Daniel 3:52-60 (LXX)

Daniel 3:52-60 (LXX)
Easter Vigil – A Women’s Lectionary

Text (Daniel Theodotion): https://ebible.org/web/DAG03.htm
Greek Interlinear: https://en.katabiblon.com/us/index.php?text=LXX&book=DnTh&ch=3&reader=Max

52 “BlessedA are you, O Lord, you GodB of our fathers,C

Notes on verse 52a

A “blessed” = eulogetos. 8x in NT. From eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}}. This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.
B “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
C “fathers” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

to be praisedD and exalted above allE forever!F 

Notes on verse 52b

D “praised” = ainesis. 1x in NT. From aineo (to praise, praise God); from ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is praise or commendation.
E “exalted above all” = huperupsoo. 1x in NT. From huper (over, above, beyond, concerning) + hupsoo (to lift up, make great, exalt); {from hupsos (height, high, altitude, sky, heaven, dignity); from hupsi (on high, aloft)}. This is highly exalting, elevating beyond, extol to the highest measure.
F “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

53 Blessed isG your gloriousH and holyI name,J to be praisedK and exalted above all forever! 

Notes on verse 53

G “blessed is” = eulogeo. Related to “blessed” in v52. See note A above.
H “glorious” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
I “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
J “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
K “praised” = huperaineton. Related to “praised” in v52. From huper (over, above, beyond, concerning) + aineo (see note D above). This is praised.

54 Blessed are you in the templeL of your holy glory, to be praisedM and glorified above allN forever! 

Notes on verse 54

L “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
M “praised” = huperumnetos. Perhaps from huper (over, above, beyond, concerning) + humnetos (praised in song); {from humneo (singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God)}. This is praised. See https://chs.harvard.edu/chapter/1-text-and-sign/
N “glorified above all” = huperendoxos. Related to “glorious” in v53. From huper (over, above, beyond, concerning) + endoxos (glorious, having dignity, high reputation, noble); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + doxa (see note H above)}. This is glorified above all.

55 Blessed are you who seeO the depthsP and sitQ upon the cherubim,R to be praisedS and exalted above all forever. 

Notes on verse 55

O “see” = epiblepo. 3x in NT– including the Magnificat “God has looked with favor on the lowliness of God’s servant” in Luke 1:48. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, to regard with favor, to pay focused attention or give special regard to something, to gaze at with pity, to be partial to.
P “depths” = abussos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + buthos (deep, bottom, deep sea); {akin to bathos (depth, fullness, profundity, or immensity); from bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go)}. This is boundless, bottomless – literally without depth. It can imply the realm of the dead and evil spirits – the infernal abyss. This is where the word “abyss” comes from.
Q “sit” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
R “Cherubim” = Cheroubin.1x in NT. From Hebrew kerub (a cherub – perhaps a class of angels); perhaps related to Akkadian (“to bless” or “one who blesses”). This is a cherub. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%9B%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%91#Hebrew
S “praised” = ainetos. Related to “praised” in v52 & “praised” in v53. From aineo (see note D above). This is praised or worthy of praise.

56 Blessed are you on the throneT of your kingdom,U to be praisedV and extolled above allW forever! 

Notes on verse 56

T “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
U “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “depths” in v55. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
V “praised” = huperumnetos. Same as “praised” in v54. See note M above.
W “extolled above all” = huperupsoo. Same as “exalted above all” in v52. See note E above.

57 Blessed are you in the firmamentX of heaven,Y to be praisedZ and glorifiedAA forever!

Notes on verse 57

X “firmament” = stereoma. 1x in NT. From stereo (to strengthen, make stable, establish, or confirm in a literal or figurative sense); from stereos (hard, solid, steadfast, sure, stable; solid in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is a support or a foundation. It can refer to strength, stability, or steadfastness.
Y “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
Z “praised” = humnetos. Related to “praised” in v54. See note M above.
AA “glorified” = doxazo. Related to “glorious” in v53 & “glorified above all” in v54. From doxa (see note H above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

58 O allBB you worksCC of the Lord,DD bless the Lord! PraiseEE and exalt him above all forever! 59 O you heavens, bless the Lord! PraiseFF and exalt him above all for ever! 60 O you angelsGG of the Lord, bless the Lord! PraiseHH and exalt him above all forever! 

Notes on verses 58-60

BB “all” = pas. This is all or every.
CC “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.  
DD “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
EE “praise” = humneo. Related to “praised” In v54. 4x in NT. See note M above.
FF “praise” = humneo. Same as “praise” in v58. See note EE above.
GG “angles” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
HH “praise” = humneo. Same as “praise” in v58. See note EE above.

Note: This passage comes from the apocrypha so I was not able to use my regular interlinear website. Some of this annotation amounts to guesswork and uses many other sources. However, most of it is still based on Strong’s concordance.

Image credit: “Sun Pillar” by Barbara Howard, 1993.

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