Deuteronomy 9

Deuteronomy 9


“Hear,I O Israel!II You are about to crossIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
II “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
III “cross” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

the JordanIV today,V to go inVI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
V “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
VI “go in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

and dispossessVII nationsVIII largerIX and mightierX than you,

Notes on verse 1c

VII “dispossess” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
VIII “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
IX “larger” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
X “mightier” = atsum. From atsom (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.

greatXI cities,XII fortifiedXIII to the heavens,XIV 

Notes on verse 1d

XI “great” = gadol. Same as “larger” in v1. See note IX above.
XII “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XIII “fortified” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.
XIV “heavens” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

a strongXV and tallXVI people,XVII the offspringXVIII of the Anakim,XIX

Notes on verse 2a

XV “strong” = gadol. Same as “larger” in v1. See note IX above.
XVI “tall” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
XVII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XVIII “offspring” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “Anakim” = Anaq. 9x in OT. – all in Deuteronomy & Joshua. From the same as Anaq (Anak, Anaq; a name meaning “neck”); from the same as anaq (necklace, ornament, chain); perhaps from anaq (to encircle like a necklace or function as a necklace; figuratively, to furnish with supplies). This is someone descended from Anak – an Anakite. It may mean “neck.”

whom you know.XX You have heard it said, ‘Who can stand upXXI toXXII the Anakim?’XXIII 

Notes on verse 2b

XX “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XXI “stand up” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
XXII “to” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXIII “Anakim” = ben + Anaq. Literally “children of Anaq.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Anaq is related to “Anakim” in v2. 9x in OT. See note XIX above.

Know, then, today that the LordXXIV your GodXXV is the one who crosses over beforeXXVI you as a devouringXXVII fire;XXVIII he will defeatXXIX them and subdueXXX them

Notes on verse 3a

XXIV “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v1. See note II above.
XXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXVII “devouring” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVIII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIX “defeat” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
XXX “subdue” = kana. This is to be humble, subdue, humiliate, conquer. Properly, it means to bend the knee.

beforeXXXI you, so that you may dispossess and destroyXXXII them quickly,XXXIII as the Lord has promisedXXXIV you.

Notes on verse 3b

XXXI “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXXII “destroy” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
XXXIII “quickly” = maher. 18x in OT. From mahar (being liquid, which implies flowing; so, hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense). This is speedy, quickly, soon, suddenly, or at once.
XXXIV “promised” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

“When the Lord your God thrusts them outXXXV beforeXXXVI you, do not sayXXXVII to yourself,XXXVIII, XXXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXXV “thrusts…out” = hadaph. 11x in OT. This is to push away, thrust, reject, expel, push down, depose.
XXXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXXVII “say” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
XXXVIII “yourself” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XXXIX {untranslated} = amar. Same as “say” in v4. See note XXXVII above.

‘It is because of my righteousnessXL that the Lord has brought me inXLI to occupyXLII this land’;XLIII

Notes on verse 4b

XL “righteousness” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
XLI “brought…in” = bo. Same as “go in” in v1. See note VI above.
XLII “occupy” = yarash. Same as “dispossess” in v1. See note VII above.
XLIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

it is rather because of the wickednessXLIV of these nations that the Lord is dispossessing them beforeXLV you. It is not because of your righteousness or the uprightnessXLVI of your heart that you are going in to occupy their land, but because of the wickedness of these nations the Lord your God is dispossessing them beforeXLVII you,

Notes on verses 4c-5a

XLIV “wickedness” = rishah. 15x in OT. From the same as rasha (wrong, particularly moral wrong; wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something ill-gotten); perhaps from rasha (to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong; can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment; this verb implies disturbing or violating). This is a moral wrong, wickedness, guilt.
XLV “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
XLVI “uprightness” = yosher. 14x in OT. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is uprightness, integrity, equity, honest.
XLVII “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.

in order to fulfillXLVIII the promiseXLIX that the Lord made on oathL to your ancestors,LI

Notes on verse 5b

XLVIII “fulfill” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XLIX “promise” = dabar. Related to “promised” in v3. From dabar (see note XXXIV above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
L “made on oath” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
LI “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

to Abraham,LII to Isaac,LIII and to Jacob.LIV

Notes on verse 5c

LII “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “ancestors” in v5 & to “tall” in v2. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note LI above) + rum (see note XVI above)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
LIII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
LIV “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

“Know, then, that the Lord your God is not givingLV you this goodLVI land to occupy because of your righteousness, for you are a stubbornLVII people. 

