryXVIII

Notes on verses 2e-3a

XV “lived” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
XVI “Haran” = Charran. 2x in NT. From Assyrian arranu (road, crossroads, junction of trade routes) OR from Hebrew charar (to be scorched, burn, glow, dry up; figuratively, to show passion). This is Haran or Charran, meaning crossroads. It is also a proper name meaning parched.
XVII “leave” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XVIII “country” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

and your relativesXIX and goXX to the landXXI that I will showXXII you.’ 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “relatives” = suggeneia. 3x in NT. From suggenes (relative, kinsman, offspring, someone from the same stock; a fellow countryman); {from sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); {from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth)}}. This is relatives, family, or kin.
XX “go” = deuro. 9x in NT. This is come here, hither, hence, now, until now.
XXI “land” = ge. Same as “country” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XXII “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.

Then he left the country of the ChaldeansXXIII and settledXXIV in Haran. After his father died,XXV God had him moveXXVI from there to this country in which you are now living. 

Notes on verse 4

XXIII “Chaldeans” = Chaldaios. 1x in NT. Related to Hebrew Kasdi (Chaldeans – inhabitants of Babylon; can also refer to an astrologer); {from Kesed (Kesed, a son of Nahor)} OR from Akkadian mat Kaldu or Kashdu (Chaldea). This is a Chaldean. See
XXIV “settled” = katoikeo. Same as “lived” in v2. See note XV above. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (see note XV above). This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
XXV “died” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
XXVI “move” = metoikizo. Related to “lived” in v2. 2x in NT. From metoikos (emigrant); {from metoikeo (to move to another place); {from meta (with, among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action) + oikos (see note XV above)}}. This is to transport, exile to, take off to colonize or as a prisoner.

He did not giveXXVII him any of it as a heritage,XXVIII not even a foot’sXXIX length,XXX

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVIII “heritage” = kleronomia. 14x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is inheritance, heritage, or possession.
XXIX “foot’s” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
XXX “length” = bema. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See

but promisedXXXI to give it to him as his possessionXXXII and to his descendantsXXXIII after him, even though he had no child.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXI “promised” = epaggellomai. 15x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting.
XXXII “possession” = kataschesis. Related to “are” in v1. 2x in NT. From katecho (to hold fast, bind, possess, restrain, arrest, suppress; to hold down in a literal or figurative sense; to hold something in one’s memory); {from kata (down, against, throughout) + echo (see note II above)}. This is something that one holds i.e. possession or occupancy.
XXXIII “descendants” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
XXXIV “child” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

And God spokeXXXV in these terms, that his descendants would be resident aliensXXXVI in a country belonging to others,XXXVII who would enslaveXXXVIII them

Notes on verse 6a

XXXV “spoke” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XXXVI “resident aliens” = paroikos. Related to “lived” in v2 & “move” in v4. 4x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oikos (see note XV above). This is a stranger, foreigner. Literally, it is someone who lives near on a temporary basis. It is one who is not a citizen and does not have full rights or identification.
XXXVII “belonging to others” = allotrios. 14x in NT. From allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type). This is strange, another foreign. It is something that belongs to someone else. It could mean hostile or alien.
XXXVIII “enslave” = douloo. 8x in NT. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to enslave, cause something to be subject or bound. It focuses on the impact or result of being enslaved. It can be literal or figurative.

and mistreatXXXIX them during four hundredXL years.XLI 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXIX “mistreat” = kakoo. 6x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is to afflict, mistreat, hurt, embitter, harm, injure. Figuratively, it can mean to exasperate or entreat evil.
XL “four hundred” = tetrakosioi. 4x in NT– 3x in Acts & 1x in Galatians. From tessares (four; perhaps figurative for universality) + Hekaton (100). This is four hundred, which might imply universality.
XLI “years” = etos. This is year, age.

‘But I will judgeXLII the peopleXLIII whom they serve,’XLIV said God,

Notes on verse 7a

XLII “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
XLIII “people” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XLIV “serve” = douleuo. Related to “enslave” in v6. From doulos (see note XXXVIII above). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.

‘and after that they shall come outXLV and worshipXLVI me in this place.’XLVII 

Notes on verse 7b

XLV “come out” = exerchomai. Same as “leave” in v3. See note XVII above.
XLVI “worship” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
XLVII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

Then he gave him the covenantXLVIII of circumcision.XLIX And so Abraham became the fatherL

Notes on verse 8a

XLVIII “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
XLIX “circumcision” = peritome. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.
L “became the father” = gennao. Related to “relatives” in v3. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (see note XIX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

of IsaacLI and circumcisedLII him on the eighthLIII day,LIV

Notes on verse 8b

LI “Isaac” = Isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
LII “circumcised” = peritemno. Related to “circumcision” in v8. 18x in NT. See note XLIX above.
LIII “eighth” = ogdoos. 5x in NT. From okto (eight). This is an eighth.
LIV “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

and Isaac did likewise to JacobLV and Jacob to the twelveLVI patriarchs.LVII

Notes on verse 8c

LV “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LVI “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
LVII “patriarchs” = patriarches. Related to “father” in v2 & to “high priest” in v1. 4x in NT. From patria (lineage, family, kindred, nation); {from pater (see note VI above)} + archo (see note I above). This is patriarch, founder, or head of a family.

“The patriarchs, jealousLVIII of Joseph,LIX soldLX him into Egypt;LXI but God was with him 

Notes on verse 9

LVIII “jealous” = zeloo. 12x in NT. From zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy.
LIX “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
LX “sold” = apodidomi. Related to “give” in v5. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XXVII above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
LXI “Egypt” = Aiguptos. From Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (Egypt; literally “the temple of the ka of Ptah in Memphis, Egypt”); from ḥwt (hut, large structure, palace, temple, estate) + ka (“a spiritual part of the soul in Egyptian mythology, which survived after death”; “something like ‘life-force’; the part of the soul which the living have and the dead do not…goodwill – especially of the king) + ptah (“a god of creativity and craftsmen, sometimes also identified with gods of death and the birth of the sun”; “Ptah, creator god and patron of craftsmen, worshipped at Memphis”). This is Egypt, meaning “the temple of the ka of Ptah.” See

