John 18:1-19:42

John 18:1-19:42
Good Friday ABC


1 After JesusI had spoken these words, he went out with his disciplesII across the KidronIII valleyIV to a place where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. 

Notes on verse 18:1

I “Jesus” = iesous.From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “disciples” = mathetes.From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
III “Kidron” = Kedron. 1x in NT. From Hebrew qidron (dusky or dusky place); from qadar (to be ashy, which would be a dark color; being dark or mourning as when one sits in sackcloth and ashes). This is Kidron, the wadi, meaning dusky.
IV “valley” = cheimarros. From the same as cheimazo (to be storm tossed, driven by a storm); {from cheima (winter cold) or cheimon (storm, winter, rainy season); from cheo (to pour) + rheo (to flow, overflow)}. This is a ravine that has water flowing in it in the winter/during storms.

2 Now Judas,V who betrayedVI him, also knewVII the place, because Jesus often metVIII there with his disciples. 

Notes on verse 18:2

V “Judas” = ioudas.From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
VI “betrayed” = paradidomi.From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
VII “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
VIII “met” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

So Judas brought a detachment of soldiersIX together with policeX from the chief priests and the Pharisees,XI and they came there with lanterns and torchesXII and weapons.XIII Then Jesus, knowing all that was to happen to him, came forward and asked them, “Whom are you looking for?”XIV 

Notes on verses 18:3-4

IX “detachment of soldiers” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
X “police” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + eresso (to row). Originally, this was a rower or someone who worked the oars on the lower deck of a boat. It is used figuratively of someone under the authority of another who follows their commands. So this could be servant, attendant, or office. It could also be someone who is a minister of the Gospel.
XI “Pharisees” = pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religion engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XII “torches” = lampas. 9x in NT. From lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil.
XIII “weapons” = hoplon. 6x in NT. This is a tool or implement. It can also be armor or weapons in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

5 They answered, “Jesus of Nazareth.”XV

Jesus replied, “I am he.” Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them. 6 When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they stepped back and fell to the ground. Again he askedXVI them, “Whom are you looking for?”

And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” 

8 Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. So if you are looking for me, letXVII these men go.”XVIII

Notes on verses 18:5-8

XV “Nazareth” = nazoraios.13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XVI “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XVII “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XVIII “go” = hupago. Related to “met” in v18:12. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note  VIII above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

9 This was to fulfillXIX the wordXX that he had spoken, “I did not loseXXI a single one of those whom you gaveXXII me.” 

Notes on verse 18:9

XIX “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XX “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXI “lose” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XXII “gave” = didomi. Related to “betrayed” in v18:2. See note VI above.

10 Then SimonXXIII Peter,XXIV who had a sword,XXV drew it, struckXXVI the high priest’s slave,XXVII and cut off his right ear. The slave’s nameXXVIII was Malchus.XXIX 

Notes on verse 18:10

XXIII “Simon” = simon.From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XXIV “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XXV “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
XXVI “struck” = paio. 5x in NT. To strike or sting – a single blow.
XXVII “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XXVIII “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XXIX “Malchus” = malchos. 1x in NT. From Hebrew melek (Melek – a name); from the same as melek (king, kingdom, royal); perhaps from malak (to reign, be king or queen, rise to the throne, to consult). This is Malchus, meaning king or reigning.

11 Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword back into its sheath.XXX Am I not to drinkXXXI the cupXXXII that the Father has given me?”XXXIII

Notes on verse 18:11

XXX “sheath” = theke. 1x in NT. From tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is something into which something else is laid or put away. So, a case, chest, box, receptacle, or sheath.
XXXI “drink” = pino. Related to “cup” in v18:11. See note XXXII below.
XXXII “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
XXXIII Literally “the cup that has given me the Father – am I not to drink it?”

12 So the soldiers, their officer,XXXIV and the JewishXXXV police arrestedXXXVI Jesus and boundXXXVII him. 

Notes on verse 18:12

XXXIV “officer” = chiliarchos. Related to “chief priests” in v18:3. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
XXXV “Jewish” = ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v18:2. From ioudas (see note V above). This is Jew, Jewish, or Judea.
XXXVI “arrested” = sullambano. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
XXXVII “bound” = deo. Related to “slave” in v18:10. See note XXVII above.