Notes on verse 6

LV “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LVI “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LVII “stubborn” = qasheh + oreph. Literally, “stiff-necked.” Qasheh is from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is hard, severe, heavy, obstinate, hard-hearted. Oreph is the back of the neck – also used for stiff-necked. It is also used for the back more generally in a literal or figurative sense.

Remember;LVIII do not forgetLIX how you provoked the Lord your God to wrathLX in the wilderness;LXI you have beenLXII rebelliousLXIII against the Lord 

Notes on verse 7a

LVIII “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
LIX “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
LX “provoked…to wrath” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
LXI “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “promised” in v3 & “promise” in v5. From dabar (see note XXXIV above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
LXII “been” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v3. See note XXIV above.
LXIII “rebellious” = marah. This is to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient. It can be to be or make bitter or unpleasant. Figuratively, it is to rebel or resist and causatively to provoke. This is the root of “Miriam.”

from the dayLXIV you came outLXV of the land of EgyptLXVI until you cameLXVII to this place.LXVIII

Notes on verse 7b

LXIV “day” = yom. Same as “today” in v1. See note V above.
LXV “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
LXVII “came” = bo. Same as “go in” in v1. See note VI above.
LXVIII “place” = maqom. Related to “fulfill” in v5. From qum (see note XLVIII above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

“Even at HorebLXIX you provoked the Lord to wrath, and the Lord was so angryLXX with you that he was ready to destroyLXXI you. When I went upLXXII the mountainLXXIII to receiveLXXIV

Notes on verses 8-9a

LXIX “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
LXX “was so angry” = anaph. 14x in OT. This is to breathe hard, i.e. to be angry or displeased.
LXXI “was ready to destroy” = shamad. Same as “defeat” in v3. See note XXIX above.
LXXII “went up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LXXIV “receive” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.

the stoneLXXV tablets,LXXVI the tablets of the covenantLXXVII that the Lord madeLXXVIII with you,

Notes on verse 9b

LXXV “stone” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
LXXVI “tablets” = luach. Root likely means glistening, so this would refer to a tablet as being polished in some sense, whether it’s made of stone, wood, or metal.
LXXVII “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
LXXVIII “made” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

I remainedLXXIX on the mountain fortyLXXX days and forty nights;LXXXI

Notes on verse 9c

LXXIX “remained” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
LXXX “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
LXXXI “nights” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.

I neither ateLXXXII breadLXXXIII nor drankLXXXIV water.LXXXV 

Notes on verse 9d

LXXXII “ate” = akal. Same as “devouring” in v3. See note XXVII above.
LXXXIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXXXIV “drank” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
LXXXV “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

10 And the Lord gave me the twoLXXXVI stone tablets writtenLXXXVII with the fingerLXXXVIII of God; on them were allLXXXIX the wordsXC that the Lord had spoken to you at the mountain out ofXCI the fire on the day of the assembly.XCII 

Notes on verse 10

LXXXVI “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
LXXXVII “written” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.
LXXXVIII “finger” = etsba. Perhaps from the same as tseba (dye, something dipped). This is finger or toe – something used to seize.
LXXXIX “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XC “words” = dabar. Same as “promise” in v5. See note XLIX above.
XCI “out of” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XCII “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.

11 XCIIIAt the endXCIV of forty days and forty nights the Lord gave me the two stone tablets, the tablets of the covenant. 12 Then the Lord said to me, ‘Get up;XCV go downXCVI quickly from here, for your people whom you have broughtXCVII from Egypt have acted corruptly.XCVIII

Notes on verses 11-12a

XCIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “been” in v7. See note LXII above.
XCIV “end” = qets. From qatsats (to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense). This is outer border, end, or extremity. It can also mean infinite.
XCV “get up” = qum. Same as “fulfill” in v5. See note XLVIII above.
XCVI “go down” = yarad. Related to “Jordan” in v1. See note IV above.
XCVII “brought” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v7. See note LXV above.
XCVIII “acted corruptly” = shachath. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

They have been quick to turnXCIX from the wayC that I commandedCI them; they have castCII an imageCIII for themselves.’ 

