Deuteronomy 1

Deuteronomy 1


These are the wordsI that MosesII spokeIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
II “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
III “spoke” = dabar. Related to “words” in v1. See note I above.

to allIV IsraelV beyondVI the JordanVII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
V “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
VI “beyond” = eber. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is the place across or beyond, by, from, other, the opposite side, against, over. It often refers to the other side of the Jordan river or toward the east.
VII “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”

—in the wilderness,VIII on the plainIX oppositeX Suph,XI

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “words” and “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note I above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
IX “plain” = arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.
X “opposite” = mol. Perhaps from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy). This is in front of, opposite, with, abrupt. Literally, it refers to some kind of precipice.
XI “Suph” = Suph. 1x in OT. From suph (to cease, snatch away, consume, sweep away, remove) OR from suph (reeds or rushes; can refer to papyrus, or a flag); {perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds)}. This is Suph, meaning “reed” or “border marker” or a reference to the Red Sea. See &

betweenXII ParanXIII andXIV Tophel,XV

Notes on verse 1d

XII “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
XIII “Paran” = Paran. 11x in OT. From the same as porah (a branch or spring; properly, ornamentation); perhaps from pa’ar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is Paran, perhaps meaning ornamental.
XIV {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v1. See note XII above.
XV “Tophel” = Tophel. 1x in OT. From the same as taphel (whitewash) OR from taphel (root may mean to smear; something tasteless, unseasoned, or whitewashed; figuratively something frivolous, foolish, or unsavory). This is Tophel, meaning “quagmire” or “whitewash” or “folly” or “lime” or “cement” or “insipid.” See

Laban,XVI Hazeroth,XVII and Di-zahab.XVIII 

Notes on verse 1e

XVI “Laban” = Laban. From the same as laban (white); from laban (to be white or make a brick). This is Laban, meaning white.
XVII “Hazeroth” = Chatseroth. 6x in OT. From chatser (settlement, village). This is Hazeroth or Chatseroth, meaning “yard.”
XVIII “Di-zahab” = Di Zahab. 1x in OT. From day (enough, plenty, overflow, or ability) + zahab (root may mean to shimmer; gold or something that has the color of gold like oil; a clear sky –good weather) OR from Aramaic di (who, which, that, now); {from Aramaic da (this, together); akin to Hebrew zeh (this, here)} + zahab (see above). This is Di Zahab, meaning “of gold” or “abounding in gold” or “a place abounding with gold.” See

(By the wayXIX of MountXX SeirXXI

Notes on verse 2a

XIX “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XX “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XXI “Seir” = Seir. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); {from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense)} OR from sa’iyr (goat, shaggy, devil, satyr). This is Seir, Edomite mountain region. It is the name of the people that live there and a particular Judean mountain. It may mean “the hairy guys,” “bucks,” “horrors,” “bristly,” or “riders on the storm.” See

it takes elevenXXII daysXXIII to reach Kadesh-barneaXXIV from Horeb.)XXV 

Notes on verse 2b

XXII “eleven” = echad + asar. Echad is perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
XXIII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXIV “Kadesh-barnea” = Qadesh Barnea. 10x in OT. From Qadesh (Kadesh, a place whose name means sacred or sanctuary); {from the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.)} + perhaps a word related to Aramaic bar (open field); {related to Hebrew bar (grain, wheat; an open field); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish)} + a word from nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is Kadesh-barnea or Qadesh Barnea, meaning “sacred desert of wandering” or “holy purifying staggerings” or “holy purifying wanderings.” See
XXV “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.

XXVIIn the fortiethXXVII year,XXVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XXVI {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XXVII “fortieth” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
XXVIII “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

on the firstXXIX dayXXX of the eleventhXXXI month,XXXII

Notes on verse 3b

XXIX “first” = echad. Same as “eleven” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXX {untranslated} = chodesh. Same as “month” in v3. See note XXXII below.
XXXI “eleventh” = ashte + asar. Ashte is 19x in OT. From ashath (to think, be concerned) OR from eseth (plate, carved, fabric, bright); {from ashath (to shine, think, be glossy)}. This is one as a digit in eleven or eleventh. Asar is the same as “eleven” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXXII “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.

Moses spoke to the IsraelitesXXXIII justXXXIV as the LordXXXV had commandedXXXVI him to speak to them. 

