Genesis 43

Genesis 43


Now the famineI was severeII in the land.III 

Notes on verse 1

I “famine” = raab. From raeb (to be hungry). This is hunger, death, or hunger from famine.
II “severe” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
III “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

AndIV when they had eaten upV the grainVI that they had broughtVII from Egypt,VIII their fatherIX said to them,

Notes on verse 2a

IV {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
V “eaten up” = kalah + akal. Kalah is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed. Akal is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “grain” = sheber. 9x in OT– 7x in Genesis. From shabar (to break, give birth to, destroy, burst; can be literal or figurative). This is corn or grain as separated into its constituent parts.
VII “brought” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
VIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
IX “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

“Go again,X buyXI us a littleXII more food.”XIII 

Notes on verse 2b

X “go again” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XI “buy” = shabar. Related to “grain” in v2. See note VI above.
XII “little” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
XIII “food” = okel. Related to “eaten up” in v2. From akal (see note V above). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.

But JudahXIV said to him, “The manXV solemnly warnedXVI us, saying, ‘You shall not seeXVII my faceXVIII unless your brotherXIX is with you.’ 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
XV “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XVI “solemnly warned” = ud + ud. This is to repeat, return, do again. This implies testifying something since that is a repetition. It can also mean to charge, admonish, protest, relieve, restore, or lift up. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XVII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XVIII “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XIX “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

If you will sendXX our brother with us, we will go downXXI and buy you food; but if you will not send him, we will not go down, for the man said to us, ‘You shall not see my face, unless your brother is with you.’” 

IsraelXXII said, “Why did you treat me so badlyXXIII as to tellXXIV the man that you had another brother?” 

Notes on verses 4-6

XX “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXI “go down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XXII “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXIII “treat…badly” = ra’a’. This is to be evil, bad, afflict. Properly, it means to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces. Figuratively, it is to cause something to be worthless. It is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense – something that displeases, does harm or mischief, punishes or vexes.
XXIV “tell” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.

7 They replied, “The man questioned us carefullyXXV about ourselves and our kindred,XXVI saying, ‘Is your father still alive?XXVII Have you another brother?’

Notes on verse 7a

XXV “questioned…carefully” = shaal + shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XXVI “kindred” = moledet. From yalad (to bear, bring forth, beget, calve, act as midwife, show lineage). This is kindred, offspring, birthplace, lineage, native country, or family.
XXVII “alive” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

What we told him was in answerXXVIII to these questions.XXIX Could we in any way knowXXX that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”XXXI 

Notes on verse 7b

XXVIII “answer” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XXIX “questions” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXX “in any way know” = yada + yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XXXI “bring…down” = yarad. Same as “go down” in v4. See note XXI above.

Then Judah said to his father Israel, “Send the boyXXXII with me, andXXXIII let us be on our way,XXXIV so that we may liveXXXV and not dieXXXVI—you and we and also our little ones.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 8

XXXII “boy” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XXXIII {untranslated} = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XXXIV “be on our way” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXXV “live” = chayah. Related to “alive” in v7. See note XXVII above.
XXXVI “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XXXVII “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.

9 I myself will be suretyXXXVIII for him; you can holdXXXIX me accountableXL for him.

Notes on verse 9a

XXXVIII “be surety” = arab. This is to bargain, barter, give or take in pledge. It can also mean to braid or intermingle.
XXXIX “hold” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
XL “accountable” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

If I do not bring him back to you and setXLI him beforeXLII you, then let me bear the blameXLIII forever.XLIV 

Notes on verse 9b

XLI “set” = yatsag. 16x in OT. This is to set, establish, present, stay. It can imply putting something somewhere permanently.
XLII “before” = paneh. Same as “face” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XLIII “bear the blame” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
XLIV “forever” = kol + yom. Literally “all days.” Yom root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

10 If we had not delayed,XLV we would now have returnedXLVI twice.”XLVII

Notes on verse 10

XLV “delayed” = mahah. 9x in OT. Perhaps from mah (what, how long). This is to delay, question, linger, be reluctant.
XLVI “returned” = shub. Same as “go again” in v2. See note X above.
XLVII “twice” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.

