Genesis 30

Genesis 30


When RachelI sawII that she bore JacobIII no children,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Rachel” = Rachel. From the same as rachel (a ewe, sheep). Its root may refer to travelling. This is Rachel, meaning “ewe.”
II “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
III “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
IV “bore…children” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.

she enviedV her sister;VI and she said to Jacob, “GiveVII me children,VIII or I shall die!”IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “envied” = qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy.
VI “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
VII “give” = yahab. This is give, put, bring, take. It is to give in a literal or figurative sense.
VIII “children” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

Jacob became very angryX with Rachel and said, “Am I in the place ofXI God,XII who has withheldXIII from you the fruitXIV of the womb?”XV 

Notes on verse 2

X “became very angry” = charah + aph. Literally” was kindled the anger of Jacob against Rachel.” Charah is perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy. Aph is from anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XI “in the place of” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XII “God” = Elohim.
XIII “withheld” = mana. This is to hold back, refuse, restrain, deny. It could be in a positive or in a negative sense.
XIV “fruit” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.
XV “womb” = beten. Root may mean to be hollow. This is the belly or womb. It can also refer to a body more broadly.

Then she said, “HereXVI is my maidXVII Bilhah;XVIII go inXIX to her, that she may bear upon my kneesXX and that I too may have childrenXXI through her.” 

Notes on verse 3

XVI “here” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XVII “maid” = amah. This is female servant or slave, handmaid.
XVIII “Bilhah” = Bilhah. 11x in OT. From balahh (to be afraid, to palpitate) OR from balah (to wear out). This is Bilhah, perhaps meaning “timid,” “trouble,” “foolish,” or “calamity.” It is also a place. See
XIX “go in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XX “knees” = berek. From barak (to kneel, bless; blessing God as part of worship and adoration; blessing humans to help them; can be used as a euphemism to say curse God). This is the knee.
XXI “have children” = banah. Related to “children” in v1. See note VIII above.

So she gaveXXII him her maidXXIII Bilhah as a wife;XXIV and Jacob went in to her. And Bilhah conceivedXXV and bore Jacob a son.XXVI 

Notes on verses 4-5

XXII “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXIII “maid” = shiphchah. Root means spreading out. The same root is used in mishpachah, which means family (spread out in offspring). This is maid, maidservant, or female slave.
XXIV “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
XXV “conceived” = harah. This is to conceive or be pregnant – it can be literal or figurative.
XXVI “son” = ben. Same as “children” in v1. See note VIII above.

Then Rachel said, “God has judgedXXVII me, and has also heardXXVIII my voiceXXIX and given me a son”; therefore she namedXXX him Dan.XXXI 

Notes on verse 6

XXVII “judged” = din. This is to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead.
XXVIII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXIX “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
XXX “named” = qara + shem. Literally “she called his name.” Qara is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XXXI “Dan” = Dan. Related to “judged” in v6. From din (see note XXVII above). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.

Rachel’s maid Bilhah conceived again and bore Jacob a secondXXXII son. Then Rachel said, “With mightyXXXIII wrestlingsXXXIV I have wrestledXXXV with my sister, and have prevailed”;XXXVI so she named him Naphtali.XXXVII

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXII “second” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
XXXIII “mighty” = elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XII above. From eloah (God, a god); from el (God, a god). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
XXXIV “wrestlings” = naphtulim. 1x in OT. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is wrestlings, a struggle.
XXXV “wrestled” = pathal. Related to “wrestlings” in v8. 5x in OT. See note XXXIV above.
XXXVI “prevailed” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XXXVII “Naphtali” = Naphtali. Related to “wrestlings” and “wrestled” in v8. From pathal (see note XXXIV above). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.

When LeahXXXVIII saw that she had ceasedXXXIX bearing children, she tookXL her maidXLI ZilpahXLII and gave her to Jacob as a wife. 10 Then Leah’s maid Zilpah bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, “Good fortune!”XLIII so she named him Gad.XLIV 

Notes on verses 9-11

XXXVIII “Leah” = Leah. From laah (to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired; to be impatient or have a hard time; figuratively, being grieved or disgusted). This is Leah, meaning “weary” or “wild cow.” See
XXXIX “ceased” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XL “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XLI “maid” = shihphchah. Same as “maid” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XLII “Zilpah” = Zilpah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from zalaph (drip, sprinkle, pour – as fragrance or myrrh does). This is Zilpah, meaning “drop” or “sprinkle.” See
XLIII “good fortune” = bo + gad. Bo is the same as “go in” in v3. See note XIX above. Gad is 2x in OT. Perhaps from gud (to attack, overcome). This is fortune, fortunate, the name of a Phoenician god associated with fortune, or a troop.
XLIV “Gad” = Gad. Related to “good fortune” in v11. Perhaps from gad (see note XLIII above).  This is Gad, his descendants and tribe, and the place where they settled. It means “good fortune” or “good luck.”