Notes on verse 3c

XXXIII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v1. See note V above.
XXXIV {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v3. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note XXVI above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXXVI “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

This was afterXXXVII he had defeatedXXXVIII KingXXXIX SihonXL

Notes on verse 4a

XXXVII “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
XXXVIII “defeated” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XXXIX “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XL “Sihon” = Sichon. Perhaps from the same a ssuach (Suach, a name); from the same as suchah (something swept away, refuse). This is Sihon or Sichon, a name perhaps meaning “tempestuous.”

of the Amorites,XLI who reignedXLII in Heshbon,XLIII

Notes on verse 4b

XLI “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
XLII “reigned” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XLIII “Heshbon” = Cheshbon. From chashab (properly, to braid or interpenetrate; literally, to create or to wear; figuratively, plotting – generally in a negative sense; think, consider, or make account of). This is Heshbon or Cheshbon, meaning “library of synthetic wisdom” or “intelligence” or “reason.” See

and King OgXLIV of Bashan,XLV who reigned in AshtarothXLVI in Edrei.XLVII 

Notes on verse 4c

XLIV “Og” = Og. From the same as uggah (bread cake, round ash cake); from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is Og, a name perhaps meaning “round.”
XLV “Bashan” = Bashan. Bashan is a place whose name may mean “smooth.”
XLVI “Ashtaroth” = Ashtaroth. Related to “eleventh” in v3. 12x in OT. From ashtrah (young, enlarge a flock); from ashath (see note XXXI above) or ashar (to gain wealth, become rich, enrich; to accumulate) OR {from ashat (form a union that is cohesive or solid) + torah (Torah, instruction, law); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach)}}. This is Ashtaroth, a location and the name of a Sidonian goddess, also called Astarte. It may mean “Astarte” or “unions of instructions” or “clusters of one law.” See
XLVII “Edrei” = Edrei. 8x in OT. Perhaps from Aramaic edra (arm, strength, power); from Aramaic dera (arm); akin to Hebrew zeroa (arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal; figuratively, power, force, might, or help); Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive).  This is Edrei, meaning “mighty.”

Beyond the Jordan in the landXLVIII of Moab,XLIX Moses undertookL

Notes on verse 5a

XLVIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XLIX “Moab” = Moab. May be from ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See
L “undertook” = yaal. 19x in OT. This to be pleased or willing, determined, to take on something, to try, to do willingly, to begin. It can have the idea of assent or consent as well as continuing or persisting.

to expoundLI this lawLII as follows:LIII

“The Lord our GodLIV spoke to us at Horeb, saying,LV

Notes on verses 5b-6a

LI “expound” = baar. 3x in OT– 2x in Deuteronomy & 1x in Habakkuk. This is to dig, which can be used figuratively to mean engrave. By extension, this would mean to explain or declare.
LII “law” = torah. Perhaps related to “Ashtaroth” in v4. See note XLVI above.
LIII “follows” = amar. Related to “Amorites” in v4. See note XLI above.
LIV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v1. See note V above.
LV “saying” = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.

‘You have stayedLVI long enoughLVII at this mountain.LVIII Resume your journey,LIX and goLX into the hill countryLXI of the Amorites

Notes on verses 6b-7a

LVI “stayed” = yashab. Same as “reigned” in v4. See note XLII above.
LVII “long enough” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
LVIII “mountain” = har. Same as “Mount” in v2. See note XX above.
LIX “resume…journey” = panah + nasa. Panah is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare. Nasa is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
LX “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXI “hill country” = har. Same as “Mount” in v2. See note XX above.

as well as into the neighboring regionsLXII—the Arabah,LXIII the hill country, the Shephelah,LXIV the Negeb,LXV 

Notes on verse 7b

LXII “neighboring regions” = kol + shaken. Kol is the same as “all” in v1. See note IV above. Shaken is from shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is resident or neighbor. It is related to mishkan, the Hebrew word for “tabernacle.”
LXIII “Arabah” = Arabah. Same as “plain” in v1. See note IX above.
LXIV “Shephelah” = Shephelah. From shaphel (to be low, sink, be cast down, put down, humble, or humiliate). This is Shephelah, the name of a place. It means “lowland.”
LXV “Negeb” = Negeb. Root may mean to be parched. The Negeb is the south country – sometimes used to refer to Egypt. This is a land that suffers from a lot of drought.