13 First they took him to Annas,XXXVIII who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,XXXIX the high priest that year. 14 Caiaphas was the one who had advisedXL the Jews that it was betterXLI to have one personXLII die for the people.XLIII

Notes on verses 18:13-14

XXXVIII “Annas” = hannas. 4x in NT. From Hebrew chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Annas, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXXIX “Caiaphas” = kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
XL “advised” = sumbouleuo. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); {from boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is people who come together to make a plan who are highly motivated to achiever their goals. It can mean deliberate, consult, or give advice.
XLI “was better” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.
XLII “person” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

15 Simon Peter and another disciple followedXLIV Jesus. Since that disciple was known to the high priest, he went with Jesus into the courtyardXLV of the high priest, 16 but Peter was standing outside at the gate.

So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out, spoke to the woman who guarded the gate,XLVI and brought Peter in. 17 The womanXLVII said to Peter, “You are not also one of this man’s disciples, are you?”

He said, “I am not.” 

Notes on verses 18:15-17

XLIV “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XLV “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
XLVI “woman who guarded the gate” = thuroros. Related to “gate” in v18:16. 4x in NT. From thura (door, gate, entrance; opening literal or figurative). This is a doorkeeper or porter.
XLVII “woman” = paidiske. Perhaps related to “struck” in v18:10. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note XXVI above). This is a young girl or a female slave.

18 Now the slaves and the police had made a charcoal fireXLVIII because it was cold,XLIX and they were standing around it and warmingL themselves. Peter also was standing with them and warming himself.

19 Then the high priest questionedLI Jesus about his disciples and about his teaching.LII 

Notes on verses 18:18-19

XLVIII “charcoal fire” = anthrakia. 2x in NT – here and in Jn 21:9 when Jesus appears to the disciples and cooks fish on the shore. From anthrax (coal, a live coal). This is burning coals piled together. This is where the words “anthrax” and also “anthracite” come from.
XLIX “cold” = psuchos. 3x in NT. From psucho (to breathe, blow, breathe out, to cool or make cold). This is cold or coolness. It is connected to the root of psuche (psyche), which refers to the breathe of life and, by extension, life itself as expressed in individuality.
L “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.
LI “questioned” = erotao. Related to “asked” in v18:7. See note XVI above.
LII “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.

20 Jesus answered, “I have spoken openlyLIII to the world;LIV I have alwaysLV taughtLVI in synagoguesLVII and in the temple, where all the Jews come together. I have said nothing in secret.LVIII 21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who heardLIX what I said to them;LX they know what I said.” 

Notes on verses 18:20-21

LIII “openly” = parresia. From pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
LIV “world” = kosmos.Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LV “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
LVI “taught” = didasko. Related to “teaching” in v18:19. See note LII above.
LVII “synagogues” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
LVIII “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
LIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LX {untranslated} = idou. Related to “knew” in v18:2. From eido (see note VII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.

22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearby struckLXI Jesus on the face, saying, “Is that how you answer the high priest?” 

23 Jesus answered, “If I have spoken wrongly,LXII testifyLXIII to the wrong.LXIV But if I have spoken rightly,LXV why do you strikeLXVI me?” 24 Then Annas sentLXVII him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Notes on verses 18:22-24

LXI “struck” = didomi + rhapisma. Literally “gave a blow.” Rhapisma is 3x in NT – all in passion narratives. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from the root of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a slap or a blow with a stick.
LXII “wrongly” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.
LXIII “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It means to testify in a literal or figurative sense. This root is where we get the word “martyr” from.
LXIV “wrong” = kakos. Related to “wrongly” in v18:23. See note LXII above.
LXV “rightly” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
LXVI “strike” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
LXVII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They asked him, “You are not also one of his disciples, are you?”

He deniedLXVIII it and said, “I am not.” 

26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, “Did I not seeLXIX you in the garden with him?” 27 Again Peter denied it, and at that moment the cock crowed.