12 Leah’s maid Zilpah bore Jacob a second son. 13 And Leah said, “HappyXLV am I! For the womenXLVI will call me happy”;XLVII so she named him Asher.XLVIII

Notes on verses 12-13

XLV “happy” = osher. 1x in OT. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is happy or happiness.
XLVI “women” = bat. Related to “children” in v1 & “have children” in v3. From ben (see note VIII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVII “call…happy” = ashar. Related to “happy” in v13. 16x in OT. See note XLV above.
XLVIII “Asher” = Asher. Related to “happy” in v13 and “call…happy” in v13. From ashar (see note XLV above). This is Asher, the person, his offspring and tribe. It is also a city name. It means “happy” or “happy one.”

14 In the daysXLIX of wheatL harvestLI ReubenLII wentLIII

Notes on verse 14a

XLIX “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
L “wheat” = chittah. Perhaps from chanat (to spice, ripen, embalm). This is wheat, referring to the plant or its product.
LI “harvest” = qatsiyr. From qatsar (to cut down, be short, reap, curtail; used especially for harvesting grass or grain; figuratively, to be discouraged or grieve). This is branch, harvest, one who harvests. Properly, this means severed, reaped. It is the crop being harvested, the time of harvest or the one who harvests. It can also be a bough.
LII “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “saw” in v1 & to “children” in v1 & “have children” in v3 & “women” in v13. From raah (see note II above) + ben (see note VIII above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
LIII “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

and foundLIV mandrakesLV in the field,LVI and broughtLVII them to his motherLVIII Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “PleaseLIX give me some of your son’s mandrakes.” 

Notes on verse 14b

LIV “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LV “mandrakes” = duday. 7x in OT. From dud (basket, cauldron; a kettle used to boil in); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle, love token; root may mean to boil). This is mandrake or basket. Mandrake was thought to be an aphrodisiac.
LVI “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
LVII “brought” = bo. Same as “go in” in v3. See note XIX above.
LVIII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LIX “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”

15 But she said to her, “Is it a smallLX matter that you have taken awayLXI my husband?LXII Would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?”

Rachel said, “Then he may lieLXIII with you tonightLXIV forLXV your son’s mandrakes.” 

Notes on verse 15

LX “small” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
LXI “taken away” = laqach. Same as “took” in v9. See note XL above.
LXII “husband” = enosh. Related to “wife” in v4. See note XXIV above.
LXIII “lie” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
LXIV “tonight” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LXV “for” = tachat. Same as “in the place of” in v2. See note XI above.

16 When Jacob cameLXVI from the field in the evening, Leah went outLXVII to meetLXVIII him, and said, “You must come in to me; for I have hiredLXIX you with my son’s mandrakes.” So he lay with her that night. 

Notes on verse 16

LXVI “came” = bo. Same as “go in” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXVII “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVIII “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
LXIX “hired” = sakar + sakar. This is to hire, reward, earn. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

17 And God heededLXX Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 Leah said, “God has given me my hireLXXI because I gave my maid to my husband”;LXXII so she named him Issachar.LXXIII 

Notes on verses 17-18

LXX “heeded” = shama. Same as “heard” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXXI “hire” = sakar. Related to “hired” in v16. From sakar (see note LXIX above). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.
LXXII “husband” = ish. Related to “wife” in v4 & “husband” in v15. See note XXIV above.
LXXIII “Issachar” = Yissakar. Related to “hired” in v16 & “hire” and “husband” in v18. Perhaps from nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept) + sakar (see note LXIX above) OR from ish (see note LXXII above) + sakar (see note LXIX above) OR from yesh (there is) + sakar (see note LXIX above). This is Issachar, the person and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “[God] will bring a reward.” See

19 And Leah conceived again, and she bore Jacob a sixth son. 20 Then Leah said, “God has endowedLXXIV me with a goodLXXV dowry;LXXVI nowLXXVII my husbandLXXVIII will honorLXXIX me, because I have borne him six sons”;