and the seacoastLXVI—the land of the CanaanitesLXVII and the Lebanon,LXVIII

Notes on verse 7c

LXVI “seacoast” = choph + yam. Choph is 7x in OT. From chaphaph (to surround, cover, or shield; to surround in order to protect). This is a shore, cove, or haven. Yam has a root that may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
LXVII “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
LXVIII “Lebanon” = Lebanon. From laben (to be white, make white, make bricks) OR form Aramaic lebab (heart); corresponding to Hebrew lebab (heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will). This is Lebanon. The sense of “white” comes from the snow on the top of its mountains. See

as far as the greatLXIX river,LXX the River Euphrates.LXXI 

Notes on verse 7d

LXIX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXX “river” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.
LXXI “Euphrates” = Perath.19x in OT. From Old Persian ufratush (Euphrates); from Akkadian Purattu (Euphrates); borrowed from Sumerian Buranun (Euphrates). In English, we follow the Greek version of the river name Euphrates (Euphrates, perhaps to be understood as “good fruitful one”); adapted from eu (good, well, well, done) + phrazo (to announce) OR Greek adapted from eu (see above) + Hebrew Parat (Perath); {from para (to be fruitful)}. This is Euphrates or Perath – perhaps meaning “to break forth” or “rushing” or “good fruitful one.” See & &

See,LXXII I have setLXXIII the land beforeLXXIV you; go inLXXV and take possessionLXXVI of the land

Notes on verse 8a

LXXII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LXXIII “set” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXIV “before” = paneh. Related to “resume…journey” in v7. From panah (see note LIX above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXV “go in” = bo. Same as “go” in v7. See note LX above.
LXXVI “take possession” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

that the Lord sworeLXXVII to your ancestors,LXXVIII to Abraham,LXXIX to Isaac,LXXX

Notes on verse 8b

LXXVII “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
LXXVIII “ancestors” = ab. Related to “Moab” in v5. See note XLIX above.
LXXIX “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “Moab” in v5 & “ancestors” in v8. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note XLIX above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
LXXX “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”

and to Jacob,LXXXI to giveLXXXII to them and to their descendantsLXXXIII after them.’

Notes on verse 8c

LXXXI “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
LXXXII “give” = natan. Same as “set” in v8. See note LXXIII above.
LXXXIII “descendants” = zera. Related to “Edrei” in v4. From zara (see note XLVII above). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.

“At that timeLXXXIV I said to you,LXXXV ‘I am unableLXXXVI by myselfLXXXVII to bearLXXXVIII you. 

Notes on verse 9

LXXXIV “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
LXXXV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.
LXXXVI “am unable” = lo + yakol. Yakol is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
LXXXVII “by myself” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
LXXXVIII “bear” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.

10 The Lord your God has multipliedLXXXIX you,XC so that todayXCI you are as numerousXCII as the starsXCIII of heaven.XCIV 

Notes on verse 10

LXXXIX “multiplied” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
XC {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XCI “today” = yom. Same as “days” in v2. See note XXIII above.
XCII “numerous” = rob. Related to “long enough” in v6. From rabab (see note LVII above). This is any kind of abundance.
XCIII “stars” = kokab. Perhaps from the same as kavah (to prick, blister, burn, scorch). This is a star as shining, stargaze. Figuratively, can mean prince.
XCIV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

11 May the Lord, the God of your ancestors, increaseXCV you a thousandXCVI timesXCVII more and blessXCVIII you, as he has promisedXCIX you! 

Notes on verse 11

XCV “increase” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
XCVI “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
XCVII “times” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
XCVIII “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
XCIX “promised” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v1. See note III above.

12 But how can I bear the heavyC burdenCI of your disputesCII all by myself? 13 ChooseCIII for each of your tribesCIV individualsCV

Notes on verses 12-13a

C “heavy” = torach. 2x in OT. From tarach (to toil, bear a load, be weary). This is a burden or trouble.
CI “burden” = massa. Related to “bear” in v9. From nasa (see note LXXXVIII above). This is burden, bearing, load, utterance, tribute, prophecy, desire, song.
CII “disputes” = rib. From rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case). This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.
CIII “choose” = yahab. This is give, put, bring, take. It is to give in a literal or figurative sense.
CIV “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
CV “individuals” = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.

who are wise,CVI discerning,CVII and reputable,CVIII and I will makeCIX them your leaders.’CX 

Notes on verse 13b

CVI “wise” = chakam. From chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wise, skillful, cunning, or artful.
CVII “discerning” = bin. Related to “between” in v1. See note XII above.
CVIII “reputable” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CIX “make” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CX “leaders” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

