Ecclesiastes 1:1-11 & 3:1-17

Ecclesiastes 1:1-11 & 3:1-17
Narrative Lectionary


1:1 The wordsI of the Teacher,II the sonIII

Notes on verse 1:1a

I “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
II “Teacher” = Qoheleth. 7x in OT– all in Ecclesiastes. From the same as qahal (assembly, congregation, multitude); from qahal (to gather, convene, assemble like a congregation). This is Qoheleth, meaning “preacher,” “lecturer,” or “teacher.”
III “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

of David,IV kingV in Jerusalem.VI

VanityVII of vanities, says the Teacher,
    vanity of vanities! AllVIII is vanity.

Notes on verses 1:1b-2

IV “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
V “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
VI “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
VII “vanity” = hebel. This is emptiness, vapor, breath. It can refer to something that is fleeting or futile, worthless or a delusion. Something that is passing and so does not satisfy. This is related to the root for the name “Abel.”
VIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.

What do peopleIX gainX from all the toilXI

Notes on verse 1:3a

IX “people” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
X “gain” = yithron. 10x in OT– all in Ecclesiastes. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is gain, profit, advantage, preeminence.
XI “toil” = amal. From amal (to work – hard labor). This is trouble, toil, labor as well as misery, sorrow, or iniquity. It is work that wearies through effort so hence worry – can refer to body or mind.

    at which they toilXII underXIII the sun?XIV

Notes on verse 1:3b

XII “toil” = amal. Related to “toil” in v1:3. 11x in OT. See note XI above.
XIII “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XIV “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.

A generationXV goes,XVI and a generation comes,XVII
    but the earthXVIII remainsXIX forever.XX

Notes on verse 1:4

XV “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
XVI “goes” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XVII “comes” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XVIII “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XIX “remains” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XX “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

The sun rises,XXI and the sun goes downXXII
    and hurriesXXIII to the placeXXIV where it rises.

Notes on verse 1:5

XXI “rises” = zarach. 18x in OT. This is to rise, shine, or dawn. It can also be used to describe symptoms of leprosy.
XXII “goes down” = bo. Same as “comes” in v1:4. See note XVII above.
XXIII “hurries” = shaaph. 14x in OT. This is to pant, long for, trample, crush, to rise as the sun, to hurry. It can refer to gasping as a woman in labor does or gasping from desire. It can also imply anger.
XXIV “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

The wind blowsXXV to the southXXVI
    and goes aroundXXVII to the north;XXVIII

Notes on verse 1:6a

XXV “blows” = halak. Same as “goes” in v1:4. See note XVI above.
XXVI “south” = darom. 17x in OT – 13x in Ezekiel. Perhaps related to deror (flowing quickly – hence flowing free, release, and liberty; pure or clear). This is south or south wind.
XXVII “goes around” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVIII “north” = tsaphon. From tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk). This is properly hidden, dark, or gloomy. It can also be used to refer to the north.

roundXXIX and round goesXXX the wind,XXXI
    and on its circuitsXXXII the wind returns.XXXIII

Notes on verse 1:6b

XXIX “round” = sabab. Same as “goes around” in v1:6. See note XXVII above.
XXX “goes” = halak. Same as “goes” in v1:4. See note XVI above.
XXXI “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
XXXII “circuits” = sabib. Related to “goes around” in v1:6. From sabab (see note XXVII above). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
XXXIII “returns” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

All streamsXXXIV runXXXV to the sea,XXXVI

Notes on verse 1:7a

XXXIV “streams” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
XXXV “run” = halak. Same as “goes” in v1:4. See note XVI above.
XXXVI “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

    but the sea is notXXXVII full;XXXVIII
to the place where the streams flow,XXXIX
    there they continueXL to flow.

Notes on verse 1:7b

XXXVII “not” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
XXXVIII “full” = male. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is full in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean filling or pregnant.
XXXIX “flow” = halak. Same as “goes” in v1:4. See note XVI above.
XL “continue” = shub. Same as “return” in v1:6. See note XXXIII above.