10 and rescuedLXII him from allLXIII his afflictionsLXIV

Notes on verse 10a

LXII “rescued” = exaireo. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to remove, pluck, tear, or choose. Properly, it refers to a complete removal or a complete rescue.
LXIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LXIV “afflictions” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

and enabledLXV him to win favorLXVI and to show wisdomLXVII when he stood before Pharaoh,LXVIII

Notes on verse 10b

LXV “enabled” = didomi. Same as “give” in v5. See note XXVII above.
LXVI “favor” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LXVII “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
LXVIII “Pharaoh” = Pharao. 5x in NT. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See

kingLXIX of Egypt, who appointedLXX him rulerLXXI over Egypt and over allLXXII his household.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 10c

LXIX “king” = basileus. Related to “length” in v5. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note XXX above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
LXX “appointed” = kathistemi. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge, designate.
LXXI “ruler” = hegeomai. Related to “promised” in v5. From ago (see note XXXI above). This is to think, suppose, have an opinion. It is to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority. It can refer to one who commands in an official capacity. This word shares a root with the word “hegemony.”
LXXII “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LXXIII “household” = oikos. Related to “lived” in v2 & “move” in v4 & “resident aliens” in v6. See note XV above.

11 Now there cameLXXIV a famineLXXV throughoutLXXVI Egypt and CanaanLXXVII

Notes on verse 11a

LXXIV “came” = erchomai. Related to “leave” in v3. See note XVII above.
LXXV “famine” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.
LXXVI “throughout” = epi + holos. Literally, “upon all.” Holos is the same as “all” in v10. See note LXXII above.
LXXVII “Canaan” = Chanaan. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From Hebrew Kna’an (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan or Chanaan, perhaps meaning lowlands. See

and greatLXXVIII suffering,LXXIX and our ancestors could findLXXX no food.LXXXI 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXVIII “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXXIX “suffering” = thlipsis. Same as “afflictions” in v10. See note LXIV above.
LXXX “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXXI “food” = chortasma. 1x in NT. From chortazo (to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy; with the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food); from chortos (food, grass, grain, hay; a place for feeding, a court, garden; by implication, a pasture or vegetation). This is provision or food.

12 But when Jacob heardLXXXII that there was grainLXXXIII in Egypt, he sentLXXXIV our ancestors there on their firstLXXXV visit. 

Notes on verse 12

LXXXII “heard” = akouo. Same as “listen” in v2. See note VII above.
LXXXIII “grain” = sitos. 15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.
LXXXIV “sent” = exapostello. Related to “appointed” in v10. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); from histemi (see note LXX above)}. This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.
LXXXV “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.

13 On the secondLXXXVI visit Joseph made himself knownLXXXVII to his brothers, and Joseph’s familyLXXXVIII becameLXXXIX knownXC to Pharaoh. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXVI “second” = deuteros. Related to “twelve” in v8. From duo (see note LVI above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
LXXXVII “made…known” = anagnorizo. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + gnorizo (to declare, know, discover, make known); {from ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is to recognize or make oneself recognized.
LXXXVIII “family” = genos. Related to “relatives” in v3 & “became the father” in v8 & “became” in v13. See note XIX above.
LXXXIX “became” = ginomai. Related to “relatives” in v3 & “became the father” in v8. See note XIX above.
XC “known” = phaneros. Related to “replied” in v2. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note III above); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.

14 Then Joseph sentXCI and invitedXCII his father Jacob and allXCIII his relatives to come to him,

Notes on verse 14a

XCI “sent” = apostello. Related to “appointed” in v10 & “sent” in v12. See note LXXXIV above.
XCII “invited” = metakaleo. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to send for, invite, summon.
XCIII “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXIII above.

seventyXCIV-fiveXCV in all;XCVI 

Notes on verse 14b

XCIV “seventy” = hebdomekonta. Related to “twelve” in v8. 5x in NT. From hebdomos (seventh); {from hepta (seven or seventh; figuratively, the number of completeness or perfection)} + deka (see note LVI above). This is seventy.
XCV “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
XCVI “all” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

15 so Jacob went downXCVII to Egypt. He himself diedXCVIII there as well as our ancestors, 16 and their bodies were brought backXCIX to ShechemC

Notes on verses 15-16a

XCVII “went down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XXX above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVIII “died” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
XCIX “brought back” = metatithemi. Related to “covenant” in v8. 6x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + tithemi (see note XLVIII above). This is to transfer, bring back, desert, translate, pervert.
C “Shechem” = Suchem. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Shekem (Shechem, meaning “ridge”); from the same as shekem (shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens; figuratively, the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion); from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is Suchem, which is to say Shechem. It is a city whose name may mean “ridge” or “shoulder” or “personal interests” or “back” or “having a sense of responsibility.” See

and laidCI in the tombCII that Abraham had boughtCIII for a sumCIV

Notes on verse 16b

CI “laid” = tithemi. Related to “covenant” in v8 & “brought back” in v16. See note XLVIII above.
CII “tomb” = mnema. 8x in NT. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is memorial, tomb, or monument.
CIII “bought” = oneomai. 1x in NT. From onos (price, sum). This is to buy or purchase.
CIV “sum” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.

of silverCV from the sonsCVI of HamorCVII in Shechem.

Notes on verse 16c

CV “silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
CVI “sons” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CVII “Hamor” = Hemmor. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Chamor (Hamor, Chamor); from chamor (male donkey); {from chamar (to be red, blush) or from chamar (to ferment, boil, glow red, daub pitch)}. This is Hemmor, Emmor, or Hamor, meaning “donkey” or “red one” or “rudiment.” See

17 “But as the timeCVIII drew nearCIX for the fulfillment of the promiseCX that God had madeCXI to Abraham,

Notes on verse 17a

CVIII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CIX “drew near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
CX “promise” = epaggelia. Related to “promised” in v5 & “ruler” in v10. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (see note XXXI above). This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
CXI “made” = homologeo. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (to say, speak, tell)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.

our peopleCXII in Egypt increasedCXIII and multipliedCXIV 

Notes on verse 17b

CXII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CXIII “increased” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
CXIV “multiplied” = plethuno. 12x in NT. From plethos (fullness, multitude, great number); from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to increase, multiply, or abound. It is filling to its greatest potential or utmost capacity.

18 untilCXV anotherCXVI king who had not knownCXVII Joseph ruled over Egypt. 

