John 16

John 16


“I have said these things to you to keep you from falling away.I They will putII you out of the synagogues.III

Notes on verses 1-2a

I “falling away” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
II “put” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
III “out of the synagogues” = aposunagogos. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + sunagoge (the people or for the place where they assemble; sometimes used of Christian churches; a synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church); {from sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is put out of the synagogue, cast out from the congregation.

Indeed, an hourIV is comingV when thoseVI who killVII you

Notes on verse 2b

IV “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
V “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
VI “those” = pas. This is all or every.
VII “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

will thinkVIII that by doing so they are offeringIX worshipX to God.XI 

Notes on verse 2c

VIII “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
IX “offering” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
X “worship” = latreia. 5x in NT. From latreuo (giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so; to serve, minister, worship, or give homage); from latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). This is service, divine worship, ministering to God.
XI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

And they will doXII this because they have not knownXIII the FatherXIV or me. But I have said these things to you so that when their hour comes you may rememberXV that I told you about them.

Notes on verses 3-4a

XII “do” = poieo. Same as “put” in v2. See note II above.
XIII “known” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XIV “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XV “remember” = mnemoneuo. From mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to remember, recollect. It does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be simply calling something to mind. It can mean to punish or rehearse.

“I did not say these things to you from the beginning,XVI because I wasXVII with you. But now I am goingXVIII to him who sentXIX me, yet none of you asksXX me, ‘Where are you going?’ 

Notes on verses 4b-5

XVI “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
XVII “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XVIII “going” = hupago. Related to “out of the synagogues” in v2. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note III above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XIX “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XX “asks” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.

But because I have said these things to you, sorrowXXI has filledXXII your hearts.XXIII 

Notes on verse 6

XXI “sorrow” = lupe. 16x in NT. This is pain, whether physical or mental. It includes grief, sorrow, distress, or a heavy heart.
XXII “filled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XXIII “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

Nevertheless, I tellXXIV you the truth:XXV it is to your advantageXXVI

Notes on verse 7a

XXIV “tell” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXV “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
XXVI “is…advantage” = sumphero. Related to “offering” in v2. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (see note IX above). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.

that I go away,XXVII for if I do not go away, the AdvocateXXVIII will not come to you, but if I go,XXIX I will send him to you. 

Notes on verse 7b

XXVII “go away” = aperchomai. Related to “coming” in v2. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note V above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVIII “Advocate” = Parakletos. 5x in NT. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}}. This is someone who is called for aid or assistance. Properly, it refers to a legal advocate who is close to the situation and speaks in court. This is advocate, helper, comforter, helper, or intercessor. It is also used as a technical term for the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete.
XXIX “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

And when he comes, he will prove the worldXXX wrongXXXI about sinXXXII

Notes on verse 8a

XXX “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
XXXI “prove…wrong” = elegcho. 17x in NT. This is to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke. It is using convincing evidence to expose a wrong.
XXXII “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

and righteousnessXXXIII and judgment:XXXIV about sin,XXXV because they do not believeXXXVI in me; 

Notes on verses 8b-9

XXXIII “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
XXXIV “judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.
XXXV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXXVI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

10 about righteousness, because I am goingXXXVII to the Father, and you will seeXXXVIII me no longer; 11 about judgment, because the rulerXXXIX of this world has been condemned.XL

Notes on verses 10-11

XXXVII “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v5. See note XVIII above.
XXXVIII “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
XXXIX “ruler” = archon. Related to “beginning” in v4. From archo (see note XVI above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XL “condemned” = krino. Related to “judgment” in v8. See note XXXIV above.

12 “I still haveXLI many thingsXLII to sayXLIII to you, but you cannotXLIV bearXLV them now. 

Notes on verse 12

XLI “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XLII “many things” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XLIII “say” = lego. Same as “tell” in v7. See note XXIV above.
XLIV “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XLV “bear” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.

13 When the SpiritXLVI of truth comes, he will guideXLVII you into allXLVIII the truth,

Notes on verse 13a

XLVI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XLVII “guide” = hodegeo. Related to “out of the synagogues” in v2 & “going” in v5. 5x in NT. From hodegos (leader or guide; figuratively, a teacher); {from hodos (way, road, path, or journey; can imply progress along a route) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note III above)}. This is to guide or instruct. It is showing someone else the way, whether literally or figuratively.
XLVIII “all” = pas. Same as “those” in v2. See note VI above.

for he will not speak on his own but will speak whatever he hears,XLIX and he will declareL to you the things that are to come. 14 He will glorifyLI me because he will takeLII what is mine and declare it to you. 15 All that the Father has is mine. For this reason I said that he will take what is mine and declare it to you.