Notes on verses 19-20a

LXXIV “endowed” = zabad. 1x in OT. This is to bestow, confer, endure.
LXXV “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LXXVI “dowry” = zebed. 1x in OT. From zabad (see note LXXIV above). This is a gift or dowry.
LXXVII “now” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
LXXVIII “husband” = ish. Same as “husband” in v18. See note LXXII above.
LXXIX “honor” = zabal. 1x in OT. This is to dwell, inclose, reside.

so she named him Zebulun.LXXX 21 Afterwards she bore a daughter,LXXXI and named her Dinah.LXXXII

Notes on verses 20b-21

LXXX “Zebulun” = Zebulun. Related to “honor” in v20. From zabal (see note LXXIX above) OR from zabal (to honor, lift up). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation,” “instance of exaltation,” “wished-for habitation,” or “glorious dwelling place.” See
LXXXI “daughter” = bat. Same as “women” in v13. See note XLVI above.
LXXXII “Dinah” = Dinah. Related to “judged” and “Dan” in v6. 8x in OT. Related to din (see note XXVII above). This is Dinah, meaning “justice,” “judge,” “judgment,” or “vindicated.” See

22 Then God rememberedLXXXIII Rachel, and God heeded her and openedLXXXIV her womb.LXXXV 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXIII “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
LXXXIV “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LXXXV “womb” = rechem. Related to racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is a womb.

23 She conceived and bore a son, and said, “God has taken awayLXXXVI my reproach”;LXXXVII 24 and she named him Joseph,LXXXVIII saying, “May the LordLXXXIX addXC to me another son!”

Notes on verses 23-24

LXXXVI “taken away” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
LXXXVII “reproach” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.
LXXXVIII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
LXXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XC “add” = yasaph. Related to “Joseph” in v24. See note LXXXVIII above.

25 XCIWhen Rachel had borne Joseph, Jacob said to Laban,XCII “Send me away,XCIII that I may go to my own homeXCIV and country.XCV 

Notes on verse 25

XCI {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v24. See note LXXXIX above.
XCII “Laban” = Laban. From the same as laban (white); from laban (to be white or make a brick). This is Laban, meaning white.
XCIII “send…away” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XCIV “home” = maqom. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
XCV “country” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

26 Give me my wives and my childrenXCVI for whom I have servedXCVII you, and let me go; for you knowXCVIII very well the serviceXCIX I have givenC you.” 

Notes on verse 26

XCVI “children” = yeled. Related to “bore…children” in v1. From yalad (see note IV above). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
XCVII “served” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
XCVIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XCIX “service” = abodah. Related to “served” in v26. From abad (see note XCVII above).
C “given” = abad. Same as “served” in v26. See note XCVII above.

27 But Laban said to him, “If you will allow me to say so,CI I have learned by divinationCII that the Lord has blessedCIII me because of you; 28 nameCIV your wages,CV and I will give it.” 

Notes on verses 27-28

CI “if you will allow me to say so” = na + chen + ayin. Literally “please, if I have found favor in your eyes.” Na is the same as “please” in v14. See note LIX above.  Chen is from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CII “learned by divination” = nachash. 11x in OT. This is to practice divination, learn by experience, to use an enchantment. It can also mean to hiss as in whispering a spell.
CIII “blessed” = barak. Related to “knees” in v3. See note XX above.
CIV “name” = naqab. This is to pierce, bore holes, puncture; to make a hole more or less forcefully. It is also to curse or libel. It can also mean to appoint, express, blaspheme, or name.
CV “wages” = sakar. Same as “hire” in v18. See note LXXI above.

29 Jacob said to him, “You yourself know how I have served you, and how your cattleCVI have faredCVII with me. 30 For you hadCVIII littleCIX beforeCX I came,

Notes on verses 29-30a

CVI “cattle” = miqneh. From qahah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
CVII “fared” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note XCI above.
CVIII “had” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note XCI above.
CIX “little” = me’at. Same as “small” in v15. See note LX above.
CX “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

and it has increasedCXI abundantly;CXII and the Lord has blessed you wherever I turned.CXIII But now when shall I provideCXIV for my own householdCXV also?” 