Notes on verse 18

CXV {untranslated} = anistemi. Related to “appointed” in v10 & “sent” in v12 & “sent” in v14. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LXX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXVI “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CXVII “known” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

19 He dealt craftilyCXVIII with our peopleCXIX and forcedCXX

Notes on verse 19a

CXVIII “dealt craftily” = katasophizomai. Related to “wisdom” in v10. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + sophizo (to teach, give wisdom, devise in a clever way); {from sophos (see note LXVII above)}. This is to outwit, circumvent, deal with in a shrewd way that presses one’s own advantage.
CXIX “people” = genos. Same as “family” in v13. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXX “forced” = kakoopoieo. Kakoo is the same as “mistreat” in v6. See note XXXIX above. Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

our ancestors to abandonCXXI their infantsCXXII so that they would die.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXI “abandon” = ekthetos. Related to “covenant” in v8 & “brought back” and “laid” in v16. 1x in NT. From ektithemi (to set forth, expound, abandon, declare); {from ek (from, from out of) + tithemi (see note XLVIII above)}. This is to cast out, put out, abandon, leave in the elements.
CXXII “infants” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIII “die” = me + zoogoneo. Zoogoneo is related to “relatives” in v3 & “became the father” in v8 & “became” and “family” in v13. 3x in NT. From the same as zoon (literally a thing that is alive; an animal or living creature); {from zao (to live literally or figuratively)} + ginomai (see note XIX above). This is to survive, to give birth or life to something. It can also mean to keep something alive or rescue it.

20 At this timeCXXIV MosesCXXV was born,CXXVI and he was beautifulCXXVII before God.

Notes on verse 20a

CXXIV “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CXXV “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
CXXVI “born” = gennao. Same as “became the father” in v8. See note L above.
CXXVII “beautiful” = asteios. 2x in NT– both times in reference to Moses. From astu (city). This is related to the city, which would imply urbane, beautiful, clever, elegant.

For threeCXXVIII monthsCXXIX he was brought upCXXX in his father’s house,CXXXI 

Notes on verse 20b

CXXVIII “three” = treis. This is three or three times.
CXXIX “months” = men. 18x in NT. This is a month, as determined by the moon.
CXXX “brought up” = anatrepho. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + trepho (to bring up, nourish, nurse; properly, to enlarge through good feeding); {perhaps related to trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is rear, nurture, educate, raise.
CXXXI “house” = oikos. Same as “household” in v10. See note LXXIII above.

21 and when he was abandoned,CXXXII Pharaoh’s daughterCXXXIII adoptedCXXXIV him and brought him upCXXXV as her own son. 

Notes on verse 21

CXXXII “abandoned” = ektithemi. Related to “covenant” in v8 & “brought back” and “laid” in v16 & “abandon” in v19. 4x in NT. See note CXXI above.
CXXXIII “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
CXXXIV “adopted” = anaireo. Related to “rescued” in v10. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (see note LXII above). This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
CXXXV “bought…up” = anatrepho. Same as “brought up” in v20. See note CXXX above.

22 So Moses was instructedCXXXVI in allCXXXVII the wisdom of the EgyptiansCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXVI “instructed” = paideuo. 13x in NT. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). Properly, this is training or teaching children so it is educate, correct, discipline, and punish. This is the root of “pedagogy.”
CXXXVII “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXIII above.
CXXXVIII “Egyptians” = Aiguptios. Related to “Egypt” in v9. 5x in NT – 4x in Acts & 1x in Hebrews. From Aiguptos (see note LXI above). This is Egyptian. See

and was powerfulCXXXIX in his wordsCXL and deeds.CXLI

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXIX “powerful” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CXL “words” = logos. Related to “made” in v17. From lego (see note CXI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXLI “deeds” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

23 “When he wasCXLII forty yearsCXLIII old,CXLIV

Notes on verse 23a

CXLII “was” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXLIII “forty years” = tessarakontaetes. Related to “years” in v6 & to “four hundred” in v6 & to “twelve” in v8 & “seventy” in v14. 2x in NT – both in Acts. Related to tesserakontaetes (related to forty years, forty); {from tesserakonta (forty); {from tessares (see note XL above) + deka (see note LVI above)} + etos (see note XLI above)}. This is a duration of time of forty years.
CXLIV “old” = chronos. Same as “time” in v17. See note CVIII above.

it cameCXLV into his heartCXLVI to visitCXLVII

Notes on verse 23b

CXLV “came” = anabaino. Related to “length” in v5 & “king” in v10 & “went down” in v15. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note XXX above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CXLVI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXLVII “visit” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.

his kinfolk,CXLVIII the Israelites.CXLIX 24 When he sawCL one of them being wronged,CLI

Notes on verses 23c-24a

CXLVIII “kinsfolk” = adelphos. Same as “brothers” in v2. See note V above.
CXLIX “Israelites” = huios + Israel. Literally, “children of Israel.” Huios is the same as “sons” in v16. See note CVI above. Israel is from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CL “saw” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v2. See note X above.
CLI “wronged” = adikeo. Related to “show” in v3. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (see note XXII above)}. This is to harm, damage, behave in an unjust way. It can also refer to an offender. It is moral wrong, especially caused by neglecting justice.

he defendedCLII the oppressedCLIII man and avengedCLIV him by striking downCLV the Egyptian. 

Notes on verse 24b

CLII “defended” = amunomai. 1x in NT. This is to defend, resist, assist, protect.
CLIII “oppressed” = kataponeo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); {from penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread)}. This is to weary, exhaust, oppress, harass. It can be wearing down from work or suffering.
CLIV “avenged” = poieo + ekdikesis. Poieo is the same as “forced” in v19. See note CXX above. Ekdikesis is related to “show” in v3 & “wronged” in v24. 9x in NT. From ekdikeo (to defend, vindicate, dole out justice, avenge; to retaliate); from ekdikos (to avenge, enact a just punishment or judgment); {from ek (from, from out of) + dike (see note CLI above). This is vengeance, vindication, or punishment.
CLV “striking down” = patasso. Related to “instructed” in v22. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (see note CXXXVI above). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).

25 He supposedCLVI that his kinsfolk would understandCLVII that God throughCLVIII him was rescuingCLIX them, but they did not understand. 