Notes on verse 12b

XCIX “turn” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
C “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CI “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CII “cast” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CIII “image” = massekah. From nasak (to cover, pour out, offer; by analogy anointing a king). This is a pouring out or over. So it could be pouring molten metal to cast an image, making a libation (pouring out a drink offering), or otherwise covering.

13 Furthermore, the Lord said to me,CIV ‘I have seenCV that this people is indeedCVI a stubborn people. 14 Let me aloneCVII that I may destroyCVIII them

Notes on verses 13-14a

CIV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “say” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CV “seen” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CVI “indeed” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CVII “let…alone” = raphah. This is to slacken in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait.
CVIII “destroy” = shamad. Same as “defeat” in v3. See note XXIX above.

and blot outCIX their nameCX from underCXI heaven, and I will makeCXII of you a nation mightier and more numerousCXIII than they.’

Notes on verse 14b

CIX “blot out” = machah. This is to rub, which implies to erase. It can also be making something smooth with grease or oil. So, this could we wipe out, blot out, or destroy. Also, to touch or reach.
CX “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CXI “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CXII “make” = asah. Same as “cast” in v12. See note CII above.
CXIII “more numerous” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.

15 “So I turnedCXIV and went down from the mountain, while the mountain was ablaze;CXV the two tablets of the covenant were in my two hands.CXVI 16 Then I saw that you had indeed sinnedCXVII against the Lord your God, by castingCXVIII for yourselves an image; you had been quick to turnCXIX from the way that the Lord had commanded you. 

Notes on verses 15-16

CXIV “turned” = panah. Related to “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
CXV “was ablaze” = baar + esh. Baar is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting. Esh is the same as “fire” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CXVI “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXVII “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
CXVIII {untranslated} = egel. May be from the same as agol (round, circular – root meaning revolve). This is a male calf as one that frisks about. Often used for one that is almost grown up. This is also the word used for the molten calf in Ex 32.
CXIX “turn” = sur. Same as “turn” in v12. See note XCIX above.

17 So I took holdCXX of the two tablets and flungCXXI them from my two hands, smashingCXXII them before your eyes.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 17

CXX “took hold” = taphas. This is to catch, seize, wield, capture. It can also mean to use unwarrantably.
CXXI “flung” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXII “smashing” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIII “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

18 Then I layCXXIV prostrate beforeCXXV the Lord as before,CXXVI forty days and forty nights;

Notes on verse 18a

CXXIV “lay” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXXV “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
CXXVI “before” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.

I neither ate bread nor drank water because of all the sinCXXVII you had committed,CXXVIII provokingCXXIX the Lord 

Notes on verse 18b

CXXVII “sin” = chatta’ah. Related to “sinned” in v16. From chata’ (see note CXVII above). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
CXXVIII “committed” = chata. Same as “sinned” in v16. See note CXVII above.
CXXIX “provoking” = kaas. This is to provoke, be angry, grieve, trouble.

by doingCXXX what was evilCXXXI in his sight.CXXXII 

Notes on verse 18c

CXXX “doing” = asah. Same as “cast” in v12. See note CII above.
CXXXI “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CXXXII “sight” = ayin. Same as “eyes” in v17. See note CXXIII above.

19 For I was afraidCXXXIII thatCXXXIV the angerCXXXV that the Lord bore against you wasCXXXVI so fierceCXXXVII that he would destroyCXXXVIII you.

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXIII “was afraid” = yagor. 5x in OT. This is to fear or be in dread.
CXXXIV “that” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
CXXXV “anger” = aph. Related to “was so angry” in v8. From anaph (see note LXX above). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CXXXVI “was” = qatsaph. Same as “provoked…to wrath” in v7. See note LX above.
CXXXVII “so fierce” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.
CXXXVIII “destroy” = shamad. Same as “defeat” in v3. See note XXIX above.

