Leviticus 16

Leviticus 16


The LordI spokeII to MosesIII afterIV the deathV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
IV “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
V “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.

of the twoVI sonsVII of Aaron,VIII when they drew nearIX beforeX the Lord and died.XI 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
VII “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
VIII “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
IX “drew near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
X “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XI “died” = mut. Related to “death” in v1. See note V above.

The Lord said to Moses:

“TellXII your brotherXIII Aaron not to comeXIV just at anyXV timeXVI

Notes on verse 2a

XII “tell” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v1. See note II above.
XIII “brother” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XIV “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XV “any” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XVI “time” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.

into the sanctuaryXVII insideXVIII the curtainXIX beforeXX

Notes on verse 2b

XVII “sanctuary” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
XVIII “inside” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v1. Perhaps from banah (see note VII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XIX “curtain” = paroketh. Perhaps from the same as perek (perhaps from a word meaning fracture or break apart, emphasizing the severity or the break; harshness, severity, cruelty; rigorously). This is something that separates – a screen, curtain, or veil.
XX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.

the coverXXI that is upon the ark,XXII or he will die, for I appearXXIII in the cloudXXIV upon the cover. 

Notes on verse 2c

XXI “cover” = kapporeth. From the same as kopher (ransom, bribe, price of a life; something that covers something else; a village, bitumen as a coating, a henna plant that dyes, a ransom price); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, cleanse, pardon). This is the lid on top of the ark – the mercy seat.
XXII “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
XXIII “appear” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXIV “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.

Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place:XXV with a young bullXXVI for a purification offeringXXVII and a ramXXVIII for a burnt offering.XXIX 

Notes on verse 3

XXV “holy place” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v2. See note XVII above.
XXVI “young bull” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
XXVII “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
XXVIII “ram” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.
XXIX “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

He shall put onXXX the holyXXXI linenXXXII tunicXXXIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXX “put on” = labash. This is to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else. This is wrapping around in a literal or figurative way.
XXXI “holy” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v2. See note XVII above.
XXXII “linen” = bad. Perhaps from badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is white linen as a fabric of divide fibers, flaxen thread, or yarn.
XXXIII “tunic” = kethoneth. Root may mean to cover. This is a tunic, coat, or other kind of garment.

and shall haveXXXIV the linen undergarmentsXXXV next to his body,XXXVI fastenXXXVII the linen sash,XXXVIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIV “have” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XXXV “undergarments” = miknas. 5x in OT. From kanas (to gather, assemble, enfold). This is an undergarment or breeches.
XXXVI “body” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
XXXVII “fasten” = chagar. This is to gird, bind, or arm. Generally, it is using a belt to gather up one’s garment so that it’s easier to run or move quickly.
XXXVIII “sash” = abnet. 9x in OT. This is a sash or belt.

and wearXXXIX the linen turban;XL these are the holy vestments.XLI He shall batheXLII his body in waterXLIII and then put them on. 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXIX “wear” = tsanaph. Related to “turban” in v4. 3x in OT. See note XL below.
XL “turban” = mitsnepheth. 12x in OT. From tsanaph (to wrap or wind up). This is turban or diadem. It is worn as a mark of status – like a king or high priest.
XLI “vestments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
XLII “bathe” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
XLIII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

He shall takeXLIV from the congregationXLV of the IsraelitesXLVI two male goatsXLVII for a purification offering and oneXLVIII ram for a burnt offering.

Notes on verse 5

XLIV “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XLV “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
XLVI “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note VII above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XLVII “male goats” = sa’iyr + ez. Sa’iyr from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, fear, storm tossed; to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hairy, rough, male goat, shaggy. It could also refer to a devil. Ez is perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
XLVIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

“Aaron shall offerXLIX the bull as a purification offering for himself and shall make atonementL for himself and for his house.LI He shall take the two goatsLII and setLIII them

Notes on verses 6-7a

XLIX “offer” = qarab. Same as “drew near” in v1. See note IX above.
L “make atonement” = kaphar. Related to “cover” in v2. See note XXI above.
LI “house” = bayit. Same as “inside” in v2. See note XVIII above.
LII “goats” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LIII “set” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.