Notes on verse 25

CLVI “supposed” = nomizo. Related to “heritage” in v5. 15x in NT. From nomos (see note XXVIII above). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CLVII “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
CLVIII {untranslated} = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CLIX “rescuing” = didomi + soteria. Literally, “giving salvation.” Didomi is the same as “give” in v5. See note XXVII above. Soteria is from soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

26 The nextCLX day he cameCLXI to some of them as they were quarrelingCLXII and tried to reconcileCLXIII them, saying, ‘Men,CLXIV you are brothers; why do you wrong each other?’ 

Notes on verse 26

CLX “next” = epiousa. 5x in NT – all from Acts. Perhaps related to epeimi (to com after, follow); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + related to exeimi (to go out, leave, escape)} OR from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + hiemi (to go). This is next, following – the following day or evening.
CLXI “came” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v2. See note X above.
CLXII “quarreling” = machomai. 4x in NT. This is to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel, to war.
CLXIII “tried to reconcile” = sunelaunoeis + eirene. Literally “urged…to peace.” Sunelauno is related to “belonging to others” in v6. 1x in NT. Related to sunallasso (to reconcile); {from sun (with, together with) + allasso (to change, transform); from allos (see note XXXVII above)} OR from sun (with, together with) + elauno (to propel or carry – to drive forward with oars or like the wind does; driven by a demon); {akin to elasson (smaller, worse, younger, lesser quality); from elachistos (smallest or littlest in the sense of size, amount, rank, dignity, and so on); from elachus (short); used as a superlative for mikros (small)}. This is to urge, comple, exhort. Eirene is perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
CLXIV “men” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note IV above.

27 But the man who was wronging his neighborCLXV pushed Moses aside,CLXVI saying, ‘Who madeCLXVII you a rulerCLXVIII and a judgeCLXIX over us? 

Notes on verse 27

CLXV “neighbor” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
CLXVI “pushed…aide” = apotheo. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + otheo (to push away, show). This is to push away or cast away. Figuratively, it can mean to repulse, reject, or refuse.
CLXVII “made” = kathistemi. Same as “appointed” in v10. See note LXX above.
CLXVIII “ruler” = archon. Related to “high priest” in v1 & “patriarchs” in v8. From archo (see note I above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
CLXIX “judge” = dikastes. Related to “show” in v3 & “wronged” and “avenged” in v24. 2x in NT. From dikazo (to judge); related to dike (see note CLI above). This is a judge or judger.

28 Do you wantCLXX to killCLXXI me asCLXXII you killed the Egyptian yesterday?’CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 28

CLXX “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CLXXI “kill” = anaireo. Same as “adopted” in v21. See note CXXXIV above.
CLXXII “as” = hos + tropos. Literally, “the same way.” Tropos is related to “brought up” in v20. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (see note CXXX above). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.
CLXXIII “yesterday” = chthes. 3x in NT. From echtes (yesterday). This is literally yesterday or some time in the past.

29 When he heardCLXXIV this, Moses fledCLXXV and became a resident alien in the land of Midian.CLXXVI There he became the father of twoCLXXVII sons.

Notes on verse 29

CLXXIV “heard” = en + ho + logos. Literally, “at this remark.” Logos is from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CLXXV “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
CLXXVI “Midian” = Madiam. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Midyan (Midian, Midianite, meaning “strife” or “place of judgment”); from the same as midyan (brawling, contention); from the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midian, meaning “strife” or “place of judgment.” See  
CLXXVII “two” = duo. Related to “twelve” in v8 & “second” in v13. See note LVI above.

30 “Now when fortyCLXXVIII years had passed,CLXXIX an angelCLXXX appeared to him in the wildernessCLXXXI

Notes on verse 30a

CLXXVIII “forty” = tessarakonta. Related to “four hundred” in v6 & “forty years” in v23. See note CXLIII above.
CLXXIX “passed” = pleroo. Same as “was” in v23. See note CXLII above.
CLXXX “angel” = aggelos. Related to “promised” in v5 & “ruler” in v10 & “promise” in v17. See note XXXI above.
CLXXXI “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.

of MountCLXXXII Sinai,CLXXXIII in the flameCLXXXIV of a burningCLXXXV bush.CLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 30b

CLXXXII “Mount” = oros. Related to “rescued” in v10 & “adopted” in v21. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note LXII above). This is mountain or hill.
CLXXXIII “Sinai” = Sina. 4x in NT. From Hebrew Sinay (Sinai, meaning “bush of the Lord” or “muddy”); probably from the same as Sin (Sin, a city meaning “clay” or “bush); {perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay)}. This is Sinai, meaning “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See
CLXXXIV “flame” = phlox. 7x in NT. From phlego (to burn or flash). This is a flame or blaze. It is where the flowers of the same name take their name from.
CLXXXV “burning” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
CLXXXVI “bush” = batos. 5x in NT– 4x of the burning bush & 1x of a bramble bush. This is a bush, perhaps a thorn bush.

31 When Moses saw it, he was amazedCLXXXVII at the sight,CLXXXVIII and as he approachedCLXXXIX

Notes on verse 31a

CLXXXVII “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CLXXXVIII “sight” = horama. Related to “appeared” in v2. 12x in NT. From horao (see note X above). This is a sight, something seen, a vision. In the New Testament, it is always a supernatural vision.
CLXXXIX “approached” = proserchomai. Related to “leave” in v3 & “came” in v11. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XVII above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.

to look,CXC there cameCXCI the voiceCXCII of the Lord:CXCIII 

Notes on verse 31b

CXC “look” = katanoeo. Related to “made…known” in v13. 14x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is to consider, discern, perceive, notice, observe. It is to think through something thoroughly in order to come to a conclusion – fully concentrated thinking.
CXCI “came” = ginomai. Same as “became” in v13. See note LXXXIX above.
CXCII “voice” = phone. Related to “replied” in v2 & “known” in v13. Probably from phemi (see note III above); {from phao (see note III above) or phaino (see note XC above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXCIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

32 ‘I am the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.’ Moses beganCXCIV to trembleCXCV and did not dareCXCVI to look. 

Notes on verse 32

CXCIV “began” = ginomai. Same as “became” in v13. See note LXXXIX above.
CXCV “tremble” = entromos. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by with) + tromos (trembling, shaking, or quaking from fear); {from tremo (shaking, particularly from fear or dread); from treo (to dread or terrify)}. This is being afraid, shaking because of fear.
CXCVI “dare” = tolmao. Related to “died” in v15. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (see note XCVIII above). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.