All thingsXLI are wearisome,XLII
    more than oneXLIII canXLIV express;XLV

Notes on verse 1:8a

XLI “things” = dabar. Same as “words” in v1:1. See note I above.
XLII “wearisome” = yagea. 3x in OT. From yaga (to work, become weary, to gasp or be exhausted). This is weary – tired from working.
XLIII “one” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XLIV “can” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XLV “express” = dabar. Related to “words” n v1:1. See note I above.

the eyeXLVI is not satisfiedXLVII with seeingXLVIII
    or the earXLIX filledL with hearing.LI

Notes on verse 1:8b

XLVI “eye” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XLVII “is…satisfied” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.
XLVIII “seeing” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XLIX “ear” = ozen. This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
L “filled” = male. Related to “full” in v1:7. See note XXXVIII above.
LI “hearing” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

What has beenLII is what will be,
    and what has been doneLIII is what will be done;
    there is nothingLIV newLV under the sun.

Notes on verse 1:9

LII “been” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
LIII “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LIV “nothing” = ayin + kol. Ayin is the same as “not” in v1:7. See note XLVI above. Kol is the same as “all” in v1:2. See note VIII above.
LV “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.

10 Is thereLVI a thing of which it is said,
    “See, this is new”?
It has alreadyLVII been
    in the agesLVIII beforeLIX us.

Notes on verse 1:10

LVI “is there” = yesh. This is being, existence, or substance.
LVII “already” = kebar. 9x in OT – all in Ecclesiastes. From kabar (to be many, multiply, increase amount or quality; properly, this is to braid or weave together). This is already, now, or long ago.
LVIII “ages” = olam. Same as “forever” in v1:4. See note XX above.
LIX “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

11 The people of long agoLX are notLXI remembered,LXII
    nor will there be any remembranceLXIII

Notes on verse 1:11a

LX “long ago” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
LXI “not” = ayin. Same as “not” in v1:7. See note XLVI above.
LXII “remembered” = zikkaron. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is remembrance, memorial, or record. It can also be a day that is memorable.
LXIII “remembrance” = zikkaron. Same as “remembered” in v1:11. See note LXII above.

LXIVof people yetLXV to comeLXVI
    by those who comeLXVII afterLXVIII them.

Notes on verse 1:11b

LXIV {untranslated} = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
LXV “yet” = acharon. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is end, last, coming behind, to loiter, later. It can also refer to the west.
LXVI “come” = hayah. Same as “been” in v1:9. See note LII above.
LXVII “come” = hayah. Same as “been” in v1:9. See note LII above.
LXVIII “after” = acharon. Same as “yet” in v1:11. See note LXV above.

3:1 For everythingLXIX there is a seasonLXX and a timeLXXI

Notes on verse 3:1a

LXIX “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v1:2. See note VIII above.
LXX “season” = zeman. 4x in OT– including twice in Esther of the time appointed for Purim. From zaman (to set a time, be appointed); perhaps from zamam (to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil; usually in an evil sense). This is a specific time, occasion, or season.
LXXI “time” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.

for everyLXXII matterLXXIII under heaven:LXXIV

Notes on verse 3:1b

LXXII “every” = kol. Same as “all” in v1:2. See note VIII above.
LXXIII “matter” = chephets. From chaphets (properly, inclined towards or bending to; figuratively, to desire, delight in, or be pleased with). This is a delight, care, or pleasure. It is what you desire or what is acceptable. It can also be used concretely for a precious thing or something that one is thinking about.
LXXIV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

a time to be bornLXXV and a time to die;LXXVI
a time to plantLXXVII and a time to pluck upLXXVIII what is planted;

Notes on verse 3:2

LXXV “born” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
LXXVI “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LXXVII “plant” = nata. To fix or fasten, establish or plant. This is planting in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVIII “pluck up” = aqar. 7x in OT. From eqer (stock, member, offshoot; figuratively, could be a descendant or someone who is transplanted like an immigrant who takes up permanent residence). This is to dig down, pull up – particularly by root. It can also mean to hamstring (oxen or horses) or figuratively to exterminate.

a time to killLXXIX and a time to heal;LXXX
a time to break downLXXXI and a time to build up;LXXXII