14 You answeredCXI me,CXII ‘The planCXIII you have proposedCXIV is a goodCXV one.’ 

Notes on verse 14

CXI “answered” = anah. Related to “time” in v9. See note LXXXIV above.
CXII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.
CXIII “plan” = dabar. Same as “words” in v1. See note I above.
CXIV “proposed” = dabar + asah. Dabar is the same as “spoke” in v1. See note III above. Asah is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CXV “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

15 So I tookCXVI the leaders of your tribes, wise and reputable individuals,CXVII and installedCXVIII them as leaders over you, commandersCXIX of thousands, commanders of hundreds,CXX commanders of fifties,CXXI

Notes on verse 15a

CXVI “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXVII “individuals” = ish. Related to “individuals” in v13. Perhaps from enosh (see note CV above). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
CXVIII “installed” = natan. Same as “set” in v8. See note LXXIII above.
CXIX “commanders” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
CXX “hundreds” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
CXXI “fifties” = chamishshim. From chamesh (five, fifth). This is fifty.

commanders of tens,CXXII and officials,CXXIII throughout your tribes. 16 I chargedCXXIV your judgesCXXV at that time:CXXVI, CXXVII

Notes on verses 15b-16a

CXXII “tens” = eser. Related to “eleven” in v2. See note XXII above.
CXXIII “officials” = shoter. The root may mean write. This is perhaps originally a scribe and so it was used more broadly for an official, officer, ruler, overseer, or magistrate.
CXXIV “charged” = tsavah. Same as “commanded” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
CXXV “judges” = shaphat. This is to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, or govern. It can refer to God judging or to human judges. This is pronouncing a verdict in favor or against so it implies consequences or punishment. It can also mean to litigate or govern as one with authority.
CXXVI “time” = eth. Same as “time” in v9. See note LXXXIV above.
CXXVII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.

‘GiveCXXVIII the members of your communityCXXIX a fair hearingCXXX and judge rightlyCXXXI

Notes on verse 16b

CXXVIII {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v1. See note XII above.
CXXIX “members of…community” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
CXXX “give…hearing” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CXXXI “rightly” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.

between one personCXXXII andCXXXIII another, whether kinCXXXIV orCXXXV resident alien.CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 16c

CXXXII “one person” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CXXXIII {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v1. See note XII above.
CXXXIV “kin” = ach. Same as “members of…community” in v16. See note CXXIX above.
CXXXV {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v1. See note XII above.
CXXXVI “resident alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.

17 You must not be partialCXXXVII in judging:CXXXVIII hear outCXXXIX the smallCXL and the great alike;

Notes on verse 17a

CXXXVII “be partial” = nakar + paneh. Nakar is to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize. It is looking at something in a fixed way, showing perhaps respect or reverence. Alternately, it can show gazing with suspicion. Also, it can mean being strange towards someone or something and rejecting or ignoring it. Paneh is the same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CXXXVIII “judging” = mishpat. Related to “judges” in v16. From shaphat (see note CXXV above). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
CXXXIX “hear out” = shama. Same as “give…hearing” in v16. See note CXXX above.
CXL “small” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.

you shall not be intimidatedCXLI byCXLII anyone,CXLIII for the judgmentCXLIV is God’s. Any caseCXLV that is too hardCXLVI for you, bringCXLVII to me, and I will hear it.’ 

Notes on verse 17b

CXLI “be intimidated” = gur. Related to “resident alien” in v16.  See note CXXXVI above.
CXLII “by” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CXLIII “anyone” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CXLIV “judgment” = mishpat. Same as “judging” in v17. See note CXXXVIII above.
CXLV “case” = dabar. Same as “words” in v1. See note I above.
CXLVI “is too hard” = qashah. This is to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe.
CXLVII “bring” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.

18 So I charged you at that timeCXLVIII with all the thingsCXLIX that you should do.CL

19 “Then, just as the Lord our God had orderedCLI us, we set outCLII from Horeb

Notes on verses 18-19a

CXLVIII “time” = eth. Same as “time” in v9. See note LXXXIV above.
CXLIX “things” = dabar. Same as “words” in v1. See note I above.
CL “do” = asah. Same as “proposed” in v14. See note CXIV above.
CLI “ordered” = tsavah. Same as “commanded” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
CLII “set out” = nasa. Same as “resume…journey” in v7. See note LIX above.

and went throughCLIII all that great and terribleCLIV wilderness that you saw, on the way to the hill country of the Amorites, until we reachedCLV Kadesh-barnea. 