33 Then the Lord said to him, ‘Take offCXCVII the sandalsCXCVIII from your feet, for the place where you are standingCXCIX is holyCC ground.CCI 

Notes on verse 33

CXCVII “take off” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
CXCVIII “sandals” = hupodema. Related to “enslave” in v6 & “serve” in v7. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (tsee note XXXVIII above)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
CXCIX “standing” = histemi. Related to “appointed” in v10 & “sent” in v12 & “sent” in v14 & {untranslated} in v18. See note LXX above.
CC “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CCI “ground” = ge. Same as “country” in v3. See note XVIII above.

34 I have surely seen the mistreatmentCCII of my peopleCCIII who are in Egypt and have heardCCIV their groaning,CCV

Notes on verse 34a

CCII “mistreatment” = kakosis. Related to “mistreat” in v6. 1x in NT. From kakoo (see note XXXIX above). This is misery, oppression, or mistreatment.
CCIII “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v17. See note CXII above.
CCIV “heard” = akouo. Same as “listen” in v2. See note VII above.
CCV “groaning” = stenagmos. Related to “appointed” in v10 & “sent” in v12 & “sent” in v14 & {untranslated} in v18 & “standing” in v33. 2x in NT. From stenazo (to sigh, complain, express grief; pressure or pain from bring something about as in childbirth) OR stenos (narrow, confined, constricted; confined because of obstacles); {probably from histemi (see note LXX above)}. This is groaning or sighing, particularly because of a situation that is bringing a lot of pressure.

and I have come downCCVI to rescue them. ComeCCVII now, I will sendCCVIII you to Egypt.’

35 “It was this Moses whom they rejectedCCIX when they said, ‘Who madeCCX you a rulerCCXI and a judge?’CCXII

Notes on verses 34b-35a

CCVI “come down” = katabaino. Same as “went down” in v15. See note XCVII above.
CCVII “come” = deuro. Same as “go” in v3. See note XX above.
CCVIII “send” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v14. See note XCI above.
CCIX “rejected” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
CCX “made” = kathistemi. Same as “made” in v10. See note LXX above.
CCXI “ruler” = archon. Same as “ruler” in v27. See note CLXVIII above.
CCXII “judge” = dikastes. Same as “judge” in v27. See note CLXIX above.

and whom God now sentCCXIII as both rulerCCXIV and liberatorCCXV throughCCXVI the angel who appeared to him in the bush. 

Notes on verse 35b

CCXIII “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v14. See note XCI above.
CCXIV “ruler” = archon. Same as “ruler” in v27. See note CLXVIII above.
CCXV “liberator” = lutrotes. Related to “take off” in v33. 1x in NT. From lutroo (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner);from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (see note CXCVII above). This is a redeemer or liberator. It is a person who sets a captive free.
CCXVI {untranslated} = cheir. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note CLVIII above.

36 He led them out,CCXVII having performedCCXVIII wondersCCXIX and signsCCXX in Egypt,

Notes on verse 36a

CCXVII “led…out” = exago. Related to “promised” in v5 & “ruler” in v10 & “promise” in v17 & “angel” in v30. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.
CCXVIII “performed” = poieo. Same as “forced” in v19. See note CXX above.
CCXIX “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
CCXX “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.

at the RedCCXXI Sea,CCXXII and in the wilderness for fortyCCXXIII years. 

37 This is the Moses who said to the Israelites, ‘God will raise upCCXXIV a prophetCCXXV for you from your own peopleCCXXVI as he raised me up.’ 

Notes on verses 36b-37

CCXXI “Red” = Eruthros. 2x in NT. This is Red, used to refer to the Red Sea.
CCXXII “Sea” = Thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CCXXIII “forty” = tesserakonta. Same as “forty” in v30. See note CLXXVIII above.
CCXXIV “raise up” = anistemi. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note CXV above.
CCXXV “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “replied” in v2 & “known” in v13 & “voice” in v31. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note III above); {from phao (see note III above) or phaino (see note XC above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CCXXVI “people” = adelphos. Literally, “brothers.” Same as “brothers” in v2. See note V above.

38 He is the one who wasCCXXVII in the congregationCCXXVIII in the wilderness with the angel who spoke to him at Mount Sinai and with our ancestors, and he receivedCCXXIX livingCCXXX oraclesCCXXXI to give to us. 

Notes on verse 38

CCXXVII “was” = ginomai. Same as “became” in v13. See note LXXXIX above.
CCXXVIII “congregation” = ekklesia. Related to “invited” in v14. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (see note XCII above). This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
CCXXIX “received” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXX “living” = zao. Related to “die” in v19. See note CXXIII above.
CCXXXI “oracles” = logion. Related to “made” in v17 & “words” in v22. 4x in NT. From logios (learned, eloquent, having reason, fluent; one who speaks well); from lego (see note CXI above). This is a saying or an oracle – divine speech.

39 CCXXXIIOur ancestors were unwillingCXXXIII to obeyCCXXXIV him; instead, they pushed him aside, and in their hearts they turned backCCXXXV to Egypt, 

Notes on verse 39

CCXXXII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “became” in v13. See note LXXXIX above.
CCXXXIII “unwilling” = ou + thelo. Thelo is the same as “want” in v28. See note CLXX above.
CCXXXIV “obey” = hupekoos. Related to “listen” in v2. 3x in NT. From hupakouo (to listen, attend to, obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (see note VII above)}. This is obedient or listening to with attention.
CCXXXV “turned back” = strepho. Related to “brought up” in v20 & “as” in v28. From trope (see note CXXX above). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.

40 saying to Aaron,CCXXXVI ‘MakeCCXXXVII godsCCXXXVIII for us who will lead the wayCCXXXIX for us; as for this Moses who led us out from the land of Egypt, we do not knowCCXL what has happenedCCXLI to him.’ 

Notes on verse 40

CCXXXVI “Aaron” = Aaron. 5x in NT. From Hebrew Aharon (Aaron); {derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain}. This is Aaron. See
CCXXXVII “make” = poieo. Same as “forced” in v19. See note CXX above.
CCXXXVIII “gods” = theos. Same as “God” in v2. See note VIII above.
CCXXXIX “lead the way” = proporeuomai. 2x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to go before, precede like a guide does or one who is bringing news.
CCXL “know” = eido. Same as “known” in v18. See note CXVII above.
CCXLI “happened” = ginomai. Same as “became” in v13. See note LXXXIX above.