28 Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate’s headquarters.LXX It was early in the morning. They themselves did not enter the headquarters, so as to avoid ritual defilementLXXI and to be able to eat the Passover.LXXII 

Notes on verses 18:25-28

LXVIII “denied” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
LXIX “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXX “Pilate’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
LXXI “avoid ritual defilement” = me + miaino. Literally “not be defiled.” Miaino is 5x in NT. Properly, it means staining something or dyeing it. Figuratively, it refers to staining the soul as with sin. So, it is to pollute or corrupt in a ritual or moral sense.
LXXII “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

29 So PilateLXXIII went out to them and said, “What accusationLXXIV do you bringLXXV against this man?” 

30 They answered, “If this man were not a criminal,LXXVI we would not have handed him overLXXVII to you.” 

Notes on verses 18:29-30

LXXIII “Pilate” = pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
LXXIV “accusation” = kategoria. 3x in NT. Probably from kategoreo (to accuse, charge, or prosecute); from kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is accusation, complaint, criminal charge, or the person being accused in the charge. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
LXXV “bring” = phero. Related to “was better” in v18:14. See note XLI above.
LXXVI “criminal” = kakos + poieo. Literally “evil doing.” Kakos is the same as “wrongly” in v18:23.
LXXVII “handed…over” = paradidomi. Same as ”betrayed” in v18:2.

31 Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and judgeLXXVIII him according to your law.”LXXIX

The Jews replied, “We are not permittedLXXX to put anyone to death.” 32 (This was toLXXXI fulfill what Jesus had said when he indicatedLXXXII the kind of death he wasLXXXIII to die.)

Notes on verses 18:31-32

LXXVIII “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
LXXIX “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
LXXX “permitted” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
LXXXI {untranslated} = ho + logos. Literally “the word.”
LXXXII “indicated” = semaino. 6x in NT. From sema (a sign or mark). This is to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known, communicate. In John’s Gospel miracles are referred to as signs.
LXXXIII “was” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

33 Then Pilate entered the headquarters again, summoned Jesus, and asked him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” 

34 Jesus answered, “Do you ask this on your own, or did others tell you about me?” 

35 Pilate replied, “I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nationLXXXIV and the chief priests have handed you over to me. What have you done?” 

36 Jesus answered, “My kingdomLXXXV is not from this world. If my kingdom were from this world, my followersLXXXVI would be fightingLXXXVII to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here.” 

Notes on verses 18:33-36

LXXXIV “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
LXXXV “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “king” in v18:33. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LXXXVI “followers” = huperetes. Same as “police” in v18:3. See note X above.
LXXXVII “fighting” = agonizomai. 8x in NT. From agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is to struggle, strive, or fight. It could be contending to win a prize or against an adversary or in war. It can also mean striving to accomplish something. This is where the word “agonize” comes from.

37 Pilate asked him, “So you are a king?”

Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth.LXXXVIII Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice.” 

38 Pilate asked him, “What is truth?”

After he had said this, he went out to the Jews again and told them, “I findLXXXIX no caseXC against him.XCI 39 But you have a customXCII that I releaseXCIII someone for you at the Passover. Do you wantXCIV me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 

Notes on verses 18:37-39

LXXXVIII “truth” = aletheia. From a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
LXXXIX “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XC “case” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
XCI Literally “I don’t find in him guilt (or ground).”
XCII “custom” = sunetheia. Related to “nation” in v18:35. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ethos (see note LXXXIV above). This is a habit, custom, or practice.
XCIII “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
XCIV “want” = boulomai. Related to “advised” in v18:14. See note XL above.

40 They shoutedXCV in reply, “Not this man, but Barabbas!”XCVI Now Barabbas was a bandit.XCVII

Notes on verse 18:40

XCV “shouted” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
XCVI “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
XCVII “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT – 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

19:1 Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged.XCVIII And the soldiersXCIX woveC a crownCI of thorns and put it on his head, and they dressed him in a purpleCII robe.CIII 3 They kept coming up to him, saying, “Hail,CIV King of the Jews!” and strikingCV him on the face. 

Notes on verses 19:1-3

XCVIII “flogged” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.
XCIX “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
C “wove” = pleko. 3x in NT – all in passion narratives. This is to weave, twist, or braid.
CI “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in haven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
CII “purple” = porphurous. 4x in NT. From porphura (purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth; ranged from violet to scarlet to blue; dye made from a snail; symbolized royalty, wealth, or power); perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple, the cloth or the dye – associated with money, power, nobility, and kings.
CIII “robe” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CIV “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
CV “striking” = didomi + autos + rhapisma. Literally “kept giving him slaps.” Rhapisma is the same as “struck” in v18:22

4 Pilate went out again and said to them, “Look, I am bringing him out to you to let you knowCVI that I find no case against him.”CVII 

