Luke 11

Luke 11


1 IHe wasII prayingIII in a certain place,IV and after he had finished,V

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
III “praying” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
IV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
V “finished” = pauo. 15x in NT. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.

one of his disciplesVI said to him, “Lord,VII teachVIII us to pray, as JohnIX taught his disciples.” 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
VIII “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
IX “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

So he said to them, “When you pray, say:X

Father,XI, XII may your nameXIII be revered as holy.XIV

Notes on verse 2a

X “say” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XI “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XII Some manuscripts add “our, who is in heaven” = ego + ho + en + ho + ouranos. Ouranos may be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
XIII “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XIV “revered as holy” = hagiazo. From hagios (sacred, holy, set apart, different other; physically pure, morally blameless, or ceremonially set apart); from hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.

    May your kingdomXV come.XVI, XVII

Notes on verse 2b

XV “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XVI “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XVII Some manuscripts add, “your will be done as in heaven also upon the earth” = ginomai + ho + thelema + su + hos + en + ouranos + kai + epi + ho + ge. Ginomai is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above. Thelema is from thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree. Ge is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

    GiveXVIII us each dayXIX our dailyXX bread.XXI

Notes on verse 3

XVIII “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XX “daily” = epiousios. 2x in NT. From epeimi or epiousa (next, following, next day or night); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + heimi (to go)}. This is necessary, sufficient – what is needed for subsistence or suitable for what is happening.
XXI “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

    And forgiveXXII us our sins,XXIII
        for we ourselves forgive everyoneXXIV indebtedXXV to us.

Notes on verse 4a

XXII “forgive” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXIII “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
XXIV “everyone” = pas. This is all or every.
XXV “indebted” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.

    And do not bringXXVI us to the time of trial.”XXVII, XXVIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “bring” = eisphero. 8x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to carry in, lead into, or announce. It can be literal or figurative.
XXVII “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
XXVIII Some manuscripts add “but deliver us from the evil one” = alla + rhuomai + ego + apo + ho + poneros. Rhuomai is 18x in NT. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up. Poneros is from poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

And he said to them, “Suppose one of you hasXXIX a friend,XXX and you goXXXI to him at midnight

Notes on verse 5a

XXIX “has” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XXX “friend” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
XXXI “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

and say to him, ‘Friend, lendXXXII me threeXXXIII loaves of bread,XXXIV for a friend of mine has arrived,XXXV and I have nothing to set beforeXXXVI him.’ 

Notes on verses 5b-6

XXXII “lend” = chrao. 1x in NT. Probably related to chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is to lend or loan.
XXXIII “three” = treis. This is three.
XXXIV “loaves of bread” = artos. Same as “bread” in v3. See note XXI above.
XXXV “arrived” = paraginomai + ek + hodos. Paraginomai is related to {untranslated} in v1. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note I above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly. Hodos is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XXXVI “set before” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).

And he answers from within, ‘Do not botherXXXVII me; the doorXXXVIII has already been locked,XXXIX

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVII “bother” = kopos + parecho. Kopos is 18x in NT. From kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is trouble, toil, or labor. This is working to the point of exhaustion or weariness. At base, this refers to a blow that lands so swiftly that one is seriously weakened. Figuratively, this is being greatly tired or working to the point of being without strength. Parecho is related to “has” in v5. 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (see note XXIX above). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
XXXVIII “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XXXIX “locked” = kleio. 16x in NT. This is to close, shut, or lock in a literal of figurative sense. Figuratively used for shutting out of the kingdom of heaven or the wedding banquet, the heavens shutting as in there is no rain, and also for heartlessness.

and my childrenXL are with me in bed;XLI I cannotXLII get upXLIII and give you anything.’ 

Notes on verse 7b

XL “children” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
XLI “bed” = koite. 4x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is a bed, which can imply living together with someone. By extension, it can refer to promiscuity or sperm.
XLII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XLIII “get up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

I tell you, even though he will not get up and give him anything out of friendship,XLIV at least because of his persistenceXLV he will get upXLVI and give him whatever he needs.XLVII

Notes on verse 8

XLIV “friendship” = philos. Same as “friend” in v5. See note XXX above.
XLV “persistence” = anaideia. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + aidios (shame, modesty, reverence, awe); {from aideomai (to be ashamed)} OR from a (not, without) + eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is shamelessness, persistence, impudence.
XLVI “get up” = egeiro. From ageiro (to gather). This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XLVII “needs” = chrezo. Related to “lend” in v5. 5x in NT. From chre (see note XXXII above) This is to need, want, or desire.

“So I say to you, Ask,XLVIII and it will be given to you; search,XLIX and you will find;L knock,LI and the door will be openedLII for you. 