Notes on verses 13b-15

XLIX “hears” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
L “declare” = anaggello. Related to “out of the synagogues” in v2 & “going” in v5 & “guide” in v13. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note III above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
LI “glorify” = doxazo. Related to “think” in v2. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (see note VIII above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
LII “take” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.

16 “A littleLIII while, and you will no longer see me, and again a little while, and you will seeLIV me.”LV 

Notes on verse 16

LIII “little” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
LIV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LV Some manuscripts add “because I am going away to the Father” = hoti + hupago + pros + ho + Pater. Hupago is the same as “going” in v5. See note XVIII above. Pater is the same as “Father” in v3. See note XIV above.

17 Then some of his disciplesLVI said to one another, “What does he meanLVII by saying to us, ‘A little while, and you will no longer seeLVIII me, and again a little while, and you will seeLIX me,’ and ‘because I am goingLX to the Father’?” 

Notes on verse 17

LVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LVII “mean” = eimi. Same as “was” in v4. See note XVII above.
LVIII “see” = theoreo. Same as “see” in v10. See note XXXVIII above.
LIX “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v16. See note LIV above.
LX “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v5. See note XVIII above.

18 They said, “What does he mean by this ‘a little while’? We do not knowLXI what he is talking about.” 

19 JesusLXII knewLXIII that they wantedLXIV to ask him,

Notes on verses 18-19a

LXI “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXIII “knew” = ginosko. Same as “known” in v3. See note XIII above.
LXIV “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

so he said to them, “Are you discussing among yourselves what I meantLXV when I said, ‘A little while, and you will no longer seeLXVI me, and again a little while, and you will seeLXVII me’? 20 Very truly,LXVIII I tell you, you will weepLXIX

Notes on verses 19b-20a

LXV “discussing…what…meant” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXVI “see” = theoreo. Same as “see” in v10. See note XXXVIII above.
LXVII “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v16. See note LIV above.
LXVIII “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXIX “weep” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

and mourn,LXX but the world will rejoice;LXXI you will have pain,LXXII

Notes on verse 20b

LXX “mourn” = threneo. 4x in NT. From threnos (ailing, dirge, lamentation, crying aloud); from threomai (to cry aloud, shriek); from throeo (to be disturbed, unsettled, troubled; feeling the desire to scream from fear, very upset, startled); from throos (noise, tumult). This is to mourn or lament – particularly in a vocal way. It can also mean to sing a dirge.
LXXI “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LXXII “have pain” = lupeo. Related to “sorrow” in v6. From lupe (see note XXI above). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.

but your painLXXIII will turnLXXIV into joy.LXXV 

Notes on verse 20c

LXXIII “pain” = lupe. Same as “sorrow” in v6. See note XXI above.
LXXIV “turn” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXV “joy” = chara. Related to “rejoice” in v20. From chairo (see note LXXI above). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.

21 When a womanLXXVI is in labor,LXXVII she has pain because her hour has come. But when her childLXXVIII is born,LXXIX

Notes on verse 21a

LXXVI “woman” = gune. Related to “turn” in v20. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LXXIV above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
LXXVII “is in labor” = tikto. 18x in NT. This is used of creating new life whether as a mother or a plant or the earth as a whole. It can be rendered bright forth, bear, give birth, labor, produce, or yield. It can also refers to the pains of childbirth.
LXXVIII “child” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
LXXIX “is born” = gennao. Related to “turn” in v20 & “woman” in v21. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note LXXIV above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

she no longer remembers the anguishLXXX because of the joy of having broughtLXXXI a human beingLXXXII into the world. 

Notes on verse 21b

LXXX “anguish” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.
LXXXI “brought” = gennao. Same as “is born” in v21. See note LXXIX above.
LXXXII “human being” = anthropos. Related to “see” in v16. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LIV above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

22 So youLXXXIII have pain now, but I will seeLXXXIV you again, and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will takeLXXXV your joy from you. 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXIII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v9. See note XXXV above.
LXXXIV “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v16. See note LIV above.
LXXXV “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).