41 At that timeCCXLII they made a calf,CCXLIII offeredCCXLIV a sacrificeCCXLV

Notes on verse 41a

CCXLII “at that time” = en + ho + hemera + ekeinos. Literally, “in those days.” Hemera is the same as “day” in v8. See note LIV above.
CCXLIII “made a calf” = moschopoieo. Related to “forced” in v19. 1x in NT. From moschos (calf, bullock; fresh shoot); {likely from oschos (a shoot)} + poieo (see note CXX above). This is to create a calf as an image or idol.
CCXLIV “offered” = anago. Related to “promised” in v5 & “ruler” in v10 & “promise” in v17 & “angel” in v30 & “led…out” in v36. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
CCXLV “sacrifice” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.

to the idol,CCXLVI and reveledCCXLVII in the worksCCXLVIII of their hands.CCXLIX 

Notes on verse 41b

CCXLVI “idol” = eidolon. Related to “known” in v18. 11x in NT. From eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (see note XVII above). This is image, idol, worship or an idol.
CCXLVII “reveled” = euphraino. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
CCXLVIII “works” = ergon. Same as “deeds” in v22. See note CXLI above.
CCXLIX “hands” = cheir. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note CLVIII above.

42 But God turned awayCCL from them and handed them overCCLI to worship the hostCCLII of heaven,CCLIII

Notes on verse 42a

CCL “turned away” = strepho. Same as “turned back” in v39. See note CCXXXVI above.
CCLI “handed…over” = paradidomi. Related to “give” in v5 & “sold” in v9. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XXVII). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
CCLII “host” = stratia. 2x in NT– both times of the heavenly host. From stratos (encamped army); perhaps from stronnuo (to spread, to make a bed, strew).  This is literally an army, but used figuratively for hosts of angels, hosts of heaven (that is to say, stars). It is a group that is ordered or organized in some fashion.
CCLIII “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “rescued” in v10 & “adopted” in v21 & “Mount” in v30. May be related to oros (see note CLXXXII above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

as it is writtenCCLIV in the bookCCLV of the prophets:

‘Did you offerCCLVI to me slain victimsCCLVII and sacrifices
    fortyCCLVIII years in the wilderness, O house of Israel?

Notes on verse 42b

CCLIV “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CCLV “book” = biblos. 10x in NT– 5x in reference to books of the Bible, 3x of the book of life, 1x of genealogical account of Jesus, 1x of books of magic. Perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll. It could also have an association with the sacred. See
CCLVI “offer” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
CCLVII “slain victims” = sphagion. 1x in NT. From sphage (butchery of meat, whether for sacrifice or for food; slaughter and sacrifice more generally; figuratively of people, meaning destruction); from sphazo (to slay, butcher an animal to eat or for sacrifice, slaughter, maim through violence). This is a victim, an animal slaughtered for use in sacrifice.
CCLVIII “forty” = tesserakonta. Same as “forty” in v30. See note CLXXVIII above.

43 No; you took alongCCLIX the tentCCLX of MolochCCLXI
    and the starCCLXII of your god Rephan,CCLXIII

Notes on verse 43a

CCLIX “took along” = analambano. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
CCLX “tent” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXI “Moloch” = Moloch. 1x in NT. From Molek (Molech, Molek, or Moloch; one of the Ammonite gods; “king”); from the same as melek (king, royal) OR related to mlk (to sacrifice, to promise). This is Moloch or Molech, god of the Ammonites. It means “king.” Alternately, it may refer to a manner of ritual sacrifice rather than a specific god. See
CCLXII “star” = astron. Related to “host” in v42. 4x in NT. From aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (see note CCLII above). This is a star or a constellation seen as a single unit. It can also evoke the Roman god Saturn.
CCLXIII “Rephan” = Rhemphan. 1x in NT. Similar to Rhompha (Rhompha, Rompha, Rephan; one of the gods of Egypt); perhaps related to Hebrew Kiyyun (Chiun; related to the god Saturn); akin to Akkadian Kion (Kion). This is Remphan or Rephan, who is a forerunner of the god Saturn. See

        the imagesCCLXIV that you madeCCLXV to worship;CCLXVI
so I will removeCCLXVII you beyond Babylon.’CCLXVIII

Notes on verse 43b

CCLXIV “images” = tupos. 16x in NT. From tupto (to strike repeatedly, wound, punish; figuratively to offend). This is a figure, model, image, impression, pattern, copy. Properly, this is a model created through much repetition so figuratively it is the proper model. It can be the impression of a stamped image, the mark of a scar, the shape of a statue. Figuratively, it can refer to a style or resemblance. Used specially, it is a model as something to imitate or as a cautionary tale. This is where the word “type” comes from.
CCLXV “made” = poieo. Same as “forced” in v19. See note CXX above.
CCLXVI “worship” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
CCLXVII “remove” = metoikizo. Same as “move” in v4. See note XXVI above.
CCLXVIII “Babylon” = Babulon. 12x in NT. See Hebrew babel (Babylon or Babel); {perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow)} OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god). This is Babylon, meaning “gate of god” or “gate of gods.” See

44 “Our ancestors had the tent of testimonyCCLXIX in the wilderness, as God directedCCLXX when he spoke to Moses, ordering him to makeCCLXXI it according to the patternCCLXXII he had seen. 

Notes on verse 44

CCLXIX “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
CCLXX “directed” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
CCLXXI “make” = poieo. Same as “forced” in v19. See note CXX above.
CCLXXII “pattern” = tupos. Same as “images” in v43. See note CCLXIV above.