Notes on verse 19b

CLIII “went through” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CLIV “terrible” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CLV “reached” = bo. Same as “go” in v7. See note LX above.

20 I said to you, ‘You have reached the hill country of the Amorites, which the Lord our God is giving us. 21 See, the Lord your God has given the land toCLVI you; go up,CLVII take possession, as the Lord, the God of your ancestors, has promised you; do not fearCLVIII or be dismayed.’CLIX

Notes on verses 20-21

CLVI “to” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CLVII “go up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVIII “fear” = yare. Same as “terrible” in v19. See note CLIV above.
CLIX “be dismayed” = chathath. This is properly to prostrate. So it could be shatter, break, or break down in a literal, violent sense. It could also figuratively refer to being dismayed, discouraged, or frightened. It can also mean to stand in awe.

22 “All of you cameCLX to me and said, ‘Let us sendCLXI menCLXII aheadCLXIII of us to exploreCLXIV the land for us

Notes on verse 22a

CLX “came” = qarab. Same as “bring” in v17. See note CXLVII above.
CLXI “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CLXII “men” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CLXIII “ahead” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CLXIV “explore” = chaphar. This is properly to pry into. It can also mean to dig search for, sink, or explore.

and bring backCLXV a reportCLXVI to us regarding the routeCLXVII by which we should go up and the citiesCLXVIII we will comeCLXIX to.’ 

Notes on verse 22b

CLXV “bring back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CLXVI “report” = dabar. Same as “words” in v1. See note I above.
CLXVII “route” = derek. Same as “way” in v2. See note XIX above.
CLXVIII “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CLXIX “come” = bo. Same as “go” in v7. See note LX above.

23 The plan seemed goodCLXX to me,CLXXI and I selectedCLXXII twelveCLXXIII of you, one from eachCLXXIV tribe. 

Notes on verse 23

CLXX “seemed good” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CLXXI “to me” = ayin. Literally, “in my eyes.” This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CLXXII “selected” = laqach. Same as “took” in v15. See note CXVI above.
CLXXIII “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Asar is the same as “eleven” in v2. See note XXII above.
CLXXIV “one from each” = enosh + ish + echad. Enosh is the same as “individuals” in v13. See note CV above. Ish is the same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above. Echad is the same as “eleven” in v2. See note XXII above.

24 They set outCLXXV and went up into the hill country, and when they reached the WadiCLXXVI EshcolCLXXVII they spied it outCLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 24

CLXXV “set out” = panah. Same as “resume…journey” in v7. See note LIX above.
CLXXVI “Wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CLXXVII “Eshcol” = Eshkol. 6x in OT. From the same as eshkol (cluster – as a bunch of fruit like grapes); perhaps from eshek (a gathered bunch; can be a testicle or stone). This is Eshkol or Eshcol. This is a person and a place in Hebron, perhaps meaning “cluster.
CLXXVIII “spied…out” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

25 and gatheredCLXXIX, CLXXX some of the land’s produce,CLXXXI which they brought downCLXXXII to us. They brought backCLXXXIII a report to us and said, ‘It is a good land that the Lord our God is giving us.’

Notes on verse 25

CLXXIX “gathered” = laqach. Same as “took” in v15. See note CXVI above.
CLXXX {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CLXXXI “produce” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.
CLXXXII “brought down” = yarad. Related to “Jordan” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXXXIII “brought back” = shub. Same as “bring back” in v22. See note CLXV above.

26 “But you were unwillingCLXXXIV to go up. You rebelled againstCLXXXV the commandCLXXXVI of the Lord your God; 27 you grumbledCLXXXVII in your tentsCLXXXVIII

Notes on verses 26-27a

CLXXXIV “were unwilling” = lo + abah. Abah is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
CLXXXV “rebelled against” = marah. This is to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient. It can be to be or make bitter or unpleasant. Figuratively, it is to rebel or resist and causatively to provoke. This is the root of “Miriam.”
CLXXXVI “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CLXXXVII “grumbled” = ragan. 3x in OT. This is to murmur, criticize, rebel.
CLXXXVIII “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

and said, ‘It is because the Lord hatesCLXXXIX us that he has broughtCXC us out of the land of Egypt,CXCI to hand us overCXCII toCXCIII the Amorites to destroyCXCIV us. 