11 Then their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so,XLVIII then doXLIX this: takeL some of the choice fruitsLI of the land in your bags,LII

Notes on verse 11a

XLVIII “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XLIX “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
L “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LI “choice fruits” = zimrah. 1x in OT. Perhaps from zamar (to trim or prune). This is one of the best products or fruits.
LII “bags” = keli. Related to “eaten up” in v2. From kalah (see note V above). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.

and carry them downLIII as a presentLIV to the manLV

Notes on verse 11b

LIII “carry…down” = yarad. Same as “go down” in v4. See note XXI above.
LIV “present” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
LV “man” = enosh. Related to “man” in v3. See note XV above.

a little balmLVI and a little honey,LVII gum,LVIII resin,LIX pistachio nuts,LX and almonds.LXI 

Notes on verse 11c

LVI “balm” = tsori. 6x in OT– this is the balm in Gilead in Jeremiah 8:22. Root might be to crack as under pressure, to leak. This is gum from the balsam tree – perhaps commiphora gileadensis. See &
LVII “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.
LVIII “gum” = nekoth. 2x in OT. From naka (to smite, drive away) OR from nake (smitten, stricken, wounded). This is a natural, aromatic gum or spice. It might be tragacanth gum. See
LIX “resin” = lot. 2x in OT. This is a gum or resin – probably labdanum or myrrh. See & All three products are also found in Genesis 37 when when the brothers sold Joseph to a caravan.
LX “pistachio nuts” = botnim. 1x in OT. Perhaps from beten (root may mean to be hollow; the belly or womb; also, the body more broadly). This is pistachio.
LXI “almonds” = shaqed. 4x in OT. From shaqad (to wach, be alert, remain awake). This is an almond tree or the almond nut.

12 Take doubleLXII the moneyLXIII withLXIV you.

Notes on verse 12a

LXII “double” = mishneh. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, second, next, duplicate. It can also be second in rank or age.
LXIII “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
LXIV “with” = yad. Literally “in your hand.” Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.

Carry backLXV withLXVI you the money that was returned in the topLXVII of your sacks;LXVIII perhaps it was an oversight.LXIX 

Notes on verse 12b

LXV “carry back” = shub. Same as “go again” in v2. See note X above.
LXVI “with” = yad. Literally “in your hand.” Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.
LXVII “top” = peh. Same as “answer” in v7. See note XXVIII above.
LXVIII “sacks” = amtachat. 15x in OT– all in Genesis 42-44. From matach (to spread out). This is something that is spread out like a bag or a sack.
LXIX “oversight” = mishgeh. 1x in OT. From shagah (to go astray, wander, mislead, sin; to reel as if drunk; figuratively being enraptured). This is a mistake or error.

13 Take your brother also, andLXX be on your way againLXXI to the man;LXXII 

Notes on verse 13

LXX {untranslated = qum. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note XXXIII above.
LXXI “be on your way again” = shub. Same as “go again” in v2. See note X above.
LXXII “man” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.

14 may GodLXXIII AlmightyLXXIV grantLXXV you mercyLXXVI beforeLXXVII the man,LXXVIII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXIII “God” = El. Related to “Israel” in v6. See note XXII above.
LXXIV “Almighty” = Shaddai. Perhaps from shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful) OR from shed (protective spirit) OR shadah (to moisten) OR shad (breast). Perhaps meaning almighty, “my destroyer,” “my protective spirit,” “my rainmaker,” “self-sufficient, “who is abundantly,” or “breasted one” – as the one who abundantly provides or grants fertility/abundance to humans. See
LXXV “grant” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXVI “mercy” = racham. From the same as rechem (womb); from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is compassion, mercy, or tender love.
LXXVII “before” = paneh. Same as “face” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXVIII “man” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.

so that he may send backLXXIX your other brother and Benjamin.LXXX As for me, if I am bereaved of my children,LXXXI I am bereaved.” 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIX “send back” = shalach. Same as “send” in v4. See note XX above.
LXXX “Benjamin” = Binyamin. From ben (son, age, child); {from banah (to build)} + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
LXXXI “bereaved of my children” = shakol. This is a loss from death in a literal or figurative sense. It can specifically refer to a loss of children, whether a miscarriage, being barren, or not having children more broadly.