beforeLIV the Lord at the entranceLV of the tentLVI of meeting,LVII 

Notes on verse 7b

LIV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
LV “entrance” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.
LVI “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
LVII “meeting” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v5. From yaad (see note XLV above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.

and Aaron shall castLVIII lotsLIX on the two goats,LX one lot for the Lord and the otherLXI lot for Azazel.LXII 

Notes on verse 8

LVIII “cast” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LIX “lots” = goral. Root may mean to be rough like a stone. A lot was probably a small pebble used to determine one’s portion or what one should do (the will of a god or one’s destiny).
LX “goats” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LXI “other” = echad. Same as “one” in v5. See note XLVIII above.
LXII “Azazel” = Azazel. Perhaps related to “male goats” in v5. 4x in OT – all in Leviticus 16. Perhaps from ez (see note XLVII above) + azal (to go away, evaporate, fail, or disappear). This is complete removal, scapegoat, or Azazel.

Aaron shall presentLXIII the goatLXIV on which the lot fellLXV for the Lord and offerLXVI it as a purification offering, 

Notes on verse 9

LXIII “present” = qarab. Same as “drew near” in v1. See note IX above.
LXIV “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LXV “fell” = alah. Related to “burnt offering” in v3. See note XXIX above.
LXVI “offer” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

10 but the goatLXVII on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presentedLXVIII aliveLXIX

Notes on verse 10a

LXVII “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LXVIII “presented” = amad. Same as “set” in v7. See note LIII above.
LXIX “alive” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

beforeLXX the Lord to make atonement over it, that it may be sent awayLXXI into the wildernessLXXII to Azazel.

Notes on verse 10b

LXX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
LXXI “sent away” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXXII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

11 “Aaron shall presentLXXIII the bull as a purification offering for himself and shall make atonement for himself and for his house; he shall slaughterLXXIV the bull as a purification offering for himself. 12 He shall take a censerLXXV fullLXXVI of coalsLXXVII of fireLXXVIII from the altarLXXIX

Notes on verses 11-12a

LXXIII “present” = qarab. Same as “drew near” in v1. See note IX above.
LXXIV “slaughter” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
LXXV “censer” = machtah. From chathah (to take, snatch up, carry fire). This is a censer or firepan that holds burning coals.
LXXVI “full” = melo. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fullness in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVII “coals” = gechel. 18x in OT. Root may mean to glow or kindle. This is a cot or hot ember.
LXXVIII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIX “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.

beforeLXXX the Lord and two handfulsLXXXI of crushedLXXXII sweetLXXXIII incense,LXXXIV and he shall bringLXXXV it inside the curtain 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
LXXXI “handfuls” = melo + chophen. Melo is the same as “full” in v12. See note LXXVI above. Chophen is 6x in OT. This is fist or handful.
LXXXII “crushed” = daq. 15x in OT. From daqaq (to crush, crumble, make dust, be very small). This is thin, crushed, small, very little.
LXXXIII “sweet” = sam. 16x in OT. This is spice, fragrant, a sweet smell.
LXXXIV “incense” = qetoreth. From the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned.
LXXXV “bring” = bo. Same as “come” in v2. See note XIV above.

13 and putLXXXVI the incense on the fire beforeLXXXVII the Lord, that the cloud of the incense may shroudLXXXVIII the cover that is upon the covenant,LXXXIX or he will die. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXVI “put” = natan. Same as “cast” in v8. See note LVIII above.
LXXXVII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
LXXXVIII “shroud” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXXIX “covenant” = edut. Related to “congregation” in v5. From ed (see note XLV above). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.