5 So Jesus came out, wearingCVIII the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Here is the man!” 

6 When the chief priests and the police saw him, they shouted, “CrucifyCIX him! Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and crucify him; I find no case against him.”CX 

Notes on verses 19:4-6

CVI “know” = ginosko. Perhaps related to “name” in v18:10. See note XXVIII above.
CVII Literally “not guilt (or grounds) do I find in him.”
CVIII “wearing” = phoreo. Related to “was better” in v18:14 & “bring” in v18:29. 6x in NT. From phero (see note XLI above). This is to wear or bear something constantly or as a habit. It can also mean having a burden or wearing clothes.
CIX “crucify” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
CX Literally “for I don’t find in him guilt (or grounds).”

The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to that law he oughtCXI to die because he has claimed to beCXII the Son of God.”CXIII

Now when Pilate heard this,CXIV he was more afraidCXV than ever. 9 He entered his headquarters again and asked Jesus, “Where are you from?” But Jesus gave him no answer. 

Notes on verses 19:7-9

CXI “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
CXII “claimed to be” = heautou + poieo. Literally “he made himself {the son of God}”
CXIII “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXIV {untranslated} = ho + logos. Literally “the word.”
CXV “afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

10 Pilate therefore said to him, “Do you refuse to speak to me? Do you not know that I have powerCXVI to release you, and power to crucify you?” 

11 Jesus answered him, “You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above;CXVII therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty ofCXVIII a greater sin.”CXIX 

Notes on verses 19:10-11

CXVI “power” = exousia. Related to “permitted” in v18:320 From exesti (see note LXXX above). This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
CXVII “from above” = anothen. 13x in NT. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.
CXVIII “is guilty of” = echo. Literally “has.”
CXIX “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

12 From then on Pilate triedCXX to release him, but the Jews cried out, “If you release this man, you are no friendCXXI of the emperor.CXXII Everyone who claims to be a kingCXXIII sets himself againstCXXIV the emperor.”

Notes on verse 19:12

CXX “tried” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v18:3
CXXI “friend” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
CXXII “emperor” = kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
CXXIII Literally “everyone who makes himself a king.”
CXXIV “sets…against” = antilego. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

13 When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus outside and sat on the judge’s benchCXXV at a place called The Stone Pavement,CXXVI or in HebrewCXXVII Gabbatha.CXXVIII 

14 Now it was the day of Preparation for the Passover; and it was about noon.CXXIX He said to the Jews, “Here is your King!” 

15 They cried out, “AwayCXXX with him! Away with him! Crucify him!”

Pilate asked them, “Shall I crucify your King?”

The chief priests answered, “We have no king but the emperor.” 16 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified.

Notes on verses 19:13-16a

CXXV “judge’s bench” = bema. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See
CXXVI “Stone Pavement” = lithostrotos. Perhaps related to “soldiers” in v19:2. 1x in NT. From lithos (stone literal or figurative – stumbling, millstone, cornerstone) + strotos (spread or covered); {from stronnumi (to spread, to spread out like a bed)}. This is paved with stone or a mosaic. It is the place where the Roman tribunal met.
CXXVII “in Hebrew” = hebraisti. 7x in NT. From Hebrais (Hebrew language, Aramaic); from Eber (Heber); from Hebrew Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber. This is in Hebrew or in Aramaic.
CXXVIII “Gabbatha” = gabbatha. 1x in NT. From Aramaic gab (back or side); corresponding to Hebrew gab (back, rim, vault, bulwark, top, a prominent or high place). This is Gabbatha, which may mean stone pavement like the Greek. It may also mean knoll or higher place.
CXXIX “noon” = hora + eimi + hos + hektos. Literally “the hour was about the sixth.”
CXXX “away” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).

So they took Jesus; 17 and carryingCXXXI the crossCXXXII by himself, he went out to what is called The Place of the Skull,CXXXIII which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.CXXXIV 18 There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, with Jesus between them. 

Notes on verses 19:16b-18

CXXXI “carrying” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
CXXXII “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucify” in v19:6. See note CIX above.
CXXXIII “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.
CXXXIV “Golgotha” = Golgotha. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &

19 Pilate also had an inscriptionCXXXV written and put on the cross. It read, “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.” 

20 Many of the Jews readCXXXVI this inscription, because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city;CXXXVII and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin,CXXXVIII and in Greek.CXXXIX 

21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘This man said, I am King of the Jews.’” 

