Isaiah 25:6-9

Isaiah 25:6-9
Easter A
Easter Evening – A Women’s Lectionary


On this mountainA the LordB of hostsC will makeD for allE peoplesF

Notes on verse 6a

A “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
B “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
C “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
D “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
E “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
F “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

    a feastG of rich food,H a feast of well-aged wines,I
    of rich food filled with marrow,J of well-aged wines strained clear.K

Notes on verse 6b

G “feast” = mishteh. From shathah (to drink literally or figuratively; a drinker). This is drink or the act of drinking. So it is a feast or banquet, as occasions with drinking.
H “rich food” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
I “well-aged wines” = shemer. 5x in OT. Perhaps from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is something preserved so it is the dregs or settling parts of wine.
J “filled with marrow” = machah. This is to rub or wipe away, which implies blotting out or erasing, which can be used to mean destroy. This can also be rub in the sense of rubbing oil or grease on something or, more generally, reaching or touching.
K “strained clear” = zaqaq. 7x in OT. This is to refine, purify, or distill. Figuratively, it can mean to extract.

And he will destroyL on this mountain
    the shroudM that is castN over all peoples,

Notes on verse 7a

L “destroy” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
M “shroud” = paneh + lot. Paneh is from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence. Lot is 1x in OT. From lut (to wrap, envelop). This is covering or veil.
N “cast” = lut. Related to “shroud” in v7. 3x in OT. See note M above.

    the coveringO that is spreadP over all nations;Q

Notes on verse 7b

O “covering” = massekah. From nasak (to cover, pour out, offer; by analogy anointing a king). This is a pouring out or over. So it could be pouring molten metal to cast an image, making a libation (pouring out a drink offering), or otherwise covering.
P “spread” = nasak. Related to “sheet” in v7. 1x in OT. Perhaps the same as nasak (see note O above). This is to weave, stretch, spread.
Q “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

    he will swallow upR deathS forever.T

Notes on verse 8a

R “swallow up” = bala. Same as “destroy” in v7. See note L above.
S “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.
T “forever” = netsach. From natsach (something that glitters from a distance or stands out, excels, has status/standing; also to be permanent or enduring). This is properly a goal or destination as the bright focus to which one journeys. It can be splendor, truthfulness, or confidence. Most often, it refers to everlastingness, always, continually.

Then the LordU GodV will wipe awayW the tearsX from all faces,Y

Notes on verse 8b

U “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
V “God” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v6. From the same as YHVH (see note B above). This is Lord. It has the same meaning, but a different vowel pointing.
W “wipe away” = machah. Same as “filled with marrow” in v6. See note J above.
X “tears” = dimah. From dema (juice, liquor); from dama (to weep). This is tears from weeping.
Y “faces” = paneh. Same as “shroud” in v7. See note M above.

    and the disgraceZ of his people he will take awayAA from all the earth,BB
    for the LordCC has spoken.DD

Notes on verse 8c

Z “disgrace” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.
AA “take away” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
BB “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CC “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v6. See note B above.
DD “spoken” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

It will be said on that day,EE
    “See,FF this is our God;GG we have waitedHH for him, so that he might saveII us.

Notes on verse 9a

EE “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
FF “see” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
GG “God” = Elohim.
HH “waited” = qavah. It can mean to bind or gather together, especially in the sense of twisting together. In that light, it can mean collect. Figuratively, this can mean to wait, await, expect, or tarry.
II “save” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.

    This is the LordJJ for whom we have waited;
    let us be gladKK and rejoiceLL in his salvation.”MM

Notes on verse 9b

JJ “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “God” in v8. See note V above.
KK “be glad” = gil. Properly, this is twirling around because of a strong feeling whether of rejoicing or from fear. This can be rejoice, be glad or joyful, or to cry.
LL “rejoice” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
MM “salvation” = yeshuah. Related to “save” in v9. From yasha (see note II above). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

Image credit: “The Melody of Jerusalem” by Elisha Ben Yitzhak, 2012

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