14 He shall take some of the bloodXC of the bull and sprinkleXCI it with his fingerXCII

Notes on verse 14a

XC “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
XCI “sprinkle” = nazah. This is to sprinkle, spurt, or leap. Sprinkling especially refers to rituals of expiation.
XCII “finger” = etsba. Perhaps from the same as tseba (dye, something dipped). This is finger or toe – something used to seize.

onXCIII the frontXCIV of the cover, and beforeXCV the cover he shall sprinkle the blood with his finger sevenXCVI times.XCVII

Notes on verse 14b

XCIII {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
XCIV “front” = qedem. Perhaps from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.
XCV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
XCVI “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
XCVII “times” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.

15 “He shall slaughter the goatXCVIII of the purification offering that is for the peopleXCIX and bring its blood inside the curtain and doC with its blood as he did with the blood of the bull, sprinkling it upon the cover and beforeCI the cover. 

Notes on verse 15

XCVIII “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
XCIX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
C “do” = asah. Same as “offer” in v9. See note LXVI above.
CI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.

16 Thus he shall make atonement for the sanctuary, because of the uncleannessesCII of the Israelites and because of their transgressions,CIII allCIV their sins,CV

Notes on verse 16a

CII “uncleannesses” = tum’ah. From tame (becoming unclean, foul, defiled; polluted, particularly in a ritual or moral sense). This is filthiness or uncleanness. It can refer to ritual or moral impurity.
CIII “transgressions” = pesha. From pasha (to rebel, offend, quarrel; making a break from proper authority so can also refer to an apostate). This is transgression, rebellion, or sin. It could be a revolt on a national scale or an individual moral one.
CIV “all” = kol. Same as “any” in v2. See note XV above.
CV “sins” = chatta’ah. Same as “purification offering” in v3. See note XXVII above.

and soCVI he shall do for the tent of meeting, which remainsCVII with them in the midst ofCVIII their uncleanness. 

Notes on verse 16b

CVI “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CVII “remains” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
CVIII “in the midst of” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.

17 NoCIX oneCX shall be in the tent of meeting from the time he entersCXI to make atonement in the sanctuary until he comes outCXII and has made atonement for himself and for his house and for all the assemblyCXIII of Israel. 

Notes on verse 17

CIX {untranslated} = kol. Same as “any” in v2. See note XV above.
CX “one” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
CXI “enters” = bo. Same as “come” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXII “comes out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIII “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.

18 Then he shall go outCXIV to the altar that is beforeCXV the LordCXVI and make atonement on its behalf and shall take some of the blood of the bull and of the blood of the goatCXVII

Notes on verse 18a

CXIV “go out” = yatsa. Same as “comes out” in v17. See note CXII above.
CXV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “have” in v4. See note I above. It has the same meaning as “Lord” in v1 with a different vowel pointing.
CXVII “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.

and put it on eachCXVIII of the hornsCXIX of the altar. 19 He shall sprinkle some of the blood on it with his finger seven times and cleanseCXX it and sanctifyCXXI it from the uncleannesses of the Israelites.

Notes on verses 18b-19

CXVIII “each” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
CXIX “horns” = qeren. This is horn or hill. It can be a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power.
CXX “cleanse” = taher. This is properly being bright, which implies being pure or clean. This word can also mean purge, cleanse, or purify. It can be clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy).
CXXI “sanctify” = qadash. Related to “sanctuary” in v2. From qodesh (see note XVII above). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.

20 “When he has finishedCXXII atoningCXXIII for the holy place and the tent of meeting and the altar, he shall presentCXXIV the liveCXXV goat.CXXVI 

Notes on verse 20

CXXII “finished” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
CXXIII “atoning” = kaphar. Same as “make atonement” in v6. See note L above.
CXXIV “present” = qarab. Same as “drew near” in v1. See note IX above.
CXXV “live” = chay. Same as “alive” in v10. See note LXIX above.
CXXVI “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.