15 So the menLXXXII took the present, and they took double the money withLXXXIII them, as well as Benjamin. Then theyLXXXIV went on their way down to Egypt, and stoodLXXXV beforeLXXXVI Joseph.LXXXVII

Notes on verse 15

LXXXII “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.
LXXXIII “with” = yad. Literally “in their hand.” Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.
LXXXIV {untranslated} = qum. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note XXXIIII above.
LXXXV “stood” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LXXXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “face” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXXVII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”

16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the steward of his house,LXXXVIII “Bring the menLXXXIX into the house, and slaughterXC an animalXCI and make ready,XCII

Notes on verse 16a

LXXXVIII “house” = bayit. Related to “Benjamin” in v14. Probably from banah (see note LXXX above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LXXXIX “men” = enosh. Same as “man” in v11. See note LV above.
XC “slaughter” = tabach. 11x in OT. This is to slaughter or butcher. It can be used to refer to animals or people.
XCI “animal” = tebach. Related to “slaughter” in v16. 10x in OT. From tabach (see note XC above). This is slaughtering, food, animal, sore, butchery. It can also be a place where animals are slaughtered.
XCII “make ready” = kun. Related to “so” in v11. See note XLVIII above.

for the menXCIII are to dineXCIV with me at noon.”XCV 17 The manXCVI did as Joseph said, and brought the menXCVII to Joseph’s house. 

Notes on verses 16b-17

XCIII “men” = enosh. Same as “man” in v11. See note LV above.
XCIV “dine” = akal. Same as “eaten up” in v2. See note V above.
XCV “noon” = tsohar. From tsahar (pressing oil, glistening); from yitshar (fresh oil, anointed; oil as that which is burned to make light; used figuratively to talk about anointing). This is a light, window, or midday.
XCVI “man” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.
XCVII “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.

18 Now the menXCVIII were afraidXCIX because they were brought to Joseph’s house, and they said, “It is because of theC money, replacedCI in our sacks the first time,CII that we have been brought in,

Notes on verse 18a

XCVIII “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.
XCIX “were afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
C {untranslated} = dabar. Literally “because of the matter of the money.” Same as “questions” in v7. See note XXIX above.
CI “replaced” = shub. Same as “go again” in v2. See note X above.
CII “first time” = techillah. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is beginning, first, previously.

so that he may have an opportunityCIII to fallCIV upon us, to makeCV slavesCVI of us and take our donkeys.”CVII 

Notes on verse 18b

CIII “have an opportunity” = galal. 18x in OT. This is to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove. It is rolling in a literal or figurative sense.
CIV “fall” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CV “make” = laqach. Same as “take” in v11. See note L above.
CVI “slaves” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CVII “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

19 So they went upCVIII to the stewardCIX of Joseph’s house and spokeCX with him at the entranceCXI to the house. 

Notes on verse 19

CVIII “went up” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
CIX “steward” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.
CX “spoke” = dabar. Related to “questions” in v7. See note XXIX above.
CXI “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.

20 They said, “Oh,CXII my lord,CXIII we came downCXIV the first time to buy food; 

Notes on verse 20

CXII “oh” = biy. 12x in OT. Perhaps from ba’ah (to inquire, search, boil, or swell out. Figuratively, it could be to sincerely desire). This is O, I pray – it is used to make a request or to speak to someone of higher social status. It is always followed by, “my lord.” In the Bible it is used in addressing a higher status human, an angel, and also God.
CXIII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
CXIV “came down” = yarad + yarad. Same as “go down” in v4. See note XXI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

21 andCXV when we cameCXVI to the lodging placeCXVII we openedCXVIII our sacks,

Notes on verse 21a

CXV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note IV above.
CXVI “came” = bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note VII above.
CXVII “lodging place” = malon. 8x in OT. From lun (to stop – usually to lodge for the night; can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently; figuratively, can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain). This is an inn, encampment, caravanserai, or other place to pass the night.
CXVIII “opened” = pathach. Related to “entrance” in v19. See note CXI above.

and thereCXIX was each one’sCXX money in the top of his sack, our money in full weight.CXXI

Notes on verse 21b

CXIX “there” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CXX “each one’s” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.
CXXI “full weight” = mishqal. From shaqal (to weigh, spend, trade). This is to weigh, or a unit of weight. It shares a root with the word “shekel.”

So we have brought it backCXXII withCXXIII us. 22 Moreover we have brought down withCXXIV us additional money to buy food. We do not know who putCXXV our money in our sacks.” 