22 Pilate answered, “What I have written I have written.” 

Notes on verses 19:19-22

CXXXV “inscription” = titlos. 2x in NT. From Latin titulus (“title, placard, tablet, inscription, epitaph”; probably from Etruscan). This is title, inscription, or notice. See
CXXXVI “read” = anaginosko. Perhaps related to “name” in v18:10 & related to “known” in v18:15 & related to “know” in v19:4. From ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew) + ginosko (see note XXVIII above). This is to know certainly, recognize, or read.
CXXXVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CXXXVIII “in Latin” = Rhomaisti. From Rhomaios (Roman, of Rome); from Rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This means in Latin. See
CXXXIX “in Greek” = Hellenisti. 2x in NT. From the same as Hellenistes (a Greek person, a Hellenist, a Jew who speaks Greek); from hellenizo (to hellenize); from Hellen (Greek; used in the New Testament for a Gentile who speaks Greek); from hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is in Greek or Hellistically. See

23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and divided them into four parts, one for each soldier. They also took his tunic;CXL now the tunic was seamless, woven in one pieceCXLI from the top. 

24 So they said to one another, “Let us not tearCXLII it, but cast lots for it to see who will get it.” This was to fulfill what the scriptureCXLIII says,

“They dividedCXLIV my clothes among themselves,
    and for my clothingCXLV they cast lots.”CXLVI

Notes on verses 19:23-24

CXL “tunic” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
CXLI “one piece” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXLII “tear” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CXLIII “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXLIV “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sin” in v19:11 & “parts” in v19:23. 12x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, throughout, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide by shares, distribute, assign, partition; can mean distributing to those who have need); {from meros (see note CXIX above)}. This is distribute, divide, or share. It can also figuratively mean dissension.
CXLV “clothing” = himatismos. Related to “robe” in v19:2. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe or be clothed); from himation (see note CIII above). This is clothing, garments, or vesture.
CXLVI “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.

25 AndCXLVII that is what the soldiers did.

Meanwhile, standing near the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother’s sister,CXLVIII MaryCXLIX the wife of Clopas,CL and Mary Magdalene.CLI 

Notes on verse 19:25

CXLVII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXLVIII “sister” = adelphe. From adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}. This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIX “Mary” = maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CL “Clopas.” = klopas. 1x in NT. From Aramaic (Clopas); from halap (to make a transition, exchange, renew). This is Clopas. See
CLI “Magdalene” = magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he lovedCLII standing beside her, he said to his mother, “Woman,CLIII hereCLIV is your son.” 27 Then he said to the disciple, “Here is your mother.” And from that hour the disciple took her into his ownCLV home.

Notes on verses 19:26-27

CLII “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CLIII “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CLIV “here” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v18:21. See note LX above
CLV “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding). Note that the word “home” does not appear in Greek.

28 After this, when Jesus knew that all was now finished,CLVI he said (in order to fulfillCLVII the scripture), “I am thirsty.” 29 A jar full of sour wineCLVIII was standing there.

So they put a spongeCLIX full of the wine on a branch of hyssopCLX and heldCLXI it to his mouth. 30 When Jesus had received the wine, he said, “It is finished.” Then he bowed his head and gave upCLXII his spirit.CLXIII

Notes on verses 19:28-30

CLVI “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CLVII “fulfill” = teleioo. Related to “finished” in v19:28. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note CLVI above). This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CLVIII “sour wine” = oxos. 6x in NT – all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (point). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CLIX “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge, tonsil); a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CLX “branch of hyssop” = hussopos. 2x in NT. A Semitic word – in Hebrew ezob (hyssop). Hyssop, either a stalk or stem.
CLXI “held” = prosphero. Related to “was better” in v18:14 & “bring” in v18:29 & “wearing” in v19:5. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phero (see note XLI above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
CLXII “gave up” = paradidomi. Same as, for example, “betrayed” in v18:2 & “handed…over” in v18:30.
CLXIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

31 Since it was the day of Preparation, the Jews did not want the bodiesCLXIV left on the cross during the sabbath,CLXV especially because that sabbath was a day of great solemnity. So they asked Pilate to have the legs of the crucified men brokenCLXVI and the bodies removed.CLXVII 

32 Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and of the other who had been crucified with him. 33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 

Notes on verses 19:31-33

CLXIV “bodies” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CLXV “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CLXVI “broken” = katagnumi. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among)) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to crush or beak in pieces.
CLXVII “removed” = airo. Same as “away” in v19:15

34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced his sideCLXVIII with a spearCLXIX, and at once bloodCLXX and water came out. 