45 Our ancestors in turn broughtCCLXXIII it in with JoshuaCCLXXIV when they dispossessedCCLXXV the peoplesCCLXXVI

Notes on verse 45a

CCLXXIII “brought” = eisago + diadechomai. Eisago is related to “promised” in v5 & “ruler” in v10 & “promise” in v17 & “angel” in v30 & “led…out” in v36 & “offered” in v41. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + ago (see note XXXI above). This is to bring in or introduce. It could be in a literal or figurative sense. Diadechomai related to “received” in v38. 1x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + dechomai (see note CCXXIX above). This is to come after, succeed.  
CCLXXIV “Joshua” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CCLXXV “dispossessed” = kataschesis. Same as “possession” in v5. See note XXXII above.
CCLXXVI “peoples” = ethnos. Same as “people” in v7. See note XLIII above.

whom God drove outCCLXXVII beforeCCLXXVIII our ancestors. And it was there until the timeCCLXXIX of David,CCLXXX 

Notes on verse 45b

CCLXXVII “drove out” = exotheo. Related to “pushed aside” in v27. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + otheo (see note CLXVI above). This is to drive out, expel, drive a boat toward the shore.
CCLXXVIII {untranslated} = prosopon. Related to “appeared” in v2 & “sight” in v31. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note X above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CCLXXIX “time” = hemera. Same as “day” in v8. See note LIV above.
CCLXXX “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”

46 who found favor withCCLXXXI God and askedCCLXXXII that he might find a dwelling placeCCLXXXIII for the houseCCLXXXIV of Jacob. 

Notes on verse 46

CCLXXXI “with” = enopios. Related to “appeared” in v2 & “sight” in v31 & “before” in v45. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note CCLXXVIII above). This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXXII “asked” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CCLXXXIII “dwelling place” = skenoma. 3x in NT. From skenoo (to encamp, pitch a tent, dwell); from skenos (tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling). This is a pitched tent. It could refer more generally to a place to live or the tabernacle. It is used physically for the body and for the Temple.
CCLXXXIV Some manuscripts have “God” instead.

47 But it was SolomonCCLXXXV who builtCCLXXXVI a house for him. 

48 Yet the Most HighCCLXXXVII does not dwellCCLXXXVIII in houses made with human hands;CCLXXXIX as the prophet says,”CCXC

Notes on verses 47-48

CCLXXXV “Solomon” = Solomon. 12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”
CCLXXXVI “built” = oikodomeo. Related to “lived” in v2 & “move” in v4 & “resident aliens” in v6 & “household” in v10. From oikos (see note XV above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CCLXXXVII “Most High” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.
CCLXXXVIII “dwell” = katoikeo. Same as “lived” in v2. See note XV above. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (see note XV above). This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
CCLXXXIX “made with human hands” = cheiropoietos. Related to {untranslated} in v25 & to “forced” in v19 & “made a calf” in v41. 6x in NT. From cheir (see note CLVIII above) + poieo (see note CXX above). This is literally made by hand, i.e. artificial. It can also mean to perform.
CCXC “says” = lego. Related to “made” in v17 & “words” in v22 & “oracles” in v38. See note CXI above.

49 ‘Heaven is my throne,CCXCI
    and the earthCCXCII is my footstool.CCXCIII

Notes on verse 49a

CCXCI “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
CCXCII “earth” = ge. Same as “country” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCXCIII “footstool” = hupopodion + ho + pous. Hupopodion is related to “foot’s” in v5. 7x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + pous (see note XXIX above). This is literally under the feet. So, it is a footstool or footrest. It is also used figuratively to depict a king as one who has conquered his enemies. This is the same root that “podium” comes from. Pous is the same as “foot’s” in v5. See note XXIX above.

What kind of house will you build for me, says the Lord,
    or what is the place of my rest?CCXCIV
50 Did not my hand makeCCXCV allCCXCVI these things?’

Notes on verses 49b-50

CCXCIV “rest” = katapausis. 9x in NT – 1x in Acts & 8x in Hebrews. From katapauo (to rest, restrain, cease); {from kata (down, against, among) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end)}. This is rest, dwelling, habitation. Often refers to entering God’s rest.
CCXCV “make” = poieo. Same as “forced” in v19. See note CXX above.
CCXCVI “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LXIII above.

51 “You stiff-neckedCCXCVII people, uncircumcisedCCXCVIII in heart and ears,CCXCIX

Notes on verse 51a

CCXCVII “stiff-necked” = sklerotrachelos. 1x in NT. From skleros (hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh; stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard); {from skello (to dry) OR from skelos (leg); {from skello (to parch)}} + trachelos (the neck or throat; an embrace); {probably from trachus (rough, uneven)}. This is stiff-necked, stubborn, obstinate.
CCXCVIII “uncircumcised” = aperitmetos. Related to “circumcision” and “circumcised” in v8. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + peritemno (see note XLIX above). This is uncircumcised.
CCXCIX “ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.

you are foreverCCC opposingCCCI the Holy Spirit,CCCII just as your ancestors used to do. 

Notes on verse 51b

CCC “forever” = aei. 7x in NT. This is ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually, on every occasion.
CCCI “opposing” = antipipto. 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall against, resist, oppose, stand against an enemy in battle.
CCCII “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

52 Which of the prophets did your ancestors not persecute?CCCIII They killedCCCIV those who foretoldCCCV

Notes on verse 52a

CCCIII “persecute” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
CCCIV “killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CCCV “foretold” = prokataggello. Related to “promised” in v5 & “ruler” in v10 & “promise” in v17 & “angel” in v30 & “led…out” in v36 & “offered” in v41 & “brought” in v45. 2x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + kataggello (to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message; celebrate, preach, or teach); {from kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note XXXI above)}. This is to foretell, promise, declare before.

the comingCCCVI of the Righteous One,CCCVII and now you have become his betrayersCCCVIII and murderers.CCCIX 

Notes on verse 52b

CCCVI “coming” = eleusis. Related to “leave” in v3 & “came” in v11 & “approached” in v31. 1x in NT. From erchomai (see note XVII above). This is an arrival or advent.
CCCVII “Righteous One” = dikaios. Related to “show” in v3 & “wronged” and “avenged” in v24 & “judge” in v27. From dike (see note CLI above). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CCCVIII “betrayers” = prodotes. Related to “give” in v5 & “sold” in v9 & “handed…over” in v42. 3x in NT. From prodidomi (to give first, betray); {from pro (before, earlier, above) + didomi (see note XXVII above)}. This is treacherous, a betrayer, one who surrenders.
CCCIX “murderers” = phoneus. 7x in NT. From phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is a murderer – a killing that is not justified and is done on purpose. It general refers to a criminal act.