But the Lord listenedCXXXIX to me that timeCXL also.CXLI 20 The Lord was soCXLII angryCXLIII with AaronCXLIV

Notes on verses 19b-20a

CXXXIX “listened” = shama. Same as “hear” in v1. See note I above.
CXL “time” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CXLI “also” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
CXLII “so” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CXLIII “was…angry” = anaph. Same as “was so angry” in v8. See note LXX above.
CXLIV “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See

that he was ready to destroyCXLV him, but I intercededCXLVI also on behalf ofCXLVII Aaron at that same time.CXLVIII 

Notes on verse 20b

CXLV “ready to destroy” = shamad. Same as “defeat” in v3. See note XXIX above.
CXLVI “interceded” = palal. This is to judge for oneself or in an official capacity. It can also mean to pray or make supplication, to entreat.
CXLVII “on behalf of” = baad. Perhaps from ad (up to, while); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is up to, behind, over, among.
CXLVIII “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.

21 Then I tookCXLIX the sinful thingCL you had made,CLI the calf,CLII and burnedCLIII it with fire and crushedCLIV it,

Notes on verse 21a

CXLIX “took” = laqach. Same as “receive” in v9. See note LXXIV above.
CL “sinful thing” = chatta’ah. Same as “sin” in v18. See note CXXVII above.
CLI “made” = asah. Same as “cast” in v12. See note CII above.
CLII “calf” = egel. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note CXVIII above.
CLIII “burned” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.
CLIV “crushed” = kathath. 17x in OT. This is to crush into pieces, to beat with a hammer, smash, bruise.

grindingCLV it thoroughly,CLVI until it was reducedCLVII to dust,CLVIII and I threwCLIX the dust into the streamCLX that runs downCLXI the mountain.

Notes on verse 21b

CLV “grinding” = tachan. 8x in OT. This is to grind as in grinding meal. It can also be used euphemistically for infidelity.
CLVI “thoroughly” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CLVII “reduced” = daq. 15x in OT. From daqaq (to crush, crumble, make dust, be very small). This is thin, crushed, small, very little.
CLVIII “dust” = aphar. May be related to aphar (to throw dust, be dust). This is dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored. It could be ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish.
CLIX “threw” = shalak. Same as “flung” in v17. See note CXXI above.
CLX “stream” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CLXI “runs down” = yarad. Same as “go down” in v12. See note XCVI above.

22 “At TaberahCLXII also, and at Massah,CLXIII and at Kibroth-hattaavah,CLXIV youCLXV provoked the Lord to wrath.CLXVI 

Notes on verse 22

CLXII “Taberah” = Taberah. Related to “was ablaze” in v15. 2x in OT. From baar (see note CXV above). This is Taberah, meaning “burning,” “figure,” form,” “likeness,” “pattern,” or “similitude.”
CLXIII “Massah” = Massah. 4x in OT. From nasah (to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt). This is Massah, meaning “test” or “temptation” or “proving.” See
CLXIV “Kibroth-hattaavah” = Qibroth Hattaavah. 5x in OT – 4x in Numbers & 1x in Deuteronomy. From qeber (a place where one is buried; a grave or tomb); {from qabar (to bury)} + taavah (what is desirable, a delight, greedy, satisfaction, a charm); {from avah (to desire, wish for, crave, lust after, to incline)}. This is Kibroth-hattaavah or Qibroth Hattaavah, meaning “the graves of desire” or “graves of the longing.”
CLXV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “been” in v7. See note LXII above.
CLXVI “provoked…to wrath” = qatsaph. Same as “provoked…to wrath” in v7. See note LX above.

23 And when the Lord sentCLXVII you from Kadesh-barnea,CLXVIII saying, ‘Go up and occupy the land that I have given you,’ you rebelled againstCLXIX the commandCLXX of the Lord your God,

Notes on verse 23a

CLXVII “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CLXVIII “Kadesh-barnea” = Qadesh barnea. Related to “covenant” in v9. 10x in OT. From Qadesh (Kadesh, a place whose name means sacred or sanctuary); {from the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.)} + perhaps a word related to Aramaic bar (open field); {related to Hebrew bar (see note LXXVII above)} + a word from nua (to waver in a literal or figurative sense; to tremble, quiver, totter; a fugitive). This is Kadesh-barnea or Qadesh Barnea, meaning “sacred desert of wandering” or “holy purifying staggerings” or “holy purifying wanderings.” See
CLXIX “rebelled against” = marah. Same as “rebellious” in v7. See note LXIII above.
CLXX “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

neither trustingCLXXI him nor obeyingCLXXII him.CLXXIII 24 You have been rebellious against the Lord as long asCLXXIV he has known you.