Notes on verse 3:3

LXXIX “kill” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
LXXX “heal” = rapha. Properly, this is to repair by stitching – figuratively this means to heal or cure. It can also mean to make whole.
LXXXI “break down” = parats. This is to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse. It is to break out literally or figuratively.
LXXXII “build up” = banah. Related to “son” in v1:1. See note III above.

a time to weepLXXXIII and a time to laugh;LXXXIV
a time to mournLXXXV and a time to dance;LXXXVI

Notes on verse 3:4

LXXXIII “weep” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
LXXXIV “laugh” = sachaq. This is to laugh, celebrate, joke, mock, scorn. This is laughing, whether for joy or scorn. It can imply plays or holding a contest.
LXXXV “mourn” = saphad. This is to wail, mourn. Properly, it is lamenting by tearing one’s hair and beating one’s chest. It implies wailing.
LXXXVI “dance” = raqad. 9x in OT– 4x of dancing, 3x of animals skipping, 2x of chariots leaping/bounding. This is to skip, spring around, leap, frolic, dance. Properly, it means to stamp.

a time to throw awayLXXXVII stonesLXXXVIII and a time to gatherLXXXIX stones together;
a time to embraceXC and a time to refrainXCI from embracing;

Notes on verse 3:5

LXXXVII “throw away” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVIII “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
LXXXIX “gather” = kanas. 11x in OT. This is to gather, assemble, enfold.
XC “embrace” = chabaq. 13x in OT. This is to embrace, clasp one’s hands, or cling.
XCI “refrain” = rachaq. This is to widen, become distant, cast, or remove. It can be in a literal or figurative sense.

a time to seekXCII and a time to lose;XCIII
a time to keepXCIV and a time to throw away;
a time to tearXCV and a time to sew;XCVI
a time to keep silentXCVII and a time to speak;XCVIII

Notes on verses 3:6-7

XCII “seek” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
XCIII “lose” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
XCIV “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XCV “tear” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
XCVI “sew” = taphar. 4x in OT– including sewing fig leaves together in Genesis 3:7 & a time to sew in Ecclesiastes 3:7. This is to sew together or women who sew.
XCVII “keep silent” = chashah. 15x in OT. This is to be silent or not doing anything.
XCVIII “speak” = dabar. Same as “express” in v1:8. See note XLV above.

a time to loveXCIX and a time to hate;C
a time for warCI and a time for peace.CII

Notes on verse 3:8

XCIX “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
C “hate” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
CI “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
CII “peace” = shalom. Related to “Jerusalem” in v1:1. From shalam (see note VI above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

What gain have the workersCIII from their toil?CIV 10 I have seen the businessCV that GodCVI has givenCVII to everyoneCVIII to be busyCIX with. 

Notes on verses 3:9-10

CIII “workers” = asah. Same as “done” in v1:9. See note LIII above.
CIV “toil” = amel. Related to “toil” and “toil” in v1:3. 9x in OT. From amal (see note XI above). This is a laborer, one who suffers, wicked. It could also mean sorrowful.
CV “business” = inyan. 8x in OT– all in Ecclesiastes. From anbah (to be busy or occupied with something; also, to be afflicted). This is a task, effort, business, or investment.
CVI “God” = Elohim.
CVII “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CVIII “everyone” = ben + adam. Literally, “the children of humanity.” Ben is the same as “son” in v1:1. See note III above. Adam is the same as “people” in v1:3. See note IX above.
CIX “be busy” = anah. Related to “business” in v3:10. See note CV above.

11 He has madeCX everything suitableCXI for its time; moreover,CXII he has putCXIII

Notes on verse 3:11a

CX “made” = asah. Same as “done” in v1:9. See note LIII above.
CXI “suitable” = yapheh. From yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is beautiful in a literal or figurative sense – appropriate, handsome, godly, pleasant.
CXII “moreover” = gam. Same as {untranslated} in v1:11. See note LXIV above.
CXIII “put” = natan. Same as “given” in v3:10. See note CVII above.

a sense of past and futureCXIV into their minds,CXV yetCXVI theyCXVII cannot find outCXVIII