Notes on verse 30b

CXI “increased” = parats. This is to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse. It is to break out literally or figuratively.
CXII “abundantly” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
CXIII “turned” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
CXIV “provide” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CXV “household” = bayit. Related to “children” in v1 & “have children” in v3 & “women” in v13. From banah (see note VIII above). Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

31 He said, “What shall I give you?”

Jacob said, “You shall not give me anything;CXVI if you will doCXVII thisCXVIII for me,

Notes on verse 31a

CXVI “anything” = meumah. From the same as mum (defect – an ethical one or a literal bodily one). Its root may mean to stain. This can mean a speck or fault. More broadly, it can also refer to anything or nothing.
CXVII “do” = asah. Same as “provide” in v30. See note CXIV above.
CXVIII {untranslated} = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

I will againCXIX feedCXX your flockCXXI and keepCXXII it: 

Notes on verse 31b

CXIX “again” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXX “feed” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
CXXI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXXII “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

32 let me passCXXIII through all your flock today,CXXIV removingCXXV from it every speckledCXXVI and spottedCXXVII sheepCXXVIII

Notes on verse 32a

CXXIII “pass” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CXXIV “today” = yom. Same as “days” in v14. See note XLIX above.
CXXV “removing” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CXXVI “speckled” = naqod. 9x in OT – all in Genesis 30-31. This is speckled or spotted. Its root may refer to something that is branded or marked through a piercing action.
CXXVII “spotted” = tala. 8x in OT. This is to patch, to cover with bits or fragments. It can mean spotted or having several different colors like a tapestry.
CXXVIII “sheep” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.

and every blackCXXIX lamb,CXXX and the spotted and speckled among the goats;CXXXI and such shall beCXXXII my wages. 

Notes on verse 32b

CXXIX “black” = chum. 4x in OT – all in Genesis 30. This is dark brown or black. Its root may have the sense of heat or warmth. This could be one with a sunburn or otherwise darkened.
CXXX “lamb” = keseb. 13x in OT. From kebes (root may mean to dominate; a young male sheep at the age of butting other sheep). This is apparently the same word as kebes, but with the consonants mixed up. It is a young lamb or sheep.
CXXXI “goats” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
CXXXII “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note XCI above.

33 So my honestyCXXXIII will answerCXXXIV for me later,CXXXV when you come to look into my wages withCXXXVI you. Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats and black among the lambs, if found with me, shall be counted stolen.”CXXXVII 

Notes on verse 33

CXXXIII “honesty” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
CXXXIV “answer” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
CXXXV “later” = yom + machar. Literally “in a day to come.” Yom is the same as “days” in v14. See note XLIX above. Machar is perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
CXXXVI “with” = paneh. Same as “before” in v30. See note CX above.
CXXXVII “counted stolen” = ganab. This is to steal in a stealthy way rather than through violence. It can also mean to deceive. There is a Yiddish word ganef that derives from this root. It means thief or scoundrel.

34 Laban said, “Good!CXXXVIII Let it be as you have said.” 35 But that day Laban removed the male goatsCXXXIX that were stripedCXL and spotted, and all the female goats that were speckled and spotted, every one that had whiteCXLI on it, and every lamb that was black, and put them in charge ofCXLII his sons; 

Notes on verses 34-35

CXXXVIII “good” = hen. Related to “here” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXXIX “male goats” = tayish. 4x in OT. Its roots may refer to butting. This is a male goat.
CXL “striped” = aqod. 7x in OT – all in Genesis 30-31. Perhaps from aqad (to bind or tie using straps). This is striped or streaked as with bands.
CXLI “white” = laban. Related to “Laban” in v25. From laban (see note XCII above). This is white or something that is white.
CXLII “put…in the charge of” = natan + yad. Literally “gave into the hand of.” Natan is the same as “gave” in v4. See note XXII above. Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

36 and he setCXLIII a distance of threeCXLIV days’ journeyCXLV between himself and Jacob, while Jacob was pasturingCXLVI the restCXLVII of Laban’s flock.

Notes on verse 36

CXLIII “set” = sum. Related to “named” in v6. See note XXX above.
CXLIV “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
CXLV “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CXLVI “pasturing” = ra’ah. Same as “feed” in v31. See note CXX above.
CXLVII “rest” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.

37 Then Jacob took freshCXLVIII rodsCXLIX of poplarCL and almondCLI and plane,CLII

Notes on verse 37a

CXLVIII “fresh” = lach. 6x in OT. This is fresh, green, new.
CXLIX “rods” = maqqel. 18x in OT. This is a shoot with leaves growing from it or a staff. It could be a walking stick, a stick for guiding (e.g. sheep), a stick for striking like a war club, or a divining rod.
CL “poplar” = libneh. Related to “Laban” in v25 & “white” in v35. 2x in OT. From laban (see note XCII above). This a tree that looks white, so it could be a poplar or a storax.
CLI “almond” = luz. This is a tree that produces nuts like the almond or hazelnut.
CLII “plane” = armon. 3x in OT. Probably from aram (to be cunning, sensible, crafty; to make bare or smooth; usually in a negative sense). This is a plane or chestnut tree whose bark is smooth.

and peeledCLIII white streaksCLIV in them, exposingCLV the white of the rods. 