53 You are the ones who receivedCCCX the lawCCCXI as ordainedCCCXII by angels, and yet you have not keptCCCXIII it.”

Notes on verse 53

CCCX “received” = lambano. Related to “took along” in v43. See note CCLIX above.
CCCXI “law” = nomos. Related to “heritage” in v5 & “supposed” in v25. See note XXVIII above.
CCCXII “ordained” = diatage. Related to “directed” in v44. 2x in NT. From diatasso (see note CCLXX above). This is ordinance, disposition, appointment, arranging.
CCCXIII “kept” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.

54 When they heard these things, they became enragedCCCXIV and groundCCCXV their teethCCCXVI at Stephen.CCCXVII 

Notes on verse 54

CCCXIV “became enraged” = diaprio + ho + kardia + autos. Literally, “they were cut in their hearts.” Diaprio is 2x in NT– both in Acts. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + the same as prizo (to saw, saw through); {from prio (to saw)}. This is to saw apart. Figuratively, it is to cut someone with anger or envy or exasperation. It is cutting core emotions. Kardia is the same as “heart” in v23. See note CXLVI above.
CCCXV “ground” = brucho. 1x in NT. This is to bite or gnash one’s teeth. It is used for anger or pain.
CCCXVI “teeth” = odous. 12x in NT. Perhaps from esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}. This is a tooth. Figuratively, it can be recompense.
CCCXVII “Stephen” = autos. Literally, “him.”

55 ButCCCXVIII filledCCCXIX with the Holy Spirit, he gazedCCCXX into heaven and saw the glory of God and Jesus standing at the right handCCCXXI of God. 

Notes on verse 55

CCCXVIII {untranslated} = huparcho. Related to “high priest” in v1 & “patriarchs” in v8 & “ruler” in v27. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note I above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
CCCXIX “filled” = pleres. Related to “multiplied” in v17 & to “was” in v23. 16x in NT. See note CXLII above.
CCCXX “gazed” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.
CCCXXI “right hand” = dexios. Related to “received” in v38 & “brought” in v45. Perhaps from dechomai (see note CCXXIX above). This is right, right side, or the right hand.

56 “Look,”CCCXXII he said, “I seeCCCXXIII the heavens openedCCCXXIV and the Son of ManCCCXXV standing at the right hand of God!” 

Notes on verse 56

CCCXXII “look” = idou. Related to “known” in v18 & “idol” in v41. From eido (see note CXVII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CCCXXIII “see” = theoreo. Related to “amazed” in v31. From theaomai (see note CLXXXVII above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CCCXXIV “opened” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.
CCCXXV “Man” = anthropos. Related to {untranslated} in v2 & to “appeared” in v2 & “sight” in v31 & “before” in v45 & “with” in v46. Probably from aner (see note IV above) + ops (see note CCLXXVIII above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

57 But they coveredCCCXXVI their ears, and with a loudCCCXXVII shoutCCCXXVIII

Notes on verse 57a

CCCXXVI “covered” = sunecho. Related to “are” in v1 & “possession” in v5. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + echo (see note II above). This is to hold together or hold fast, to close or press together. It can also be to be struck by an illness, arrested, compressed as by a multitude or a siege. Figuratively, it can mean to compel, perplex, preoccupy, or generally afflict.
CCCXXVII “loud” = megas. Same as “great” in v11. See note LXXVIII above.
CCCXXVIII “shout” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.

all rushedCCCXXIX togetherCCCXXX against him. 58 Then they draggedCCCXXXI him out of the cityCCCXXXII

Notes on verses 57b-58a

CCCXXIX “rushed” = hormao. 5x in NT. From horme (onrush, quick motion forward, attempt, inclination, attempt). This is to rush, run, start, or spur on.
CCCXXX “together” = homothumadon. Related to “made” in v17 & to “sacrifice” in v41. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (see note CXI above)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (see note CCXLV above)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
CCCXXXI “dragged” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCXXXII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

and began to stoneCCCXXXIII him, and the witnessesCCCXXXIV laidCCCXXXV their coatsCCCXXXVI

Notes on verse 58b

CCCXXXIII “stone” = lithoboleo. Related to “dragged” in v58. 7x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative) + ballo (see note CCCXXXI above). This is to stone as in kill by throwing stones at.
CCCXXXIV “witnesses” = martus. Related to “testimony” in v44. See note CCLXIX above.
CCCXXXV “laid” = apotithemi. Related to “covenant” in v8 & “brought back” and “laid” in v16 & “abandon” in v19 & “abandoned” in v21. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tithemi (see note XLVIII above). This is to put aside, put away, renounce.
CCCXXXVI “coats” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

at the feet of a young manCCCXXXVII namedCCCXXXVIII Saul.CCCXXXIX 

Notes on verse 58c

CCCXXXVII “young man” = neanias. 3x in NT. From neos (young, new, youth, person). This is youth or young man – it is an adult up to the age of 40.
CCCXXXVIII “named” = kaleo. Related to “invited” in v14 & “congregation” in v38. See note XCII above.
CCCXXXIX “Saul” = Saulos. 15x in NT. From Saoul (Saul); from Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is Saul or Shaul, meaning “asked of the Lord.”

59 While they were stoning Stephen,CCCXL he prayed,CCCXLI “Lord Jesus, receiveCCCXLII my spirit.” 

Notes on verse 59

CCCXL “Stephen” = Stephanos. 7x in NT. From stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is Stephen or Stephanus, meaning “crown.”
CCCXLI “prayed” = epikaleo. Related to “invited” in v14 & “congregation” in v38 & “named” in v58. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note XCII above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CCCXLII “receive” = dechomai. Same as “receive” in v388. See note CCXXIX above.

60 Then he knelt downCCCXLIII and cried outCCCXLIV in a loud voice, “Lord, do not holdCCCXLV this sinCCCXLVI against them.” When he had said this, he died.CCCXLVII

Notes on verse 60

CCCXLIII “knelt down” = tithemi + de +ho + gonu. Tithemi is the same as “laid” in v16. See note XLVIII above. Gonu is 12x in NT. This is knee.
CCCXLIV “cried out” = krazo. Same as “shout” in v57. See note CCCXXVIII above.
CCCXLV “hold” = histemi. Same as “standing” in v33. See note LXX above.
CCCXLVI “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CCCXLVII “died” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.

Image credit: A fresco of the stoning of St. Stephen at the Immaculate Conception of St. Mary Church in Warsaw, Poland. Photo by Panek, 2013.

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