Notes on verse 3:11b

CXIV “past and future” = olam. Same as “forever” in v1:4. See note XX above.
CXV “minds” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXVI “yet” = beli. From balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend). This is properly a failure. So, it could mean without, not yet, unawares, lacking, something that wears out, or because not.
CXVII “they” = adam. Same as “people” in v1:3. See note IX above.
CXVIII “find out” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.

what God hasCXIX doneCXX from the beginningCXXI toCXXII the end.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 3:11c

CXIX “has” = asah. Same as “done” in v1:9. See note LIII above.
CXX “what…done” = maaseh. Related to “done” in v1:9. From asah (see note LIII above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
CXXI “beginning” = rosh. Related to “long ago” in v1:11. See note LX above.
CXXII “to” = ad. Related to “time” in v3:1. From the same as ad (eternity, old); from adah (see note LXXI above). This is as far as, until, before.
CXXIII “end” = soph. 5x in OT. From suph (to cease, snatch away, consume, remove). This is an end or termination. It can also refer to the back.

12 I knowCXXIV that there is nothing betterCXXV for them than to be happyCXXVI and enjoyCXXVII themselves as long as they live;CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 3:12

CXXIV “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CXXV “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CXXVI “be happy” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXVII “enjoy” = asah + tob. Literally, “to do good.” Asah is the same as “done” in v1:9. See note LIII above. Tob is the same as “better” in v3:12. See note CXXV above.
CXXVIII “live” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

13 moreover, it is God’s giftCXXIX that allCXXX should eatCXXXI and drinkCXXXII and take pleasureCXXXIII in all their toil.CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 3:13

CXXIX “gift” = mattath. Related to “given” in v3:10. 6x in OT. From mattan (gift, reward); from natan (see note CVII above). This is a gift or reward.
CXXX {untranslated} = adam. Same as “people” in v1:3. See note IX above.
CXXXI “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXII “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
CXXXIII “take pleasure” = raah + tob. Literally, “see the good.” Raah is the same as “seeing” in v1:8. See note XLVIII above. Tob is the same as “better” in v3:12. See note CXXV above.
CXXXIV “toil” = amal. Same as “toil” in v1:3. See note XI above.

14 I know thatCXXXV whatever God does enduresCXXXVI forever; nothing can be addedCXXXVII to it norCXXXVIII anything takenCXXXIX from it; God has done this so that all should stand in aweCXL beforeCXLI him. 

Notes on verse 3:14

CXXXV {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v1:2. See note VIII above.
CXXXVI “endures” = hayah. Same as “been” in v1:9. See note LII above.
CXXXVII “added” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CXXXVIII “nor” = ayin. Same as “not” in v1:7. See note XLVI above.
CXXXIX “taken” = gara. This is to remove, restrain, cut off, take away, shave, limit.
CXL “stand in awe” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CXLI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1:10. See note LIX above.

15 That which is already has been, that which is to be already is, and God seeks out what has gone by.CXLII

16 Moreover,CXLIII I saw under the sun that, in the place of justice,CXLIV wickednessCXLV was there, and in the place of righteousness,CXLVI wickedness was there as well. 

Notes on verses 3:15-16

CXLII “gone by” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
CXLIII “moreover” = od. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is still, yet, again, more.
CXLIV “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
CXLV “wickedness” = resha. From rasha (to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong; can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment; this verb implies disturbing or violating). This is wrong, particularly moral wrong. It can be wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten.
CXLVI “righteousness” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.

17 I said to myself,CXLVII “God will judgeCXLVIII the righteousCXLIX and the wicked,CL for he has appointed a time for every matter and for every work.”CLI

Notes on verse 3:17

CXLVII “myself” = leb. Literally, “in my heart.” Same as “minds” in v3:11. See note CXV above.
CXLVIII “judge” = shaphat. Related to “justice” in v3:16. See note CXLIV above.
CXLIX “righteous” = tsaddiq. Related to “righteousness” in v3:16. From the same as tsedeq (see note CXLVI above). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
CL “wicked” = rasha. Related to “wickedness” in v3:16. See note CXLV above.
CLI “work” = maaseh. Same as “done” in v3:11. See note CXX above.

Image credit: “A Lame Man is Healed” by Nadine de Boer.

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