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXXIX “hates” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
CXC “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CXCII “hand…over” = natan. Same as “set” in v8. See note LXXIII above.
CXCIII “to” = yad. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note CLXXX above.
CXCIV “destroy” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.

28 Where are we headed?CXCV Our kindredCXCVI have made our heartsCXCVII meltCXCVIII by reporting,CXCIX

Notes on verse 28a

CXCV “headed” = alah. Same as “go up” in v21. See note CLVII above.
CXCVI “kindred” = ach. Same as “members of…community” in v16. See note CXXIX above.
CXCVII “hearts” = lebab. Related to “Lebanon” in v7. See note LXVIII above.
CXCVIII “made…melt” = masas. This is to melt, discourage, faint. It can be to deteriorate from a sickness or weaken because of sleepiness or an emotional response.
CXCIX “reporting” = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.

“The peopleCC are strongerCCI and tallerCCII than we; the cities are largeCCIII and fortifiedCCIV up to heaven!

Notes on verse 28b

CC “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CCI “stronger” = gadol. Same as “great” in v7. See note LXIX above.
CCII “taller” = rum. Related to “Abraham” in v8. See note LXXIX above.
CCIII “large” = gadol. Same as “great” in v7. See note LXIX above.
CCIV “fortified” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.

We actuallyCCV saw there the offspringCCVI of the Anakim!”’CCVII 

Notes on verse 28c

CCV “actually” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
CCVI “offspring” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v3. See note XXXIII above.
CCVII “Anakim” = Anaq. 9x in OT – all in Deuteronomy & Joshua. From the same as Anaq (Anak, Anaq; a name meaning “neck”); from the same as anaq (necklace, ornament, chain); perhaps from anaq (to encircle like a necklace or function as a necklace; figuratively, to furnish with supplies). This is someone descended from Anak – an Anakite. It may mean “neck.”

29 I said to you, ‘Have no dreadCCVIII or fear of them. 30 The Lord your God, who goesCCIX beforeCCX you, is the one who will fightCCXI for you, justCCXII as he did for you in Egypt before your very eyesCCXIII 

Notes on verses 29-30

CCVIII “have…dread” = arats. 15x in OT. This is to fear, terrify, be in awe, oppress, make one tremble, harass, shock.
CCIX “goes” = halak. Same as “went through” in v19. See note CLIII above.
CCX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CCXI “fight” = lacham. This is to eat or feed on. Figuratively, it is to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction.
CCXII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note IV above.
CCXIII “eyes” = ayin. Same as “to me” in v23. See note CLXXI above.

31 and in the wilderness, where you saw how the Lord your God carriedCCXIV you, just as oneCCXV carries a child,CCXVI all the way that you traveledCCXVII until you reached this place.CCXVIII 

Notes on verse 31

CCXIV “carried” = nasa. Same as “bear” in v9. See note LXXXVIII above.
CCXV “one” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CCXVI “child” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v3. See note XXXIII above.
CCXVII “traveled” = halak. Same as “went through” in v19. See note CLIII above.
CCXVIII “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

32 But in spite of this,CCXIX you have noCCXX trustCCXXI in the Lord your God, 33 who goes beforeCCXXII you on the way to seek outCCXXIII a place for you to camp,CCXXIV

Notes on verses 32-33a

CCXIX {untranslated} = dabar. Same as “words” in v1. See note I above.
CCXX “no” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
CCXXI “have…trust” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
CCXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CCXXIII “seek out” = tur. This is to seek out, explore, investigate. It is often used of trading or spying.
CCXXIV “camp” = chanah. This is decline, bending down, or living in tents. It can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle.

in fireCCXXV by night,CCXXVI and in the cloudCCXXVII by day,CCXXVIII to showCCXXIX you the route you should take.’CCXXX

Notes on verse 33b

CCXXV “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXVI “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
CCXXVII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
CCXXVIII “by day” = yomam. Related to “days” in v2. From yom (see note XXIII above). Root may mean to be hot. So, this is day as the hours that are hot. This can be daytime in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXIX “show” = raah. Same as “see” in v8. See note LXXII above.
CCXXX “take” = halak. Same as “went through” in v19. See note CLIII above.

34 “When the Lord heardCCXXXI your words, he was wrathfulCCXXXII and swore,CCXXXIII 

Notes on verse 34

CCXXXI {untranslated} = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CCXXXII “was wrathful” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
CCXXXIII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.