21 Then Aaron shall layCXXVII bothCXXVIII his handsCXXIX on the headCXXX of the live goatCXXXI

Notes on verse 21a

CXXVII “lay” = samak. This is to lean, rest, support, brace, uphold, sustain, or establish. It is to lean on in a positive or negative sense.
CXXVIII “both” = shenayim. Same as “two” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXIX “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXXX “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
CXXXI “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.

and confessCXXXII over it all the iniquitiesCXXXIII of the Israelites, and all their transgressions, all their sins, putting them on the head of the goatCXXXIV and sending it away into the wilderness by meansCXXXV of someoneCXXXVI designated for the task.CXXXVII 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXII “confess” = yadah. From yad (hand). This is to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise. So, it is to praise, give thanks, or make a confession.
CXXXIII “iniquities” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CXXXIV “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
CXXXV “means” = yad. Same as “hands” in v21. See note CXXIX above.
CXXXVI “someone” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
CXXXVII “designated for the task” = itti. Related to “time” in v2. 1x in OT. Probably from et (see note XVI above). This is ready or fit.

22 The goatCXXXVIII shall bearCXXXIX on itself all their iniquities to a barrenCXL region,CXLI and the goatCXLII shall be set free in the wilderness.

Notes on verse 22

CXXXVIII “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
CXXXIX “bear” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXL “barren” = gezerah. 1x in OT. From gazar (to cut or cut down; figuratively, to divide, exclude, decree, or destroy). This is separation, alone, uninhabited.
CXLI “region” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CXLII “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.

23 “Then Aaron shall enter the tent of meeting and shall take offCXLIII the linen vestments that he put on when he wentCXLIV into the holy place and shall leaveCXLV them there. 

Notes on verse 23

CXLIII “take off” = pashat. This is to raid or invade. Figuratively, it means to strip or plunder.
CXLIV “went” = bo. Same as “come” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXLV “leave” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.

24 He shall bathe his body in water in a holyCXLVI placeCXLVII and put on his vestments; then he shall come out and offerCXLVIII his burnt offering and the burnt offering of the people, making atonement for himself and for the people. 

Notes on verse 24

CXLVI “holy” = qadosh. Related to “sanctuary” in v2 & “sanctify” in v19. From qodesh (see note XVII above). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
CXLVII “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXLVIII “offer” = asah. Same as “offer” in v9. See note LXVI above.

25 The fatCXLIX of the purification offering he shall turn into smokeCL on the altar. 26 The one who sets the goatCLI free for Azazel shall washCLII

Notes on verses 25-26a

CXLIX “fat” = cheleb. This is fat, finest, marrow. It is fat in a literal or figurative sense. It refers to the richest or best part.
CL “turn into smoke” = qatar. Related to “incense” in v12. Perhaps from qetoreth (see note LXXXIV above). This is to make an offering, particular one of burned incense. It focuses on the fragrance made from the sacrificial fire. This is generally used to refer to worship.
CLI “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
CLII “wash” = kabas. This is to trample – washing by stomping feet. It can be fulling in a literal or figurative sense.

his clothesCLIII and bathe his body in water and afterwardCLIV may come into the camp.CLV 27 The bull of the purification offering and the goatCLVI of the purification offering, whose blood was brought inCLVII to make atonement in the holy place,

Notes on verses 26b-27a

CLIII “clothes” = beged. Same as “vestments” in v4. See note XLI above.
CLIV “afterward” = achar + ken. Achar is the same as “after” in v1. See note IV above. Ken is the same as “so” in v16. See note CVI above.
CLV “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
CLVI “goat” = sa’iyr. Same as “male goats” in v5. See note XLVII above.
CLVII “brought in” = bo. Same as “come” in v2. See note XIV above.

shall be takenCLVIII outsideCLIX the camp; their skinCLX and their fleshCLXI and their dungCLXII shall be consumedCLXIII in fire. 28 The one who burnsCLXIV them shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water and afterward may come into the camp.

Notes on verses 27b-28

CLVIII “taken” = yatsa. Same as “comes out” in v17. See note CXII above.
CLIX “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
CLX “skin” = or. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is skin, hide, or leather. It can also refer to a body.
CLXI “flesh” = basar, Same as “body” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
CLXII “dung” = peresh. 7x in OT. Perhaps from parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter; can also imply to wound). This is refuse or dung.
CLXIII “consumed” = saraph. This is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from.
CLXIV “burns” = saraph. Same as “consumed” in v27. See note CLXIII above.