Notes on verses 23b-24

CLXXI “trusting” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
CLXXII “obeying” = shama. Same as “hear” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXIII “him” = qol. Literally, “his voice.” Qol is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CLXXIV “as long as” = yom. Same as “today” in v1. See note V above.

25 “Throughout the forty days and forty nights that I lay prostrate beforeCLXXV the LordCLXXVI when the Lord intendedCLXXVII to destroyCLXXVIII you, 

Notes on verse 25

CLXXV “before” = paneh. Same as “to” in v2. See note XXII above.
CLXXVI {untranslated} = naphal. Same as “lay” in v18. See note CXXIV above.
CLXXVII “intended” = amar. Same as “say” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CLXXVIII “destroy” = shamad. Same as “defeat” in v3. See note XXIX above.

26 I prayedCLXXIX to the Lord and said, ‘LordCLXXX God,CLXXXI do not destroyCLXXXII your people, your very own possession,CLXXXIII

Notes on verse 26a

CLXXIX “prayed” = palal. Same as “interceded” in v20. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXX “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
CLXXXI “God” = YHVH. Same as “Lord’ In v3. See note XXIV above.
CLXXXII “destroy” = shachath. Same as “acted corruptly” in v12. See note XCVIII above.
CLXXXIII “possession” = nachalah. Related to “stream” in v21. Related to nachal (see note CLX above). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

whom you redeemedCLXXXIV in your greatness,CLXXXV whom you broughtCLXXXVI out of Egypt with a mightyCLXXXVII hand. 

Notes on verse 26b

CLXXXIV “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.
CLXXXV “greatness” = godel. Related to “larger” in v1. 13x in OT. From gadal (see note IX above). This greatness, arrogance, or magnitude. It can be used in a literal or a figurative sense.
CLXXXVI “brought” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v7. See note LXV above.
CLXXXVII “mighty” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.

27 Remember your servants,CLXXXVIII Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; pay no attentionCLXXXIX to the stubbornnessCXC of this people, their wickednessCXCI and their sin, 

Notes on verse 27

CLXXXVIII “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLXXXIX “pay…attention” = panah. Same as “turned” in v15. See note CXIV above.
CXC “stubbornness” = qeshi. Related to “stubborn” in v6. 1x in OT. From qashah (see note LVII above). This is stubbornness or obstinacy.
CXCI “wickedness” = resha. Related to “wickedness” in v4. From rasha (see note XLIV above). This is wrong, particularly moral wrong. It can be wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten.

28 lestCXCII the land from which you have broughtCXCIII us say, “Because the LordCXCIV was notCXCV ableCXCVI

Notes on verse 28a

CXCII “lest” = pen. Related to “to” in v2 & “turned” in v15. Perhaps from panah (see note XXII above). This is lest, if, or.
CXCIII “brought” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v7. See note LXV above.
CXCIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord’ In v3. See note XXIV above.
CXCV “because…not” = beli. From balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend). This is properly a failure. So, it could mean without, not yet, unawares, lacking, something that wears out, or because not.
CXCVI “was…able” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.

to bringCXCVII them into the land that he promised them and because he hatedCXCVIII them, he has brought them outCXCIX to let them dieCC in the wilderness.” 

Notes on verse 28b

CXCVII “bring” = bo. Same as “go in” in v1. See note VI above.
CXCVIII “hated” = sinah. 16x in OT. From sane (to hate, an enemy; a personal hatred and not an abstract one). This is hatred or hate.
CXCIX “brought…out” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v7. See note LXV above.
CC “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

29 For they are your people, your very own possession, whom you brought outCCI by your great powerCCII and by your outstretchedCCIII arm.’CCIV

Notes on verse 29

CCI “brought out” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v7. See note LXV above.
CCII “power” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
CCIII “outstretched” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
CCIV “arm” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.

Image credit: “Leviticus: The Law” by Baruj Salinas, 2014.

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