35 ‘Not oneCCXXXIV of these—not oneCCXXXV of this evilCCXXXVI generationCCXXXVII—shall see the good land that I swore to give to your ancestors, 

Notes on verse 35

CCXXXIV “one” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CCXXXV “one” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CCXXXVI “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CCXXXVII “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

36 exceptCCXXXVIII CalebCCXXXIX sonCCXL of Jephunneh.CCXLI

Notes on verse 36a

CCXXXVIII “except” = zulah. 16x in OT. Perhaps from zul (to shake out, lavish, despise). This is removal, except, besides.
CCXXXIX “Caleb” = Kaleb. From the same as keleb (a dog, male prostitute; perhaps from a word meaning to yelp or attack). This is Caleb or Kaleb, meaning “dog” or “unsophisticated servant.” See
CCXL “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v3. See note XXXIII above.
CCXLI “Jephunneh” = Yephunneh. Related to “resume…journey” in v7 & “before” in v8. 16x in OT. From panah (see note LIX above). This is Jephunneh or Yephunneh, meaning “he will be prepared” or “he will turn to” or “he will face” or “he will be beheld.” See

He shall see it, and to him and to his descendantsCCXLII I will give the land on which he set foot,CCXLIII because ofCCXLIV his complete fidelityCCXLV toCCXLVI the Lord.’ 

Notes on verse 36b

CCXLII “descendants” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v3. See note XXXIII above.
CCXLIII “set foot” = darak. Related to “way” in v2. See note XIX above.
CCXLIV “because of” = yaan. Related to “time” in v9 & “answered” in v14. From anah (see note LXXXIV above). This is because, since, for the sake of, giving a reason.
CCXLV “complete fidelity” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXLVI “to” = achar. Same as “after” in v4. See note XXXVII above.

37 EvenCCXLVII with me the Lord was angryCCXLVIII on your account,CCXLIX saying, ‘You alsoCCL shall not enterCCLI there. 

Notes on verse 37

CCXLVII “even” = gam. Same as “actually” in v28. See note CCV above.
CCXLVIII “was angry” = anaph. 14x in OT. This is to breathe hard, i.e. to be angry or displeased.
CCXLIX “account” = galal. 10x in OT. Perhaps from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense). This is an account or because.
CCL “also” = gam. Same as “actually” in v28. See note CCV above.
CCLI “enter” = bo. Same as “go” in v7. See note LX above.

38 JoshuaCCLII son of Nun,CCLIII your assistant,CCLIV shall enter there; encourageCCLV him, for he is the one who will secure Israel’s possessionCCLVI of it. 

Notes on verse 38

CCLII “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to {untranslated} and “Lord” in v3. From YHVH (see note XXXV above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
CCLIII “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”
CCLIV “assistant” = amad + paneh. Amad is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy. Paneh is the same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CCLV “encourage” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
CCLVI “secure…possession” = nachal. Related to “Wadi” in v24. See note CLXXVI above.

39 And as for your little onesCCLVII who you thoughtCCLVIII would becomeCCLIX plunder,CCLX your children who today do not yet knowCCLXI rightCCLXII from wrong,CCLXIII they shall enter there; to them I will give it, and they shall take possession of it. 

Notes on verse 39

CCLVII “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
CCLVIII “thought” = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.
CCLIX “become” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXVI above.
CCLX “plunder” = baz. From bazaz (to spoil, loot, pillage). This is robbery, spoil, booty, prey.
CCLXI “know” = yada. Same as “reputable” in v13. See note CVIII above.
CCLXII “right” = tob. Same as “good” in v14. See note CXV above.
CCLXIII “wrong” = ra’. Same as “evil” in v35. See note CCXXXVI above.

40 But as for you, journey backCCLXIV into the wilderness, in the directionCCLXV of the RedCCLXVI Sea.’CCLXVII

Notes on verse 40

CCLXIV “journey back” = panah + nasa. Panah is the same as “resume…journey” in v7. See note LIX above. Nasa is the same as “resume…journey” in v7. See note LIX above.
CCLXV “direction” = derek. Same as “way” in v2. See note XIX above.
CCLXVI “Red” = suph. Related to “Suph” in v1. See note XI above.
CCLXVII “Sea” = yam. Same as “seacoast” in v7. See note LXVI above.

41 “You answered me,CCLXVIII ‘We have sinnedCCLXIX against the Lord! We are ready to go up and fight, just as the Lord our God commandedCCLXX us.’