29 “This shall be a statuteCLXV to you forever:CLXVI In the seventhCLXVII month,CLXVIII

Notes on verse 29a

CLXV “statute” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
CLXVI “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CLXVII “seventh” = shebii. Related to “seven” in v14. From sheba (see note XCVI above). This is seventh.
CLXVIII “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.

on the tenthCLXIX day of the month, you shall humbleCLXX yourselvesCLXXI and shall do noCLXXII work,CLXXIII

Notes on verse 29b

CLXIX “tenth” = asor. 16x in OT. From the same as eser (teen or -teen). This is ten or tenth. Here, a ten-stringed instrument like the lute.
CLXX “humble” = anah. This is to be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
CLXXI “yourselves” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CLXXII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “any” in v2. See note XV above.
CLXXIII “work” = melakah. From the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.

neither the native-bornCLXXIV nor the alienCLXXV who residesCLXXVI amongCLXXVII you. 

Notes on verse 29c

CLXXIV “native-born” = ezrach. 17x in OT. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is native or native-born. It can also refer to spontaneous growth, a bay tree.
CLXXV “alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CLXXVI “resides” = gur. Related to “alien” in v29. See note CLXXV above.
CLXXVII “among” = tavek. Same as “in the midst of” in v16. See note CVIII above.

30 For on this dayCLXXVIII atonement shall be made for you, to cleanse you; from all your sins you shall be cleanCLXXIX beforeCLXXX the Lord.CLXXXI 31 It is a SabbathCLXXXII of complete restCLXXXIII to you, and you shall humble yourselves;CLXXXIV it is a statute forever. 

Notes on verses 30-31

CLXXVIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CLXXIX “be clean” = taher. Same as “cleanse” in v19. See note CXX above.
CLXXX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note X above.
CLXXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXXII “Sabbath” = shabbat. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.
CLXXXIII “complete rest” = shabbaton. Related to “sabbath” in v31. 11x in OT. From shabath (see note CLXXXII above). This is a holiday, rest, a day to take a sabbath from work.
CLXXXIV “yourselves” = nephesh. Same as “yourselves” in v29. See note CLXXI above.

32 The priestCLXXXV who is anointedCLXXXVI and consecratedCLXXXVII as priestCLXXXVIII in his father’sCLXXXIX placeCXC shall make atonement,

Notes on verse 32a

CLXXXV “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CLXXXVI “anointed” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
CLXXXVII “consecrated” = male + et + yad. Male is related to “full” in v12. See note LXXVI above. Yad is the same as “hands” in v21. See note CXXIX above.
CLXXXVIII “priest” = kahan. Related to “priest” in v32. From kohen (see note CLXXXV above). This is officiating as a priest does over religious service. It can also figuratively mean donning regalia or formal ornamentation/attire.
CLXXXIX “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CXC “place” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.

wearingCXCI the linen vestments, the holyCXCII vestments. 33 He shall make atonement for the sanctuary,CXCIII and he shall make atonement for the tent of meeting and for the altar, and he shall make atonement for the priests and for all the people of the assembly. 

Notes on verses 32b-33

CXCI “wearing” = labash. Same as “put on” in v4. See note XXX above.
CXCII “holy” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v2. See note XVII above.
CXCIII “sanctuary” = miqdash + qodesh. Miqdash is related to “sanctuary” in v2 & “sanctify” in v19 & “holy” in v24. From the same as qodesh (see note XVII above). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another. Qodesh is the same “sanctuary” in v2. See note XVII above.

34 This shall be an everlastingCXCIV statute for you, to make atonement for the Israelites onceCXCV in the yearCXCVI for all their sins.” And Moses did as the LordCXCVII had commandedCXCVIII him.

Notes on verse 34

CXCIV “everlasting” = olam. Same as “forever” in v29. See note CLXVI above.
CXCV “once” = echad. Same as “one” in v5. See note XLVIII above.
CXCVI “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
CXCVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXCVIII “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

Image credit: “The Scapegoat” by William Holman Hunt, 1854.

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