Notes on verses 19:34

CLXVIII “side” = pleura. 6x in NT. This is the side or the side of the body. It is where “pleurisy” comes from.
CLXIX “spear” = logche. 2x in NT. This is lance or spear.
CLXX “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

35 (He who saw this has testified so that you also may believe.CLXXI His testimonyCLXXII is true,CLXXIII and he knows that he tells the truth.)CLXXIV, CLXXV 

36 These things occurred so that the scripture might be fulfilled, “None of his bones shall be broken.”CLXXVI 37 And again another passage of scripture says, “They will look on the one whom they have pierced.”

Notes on verses 19:35-37

CLXXI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CLXXII “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testify” in v18:23. From martureo (see note LXIII above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CLXXIII “true” = alethinos. Related to “truth” in v18:37 From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to the test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); {from a (not) + lanthano (see note LXXXVIII)}. This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
CLXXIV “truth” = alethes. Related to “truth” in v18:37 & “true” in v19:35. From a (not) + lanthano (see note LXXXVIII). See note CLXXII above.
CLXXV Literally “and the one who saw bore witness and true is his testimony. And he knows that truth he is speaking so that also you might believe.”
CLXXVI “broken” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.

38 After these things, JosephCLXXVII of Arimathea,CLXXVIII who was a disciple of Jesus, though a secretCLXXIX one because of his fearCLXXX of the Jews, asked Pilate to let him take away the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission;CLXXXI so he came and removed his body. 

Notes on verse 19:38

CLXXVII “Joseph” = ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CLXXVIII “Arimathea” = harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CLXXIX “secret” = krupto. Related to “secret” in v18:20. 18x in NT. See note LVIII above.
CLXXX “fear” = phobos. Related to “afraid” in v19:8. See note CXV above.
CLXXXI “gave…permission” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license

39 Nicodemus,CLXXXII who had at first come to Jesus by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrhCLXXXIII and aloes,CLXXXIV weighing about a hundred pounds.CLXXXV 

Notes on verse 19:39

CLXXXII “Nicodemus” = nikodemos. Related to “slave” in v18:10 & “bound” in v18:12. 5x in NT. From nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); {from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)} + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (see note XXVII above)}. This is Nicodemus, meaning “victorious among his people.”
CLXXXIII “myrrh” = smurna. 2x in NT. Perhaps from muron (ointment, perfume, or oil for anointing); compare Arabic murr (myrrh, literally meaning bitterness) & Hebrew mo (myrrh, literally meaning bitterness). This is myrrh, used in preparing the body for burial. Can also be figurative for romantic desire. See
CLXXXIV “aloes” = aloe. 1x in NT. This is either sap from a tree called the aquillaria agallocha, the eaglewood tree, or it could refer to proper aloe. In addition to its use for embalming, aloe is associated with love in the Song of Songs 4:14.
CLXXXV “pounds” = litra. 2x in NT. From Latin libra (a Roman weight – twelve ounces; also a level or set of scales); from Proto-Italic lithra (pound). This is a pound, which is about 327.5 grams. See

40 They took the body of Jesus and wrappedCLXXXVI it with the spicesCLXXXVII in linen cloths, according to the burial customCLXXXVIII of the Jews. 

41 Now there was a garden in the place where he was crucified, and in the garden there was a newCLXXXIX tombCXC in which no one had ever been laid. 42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of Preparation, and the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there.

Notes on verses 19:40-42

CLXXXVI “wrapped” = deo. Same as “bound” in v18:12. See note XXVII above.
CLXXXVII “spices” = aroma. Perhaps related to “away” in v19:15. 4x in NT. Perhaps from airo (see note CXXX). This is a sweet spice or perfume. It is where the word “aroma” comes from.
CLXXXVIII “custom” = ethos. Related to “nation” in v18:35 & “custom” in v18:39. 12x in NT. From etho (see note LXXXIV). This is custom or habit. It is how one acts in accordance with tradition or regular practice.
CLXXXIX “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CXC “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

Image Credit: “Descent from the Cross,” circa 1700.

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