Notes on verse 41a

CCLXVIII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “follows” in v5. See note LIII above.
CCLXIX “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
CCLXX “commanded” = tsavah. Same as “commanded” in v3. See note XXXVI above.

So allCCLXXI of you strappedCCLXXII on your battleCCLXXIII gearCCLXXIV and thought it easyCCLXXV to go up into the hill country. 

Notes on verse 41b

CCLXXI “all” = ish. Same as “individuals” in v15. See note CXVII above.
CCLXXII “strapped” = chagar. This is to gird, bind, or arm. Generally, it is using a belt to gather up one’s garment so that it’s easier to run or move quickly.
CCLXXIII “battle” = milchamah. Related to “fight” in v30. From lacham (see note CCXI above). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
CCLXXIV “gear” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
CCLXXV “thought…easy” = hun. 1x in OT. This is to be nothing. In a figurative sense it is to consider something easy or light.

42 The Lord said to me, ‘Say to them: “Do not go up, and do not fight, for I am notCCLXXVI in the midstCCLXXVII of you; otherwise you will be defeatedCCLXXVIII byCCLXXIX your enemies.”’CCLXXX 

Notes on verse 42

CCLXXVI “not” = ayin. Same as “no” in v32. See note CCXX above.
CCLXXVII “midst” = qereb. Related to “bring” in v17. Perhaps from qarab (see note CXLVII above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CCLXXVIII “be defeated” = nagaph. This is to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease.
CCLXXIX “by” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CCLXXX “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

43 Although I toldCCLXXXI you, you would not listen.CCLXXXII You rebelled against the commandCCLXXXIII of the Lord and presumptuouslyCCLXXXIV went up into the hill country. 44 The Amorites who livedCCLXXXV in that hill country then came outCCLXXXVI againstCCLXXXVII you

Notes on verses 43-44a

CCLXXXI “told” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v1. See note III above.
CCLXXXII “listen” = shama. Same as “give…hearing” in v16. See note CXXX above.
CCLXXXIII “command” = peh. Same as “command” in v26. See note CLXXXVI above.
CCLXXXIV “presumptuously” = zud. 10x in OT. This is to cook, boil up, or seethe. Figuratively, it can mean to act with arrogance or insolence, to be rebellious.
CCLXXXV “lived” = yashab. Same as “reigned” in v4. See note XLII above.
CCLXXXVI “came out” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v27. See note CXC above.
CCLXXXVII “against” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.

and chasedCCLXXXVIII you as beesCCLXXXIX do. They beat you downCCXC in Seir as far as Hormah.CCXCI 

Notes on verse 44b

CCLXXXVIII “chased” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
CCLXXXIX “bees” = deborah. Related to “words” and “spoke” and “wilderness” in v1. 4x in OT. From dabar (see note I above). This is a bee. The root can sometimes refer to destruction and subduing.
CCXC “beat…down” = kathath. 17x in OT. This is to crush into pieces, to beat with a hammer, smash, bruise.
CCXCI “Hormah” = Chormah. 9x in OT. From charam (to ban, destroy, devote, seclude; to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction). This is Hormah or Chormah, meaning “asylum” or “devoted” or “dedicated” or “devoted to destruction” or “anathema.” See

45 When you returnedCCXCII and weptCCXCIII beforeCCXCIV the Lord, the Lord would neither heedCCXCV your voiceCCXCVI nor pay you any attention.CCXCVII

Notes on verse 45

CCXCII “returned” = shub. Same as “bring back” in v22. See note CLXV above.
CCXCIII “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
CCXCIV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v8. See note LXXIV above.
CCXCV “heed” = shama. Same as “give…hearing” in v16. See note CXXX above.
CCXCVI “voice” = qol. Same as {untranslated} in v34. See note CCXXXI above.
CCXCVII “pay…attention” = azan. Perhaps from ozen (ear, hearing, audience, show; properly, broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape). Properly, this is to expand or broaden one’s ear i.e. listen intently, pay attention, heed.

46 “After you had stayed at KadeshCCXCVIII as manyCCXCIX days as you did,CCC

Notes on verse 46

CCXCVIII “Kadesh” = Qadesh. Related to “Kadesh-barnea” in v2. 18x in OT. See note XXIV above.
CCXCIX “many” = rab. Same as “long enough” in v6. See note LVII above.
CCC “did” = yashab. Same as “reigned” in v4. See note XLII above.

Image credit: “Exodus (Path to Freedom)” by Curtis and Pip Reid of Bible Pathway Adventures.

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