23 On that dayLXXXVI you will ask nothing of me. Very truly, I tell you, if you askLXXXVII anything of the Father in my name,LXXXVIII he will giveLXXXIX it to you. 

Notes on verse 23

LXXXVI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXXXVII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
LXXXVIII “name” = onoma. Related to “known” in v3. May be from ginosko (see note XIII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXXXIX “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

24 Until now you have not askedXC for anything in my name. AskXCI and you will receive,XCII so that your joy may be complete.XCIII

Notes on verse 24

XC “asked” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v23. See note LXXXVII above.
XCI “ask” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v23. See note LXXXVII above.
XCII “receive” = lambano. Same as “take” in v14. See note LII above.
XCIII “complete” = pleroo. Same as “filled” in v6. See note XXII above.

25 “I have said these things to you in figures of speech.XCIV The hour is coming when I will no longer speak to you in figuresXCV but will tellXCVI you plainlyXCVII of the Father. 

Notes on verse 25

XCIV “figures of speech” = paroimia. 5x in NT. From paroimos (by the way); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + perhaps from oiomai (to think, imagine, suppose, expect); {from hoios (such as, what kind of); from ho (the)}}. This is a parable, allegory, or proverb. It is used for figurative language or an adage.
XCV “figures” = paroimia. Same as “figures of speech” in v25. See note XCIV above.
XCVI “tell” = apaggello. Related to “out of the synagogues” in v2 & “going” in v5 & “guide” and “declare” in v13. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (see note L above). This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
XCVII “plainly” = parresia. Related to “those” in v2. From pas (see note VI above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.

26 On that day you will askXCVIII in my name. I do not say to you that I will askXCIX the Father on your behalf, 27 for the Father himself lovesC you because you have loved me and have believed that I cameCI from God. 

Notes on verses 26-27

XCVIII “ask” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v23. See note LXXXVII above.
XCIX “ask” = erotao. Same as “ask” in v5. See note XX above.
C “loves” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CI “came” = exerchomai. Related to “coming” in v2 & “go away” in v7.

28 I cameCII from the Father and have comeCIII into the world; again, I am leavingCIV the world and am goingCV to the Father.”

Notes on verse 28

CII “came” = exerchomai. Same as “came” in v27. See note CI above.
CIII “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v2. See note V above.
CIV “leaving” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CV “going” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v7. See note XXIX above.

29 His disciples said, “Yes,CVI now you are speaking plainly,CVII not in any figure of speech! 30 Now we knowCVIII that you knowCIX all things and do not needCX to have anyone questionCXI you; by this we believe that you cameCXII from God.” 

Notes on verses 29-30

CVI “yes” = idou. Related to “know” in v18. From eido (see note LXI above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CVII “plainly” = en + parresia. Literally, “in openness.” Parresia is the same as “plainly” in v25. See note XCVII above.
CVIII “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v18. See note LXI above.
CIX “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v18. See note LXI above.
CX “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
CXI “question” = erotao. Same as “ask” in v5. See note XX above.
CXII .“came” = exerchomai. Same as “came” in v27. See note CI above.

31 Jesus answered them, “Do you now believe? 32 The hour is coming,CXIII indeedCXIV it has come,CXV when you will be scattered,CXVI each oneCXVII

Notes on verses 31-32a

CXIII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v2. See note V above.
CXIV “indeed” = idou. Same as “yes” in v29. See note CVI above.
CXV “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v2. See note V above.
CXVI “scattered” = skorpizo. 5x in NT. This is to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste, cause to flee.
CXVII “each one” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

to hisCXVIII home, and you will leave me alone.CXIX Yet I am not alone because the Father is with me. 33 I have said this to you so that in me you may have peace.CXX

Notes on verses 32b-33a

CXVIII “his” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CXIX “alone” = monos. Related to “remember” in v4. Perhaps from meno (see note XV above). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
CXX “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

In the world you faceCXXI persecution,CXXII but take courage:CXXIII I have conqueredCXXIV the world!”

Notes on verse 33b

CXXI “face” = echo. Same as “have” in v12. See note XLI above.
CXXII “persecution” = thlipsis. Same as “anguish” in v21. See note LXXX above.
CXXIII “take courage” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
CXXIV “conquered” = nikao. From nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is to have victory, overcome, conquer, or prevail. It implies a victory that follows a battle. This root is part of “Nicodemus’s” name and it is also the root where Nike comes from.

Image credit: “New Wine in Old Wineskins” by Frank Wesley.

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