Notes on verses 21c-22

CXXII “brought…back” = shub. Same as “go again” in v2. See note X above.
CXXIII “with” = yad. Literally “in our hand.” Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.
CXXIV “with” = yad. Literally “in our hand.” Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.
CXXV “put” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.

23 He replied, “Rest assured,CXXVI do not be afraid; your GodCXXVII and the GodCXXVIII of your father must have putCXXIX treasureCXXX in your sacks for you; I receivedCXXXI your money.”

Notes on verse 23a

CXXVI “rest assured” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
CXXVII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v6 & “God” in v14. See note XXII above.
CXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v23. See note CXXVII above.
CXXIX “put” = natan. Same as “grant” in v14. See note LXXV above.
CXXX “treasure” = matmon. 5x in OT. From taman (to hide, bury, keep in reserve; hiding something by covering it). This is something of value that is buried – hidden treasure. It is usually money.
CXXXI “received” = bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note VII above.

Then he brought SimeonCXXXII outCXXXIII to them. 24 When the steward had broughtCXXXIV the menCXXXV into Joseph’s house,

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXXXII “Simeon” = Shimon. From shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
CXXXIII “brought…out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIV “brought” = bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note VII above.
CXXXV “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.

and givenCXXXVI them water,CXXXVII and they had washedCXXXVIII their feet,CXXXIX

Notes on verse 24b

CXXXVI “given” = natan. Same as “grant” in v14. See note LXXV above.
CXXXVII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
CXXXVIII “washed” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
CXXXIX “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

and when he had given their donkeys fodder,CXL 25 they made the present ready for Joseph’s coming at noon, for they had heardCXLI that they would dineCXLII there.

Notes on verses 24c-25

CXL “fodder” = mispo. 5x in OT– 4x in Genesis and 1x in Judges 19 in the story of the Levite’s concubine. This is from a root that might be to collect. This is a word for fodder or feed.
CXLI “heard” = shama. Related to “Simeon” in v23. See note CXXXII above.
CXLII “dine” = akal + lechem. Literally “eat bread.” Akal is the same as “eaten up” in v2. See note V above. Lechem is from lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

26 When Joseph came home, they broughtCXLIII him the present that they had carriedCXLIV into the house, and bowedCXLV to the ground before him. 

Notes on verse 26

CXLIII “brought” = bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note VII above.
CXLIV “carried” = yad. Literally “was in their hand.” Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.
CXLV “bowed” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

27 He inquiredCXLVI about their welfare,CXLVII and said, “Is your father well,CXLVIII the old manCXLIX of whom you spoke? Is he still alive?” 

28 They said, “Your servant our father is well; he is still alive.” And they bowed their headsCL and did obeisance.CLI 

Notes on verses 27-28

CXLVI “inquired” = shaal. Same as “questioned…carefully” in v7. See note XXV above.
CXLVII “welfare” = shalom. Same as “rest assured” in v23. See note CXXVI above.
CXLVIII “well” = shalom. Same as “rest assured” in v23. See note CXXVI above.
CXLIX “old man” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CL “bowed their heads” = qadad. 15x in OT. Properly, this means to shrivel up. So it is used for bowing one’s head, bowing down, or stooping. It can be used to show deference.
CLI “did obeisance” = shachah. Same as “bowed” in v26. See note CXLV above.

29 Then he looked upCLII and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother’sCLIII son,CLIV

Notes on verse 29a

CLII “looked up” = nasa + ayin. Literally “he lifted up his eyes.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CLIII “mother’s” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIV “son” = ben. Related to “Benjamin” in v14 & “house” in v16. See note LXXX above.

and said, “Is this your youngestCLV brother, of whom you spoke to me? GodCLVI be graciousCLVII to you, my son!” 

Notes on verse 29b

CLV “youngest” = qaton. From qut (to cut off, be grieved; figuratively to detest). This is small, young, least, not important. It could be a small quantity, size, age, or importance.
CLVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v23. See note CXXVII above.
CLVII “be gracious” = chanan. This is to beseech, show favor, be gracious. Properly, it is to bend in kindness to someone with less status.

30 With that, Joseph hurriedCLVIII out, because he was overcomeCLIX with affectionCLX for his brother, and he was about toCLXI weep.CLXII So he went into a private roomCLXIII and wept there. 