Notes on verse 37b

CLIII “peeled” = patsal. 2x in OT. This is to peel or divide.
CLIV “streaks” = pitslah. Related to “peeled” in v37. 1x in OT. From patsal (see note CLIII above). This is a stripe or a place that is peeled – a streak.
CLV “exposing” = machsoph. 1x in OT. From chasaph (to strip off, uncover, scoop, make bare; to strip off in order to exert oneself, or to make naked for shame; to drain off a liquid or to skim it from the surface). This is to strip, lay bare, expose.

38 He setCLVI the rods that he had peeled in front of the flocks in the troughs,CLVII that is, the wateringCLVIII places, where the flocks came to drink.CLIX And since they bredCLX when they came to drink, 39 the flocks bred in front of the rods, and so the flocks producedCLXI young that were striped, speckled, and spotted. 

Notes on verses 38-39

CLVI “set” = yatsag. 16x in OT. This is to set, establish, present, stay. It can imply putting something somewhere permanently.
CLVII “troughs” = rahat + shoqet. Rahat is 4x in OT. It may come from a word that refers to making something hollow. It is a channel, gutter, or a trough.  Shoqet is 2x in OT. From shaqah (to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown; watering plants or giving water to flocks). This is a watering trough.
CLVIII “watering” = mayim This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
CLIX “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
CLX “bred” = yacham. 10x in OT. This is to be hot, mate. It is figuratively, to conceive.
CLXI “produced” = yalad. Same as “bore…children” in v1. See note IV above.

40 Jacob separatedCLXII the lambs, and setCLXIII the facesCLXIV of the flocks toward the striped and the completely black animals in the flock of Laban; and he putCLXV his own drovesCLXVI apart,CLXVII and did not put them with Laban’s flock. 

Notes on verse 40

CLXII “separated” = parad. This is to divide, break through, scatter, sever, stretch, to spread oneself, or to be out of joint.
CLXIII “set” = natan. Same as “gave” in v4. See note XXII above.
CLXIV “faces” = paneh. Same as “before” in v30. See note CX above.
CLXV “put” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
CLXVI “droves” = eder. From adar (fail, missing) OR from adar (to dig, help, keep rank; properly, to muster troops as for battle; to miss or lack since you can see who is missing following muster; to arrange like a vineyard and so to hoe). This is arrangement – of animals, a flock or herd.
CLXVII “apart” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.

41 CLXVIIIWhenever the strongerCLXIX of the flock were breeding, Jacob laidCLXX the rods in the troughs before the eyesCLXXI of the flock, that they might breed among the rods, 42 but for the feeblerCLXXII of the flock he did not lay them there; so the feebler were Laban’s, and the stronger Jacob’s. 

Notes on verses 41-42

CLXVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v25. See note XCI above.
CLXIX “stronger” = qashar. This is to tie or bind. It can also refer to joining together as a league or in love. In a negative sense, it can mean to conspire.
CLXX “laid” = sum. Same as “set” in v36. See note CXLIII above.
CLXXI “eyes” = ayin. Same as “if you will allow me to say so” in v27. See note CI above.
CLXXII “feebler” = ataph. 16x in OT. This is to turn, faint, hide, be overwhelmed, cover, fail.

43 Thus the manCLXXIII grew exceedinglyCLXXIV rich,CLXXV

Notes on verse 43a

CLXXIII “man” = ish. Same as “husband” in v18. See note LXXII above.
CLXXIV “exceedingly” = meod + meod.  Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CLXXV “grew…rich” = parats. Same as “increased” in v30. See note CXI above.

and had largeCLXXVI flocks, and maleCLXXVII and female slaves,CLXXVIII and camelsCLXXIX and donkeys.CLXXX

Notes on verse 43b

CLXXVI “large” = rab. Related to “abundantly” in v30. From rabab (see note CXII above). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CLXXVII “male” = ebed. Related to “served” and “service” in v26. From abad (see note XCVII above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLXXVIII “female slaves” = shiphchah. Same as “maid” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CLXXIX “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
CLXXX “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

Image credit: “European Mouflon” at the Saarbrücken Wildlife Park by AnRo0002 in 2014.

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