Notes on verse 30

CLVIII “hurried” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
CLIX “overcome” = kamar. 4x in OT. This is to grow hot, be aflame, to contract from proximity to heat, to desire or be impacted with passion or pity. It can have a sense of tenderness.
CLX “affection” = racham. Same as “mercy” in v14. See note LXXVI above.
CLXI “was about to” = baqash. Literally “seeking to.” Same as “hold” in v9. See note XXXIX above.
CLXII “weep” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
CLXIII “private room” = cheder. From chadar (to surround or enclose; a room as enclosed; also, by analogy, besieging). This is a chamber or room that is private. Can mean the innermost chamber of a house.

31 Then he washed his face and came out;CLXIV and controllingCLXV himself he said, “ServeCLXVI the meal.”CLXVII 

Notes on verse 31

CLXIV “came out” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v23. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXV “controlling” = aphaq. 7x in OT. This is to be strong, force, control, hold. It can also be to abstain or force oneself.
CLXVI “serve” = sim. Same as “put” in v22. See note CXXV above.
CLXVII “meal” = lechem. Same as “dine” in v25. See note CXLII above.

32 They served him by himself,CLXVIII and them by themselves, and the EgyptiansCLXIX who ateCLXX with him by themselves,

Notes on verse 32a

CLXVIII “by himself” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CLXIX “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v2. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note VIII above). This is Egyptian.
CLXX “ate” = akal. Same as “eaten up” in v2. See note V above.

because the Egyptians couldCLXXI not eatCLXXII with the Hebrews,CLXXIII for that is an abominationCLXXIV to the Egyptians. 

Notes on verse 32b

CLXXI “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CLXXII {untranslated} = lechem. Same as “dine” in v25. See note CXLII above.
CLXXIII “Hebrews” = Ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.
CLXXIV “abomination” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.

33 When they were seatedCLXXV beforeCLXXVI him, the firstbornCLXXVII according to his birthrightCLXXVIII and the youngestCLXXIX according to his youth,CLXXX

Notes on verse 33a

CLXXV “seated” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CLXXVI “before” = paneh. Literally “before his face.” Same as “face” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CLXXVII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CLXXVIII “birthright” = bekorah. Related to “firstborn” in v33. 14x in OT. From bakar (see note CLXXVII above). This is the rights granted to the firstborn.
CLXXIX “youngest” = tsair. From tsaar (to be brought low, small, little one; figuratively, be insignificant or ignoble). This is little, young, least, younger, few in number, low in value.
CLXXX “youth” = tseirah. Related to “youngest” in v33. 1x in OT. From tsair (see note CLXXIX above). This is youth.

the menCLXXXI looked at one anotherCLXXXII in amazement.CLXXXIII 

Notes on verse 33b

CLXXXI “men” = ish. Same as “man” in v3. See note XV above.
CLXXXII “at one another” = ish + el + rea. Ish is the same as “man” in v3. See note XV above. Rea is from raah (perhaps association with). This is an associate, companion, friend, neighbor, or other. It can also be used for close family or for a lover.
CLXXXIII “looked…in amazement” = tamah. 9x in OT. This is to be amazed, wonder, be dumbfounded.

34 PortionsCLXXXIV were takenCLXXXV to them from Joseph’s table,CLXXXVI but Benjamin’s portion was five timesCLXXXVII as muchCLXXXVIII as any of theirs. So they drankCLXXXIX and were merryCXC with him.

Notes on verse 34

CLXXXIV “portions” = maset. Related to “looked up” in v29. 16x in OT. From nasa (see note CLII above). This is an utterance, lifting up, collection, uprising, a rising flame or beacon, a present lifted up, a mess, reproach, or burden.
CLXXXV “taken” = nasa. Same as “looked up” in v29. See note CLII above.
CLXXXVI “table” = paneh. Literally “from before his face.” Same as “face” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CLXXXVII “times” = yad. Same as “accountable” in v9. See note XL above.
CLXXXVIII “as much” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CLXXXIX “drank” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
CXC “were merry” = shakar. 19x in OT. This is to be filled with drink, merry, tipsy. It can be satiated in a positive sense or drunken in a negative sense. It can also figuratively refer to influence.

Image credit: “Joseph Meets his Brothers” by Sue Bentley, 2015.

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