Notes on verse 9

XLVIII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XLIX “search” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
L “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LI “knock” = krouo. 9x in NT. To knock, hit a door with a stick in order to enter.
LII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.

10 For everyone who asks receives,LIII and everyone who searches finds, and for everyone who knocks, the door will be opened. 11 Is there anyone among youLIV who, if your childLV asked for a fish,LVI

Notes on verses 10-11a

LIII “receives” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LIV “is there anyone among you” = tis + de + ek + su + ho + pater. Literally, “now which of you who is a father.”
LV “child” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LVI “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See

would giveLVII a snakeLVIII instead of a fish? 12 Or if the child asked for an egg,LIX would giveLX a scorpion?LXI 

Notes on verses 11b-12

LVII “give” = epididomi. Related to “give” in v3. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + didomi (see note XVIII above). This is to deliver, give over, give up, surrender.
LVIII “snake” = ophis. 14x in NT. Perhaps from optanomai (to be seen, to gaze at something with eyes wide open, to see something remarkable); from horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is snake or serpent, often used of the devil. It is the snake as a type that is sly or cunning – someone malicious.
LIX “egg” = oon. 1x in NT. This is egg.
LX “give” = epididomi. Same as “give” in v11. See note LVII above.
LXI “scorpion” = skorpios. 5x in NT. Perhaps from skerpo (to pierce); from skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully). This is scorpion – from the root as regards its sting.

13 If you, then, who areLXII evil,LXIII knowLXIV how to giveLXV goodLXVI giftsLXVII to your children,LXVIII

Notes on verse 13a

LXII “are” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
LXIII “evil” = poneros. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXIV “know” = eido. Related to “persistence” in v8. See note XLV above.
LXV “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXVI “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
LXVII “gifts” = doma. Related to “give” in v3 & “give” in v11. 4x in NT. From didomi (see note XVIII above). This is gift or present.
LXVIII “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

how much moreLXIX will the heavenlyLXX Father giveLXXI the HolyLXXII SpiritLXXIII to those who ask him!”

Notes on verse 13b

LXIX “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
LXX “heavenly” = ouranos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XII above.
LXXI “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXIII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

14 Now he was casting outLXXIV a demonLXXV that was mute;LXXVI

Notes on verse 14a

LXXIV “casting out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXV “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXVI “mute” = kophos. Related to “bother” in v7. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (see note XXXVII above). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.

whenLXXVII the demon had gone out,LXXVIII the one who had been mute spoke, and the crowdsLXXIX were amazed.LXXX 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXVII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXVIII “gone out” = exerchomai. Related to “come” in v2. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXXIX “crowds” = ochlos. Related to “has” in v5 & “bother” in v7. Perhaps from echo (see note XXIX above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LXXX “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

15 But some of them said, “He casts out demons by Beelzebul,LXXXI the rulerLXXXII of the demons.” 16 Others,LXXXIII to testLXXXIV him,

Notes on verses 15-16a

LXXXI “Beelzebul” = Beelzeboul. 7x in NT. From Hebrew baal zebub (Baal Zebub, meaning “Baal of flies,” a god of the Phoenicians); {from Baal (Baal); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + zebub (a fly, particularly one that stings; root may mean to flit). This is Beelzebul – literally “lord of the flies.”
LXXXII “ruler” = archon. Related to “are” in v13. From archo (see note LXII above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
LXXXIII “others” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
LXXXIV “test” = peirazo. Related to “time of trial” in v4. See note XXVII above.

kept demandingLXXXV from him a signLXXXVI from heaven.LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 16b

LXXXV “demanding” = zeteo. Same as “search” in v9. See note XLIX above.
LXXXVI “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LXXXVII “heaven” = ouranos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XII above.

17 But he knew what they were thinkingLXXXVIII and said to them, “EveryLXXXIX kingdom dividedXC against itself

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXVIII “thinking” = dianoema. Related to “name” in v2. 1x in NT. From dianoeomai (to think); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XIII above)}}. This is a thought, reasoning, sentiment.
LXXXIX “every” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XC “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sins” in v4. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (see note XXIII above)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.

is laid waste,XCI and a divided householdXCII falls.XCIII 

Notes on verse 17b

XCI “laid waste” = eremoo. 5x in NT. From eremos (properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated; could be a deserted area or a desert place; secluded, solitary, or lonesome; any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally). This is to desolate, destroy, rob, abandon, desert. It is lay waste in a literal or figurative sense.
XCII “divided household” = oikos + epi + oikos. Literally, “a house against a house.” Oikos is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XCIII “falls” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.

18 If SatanXCIV also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand?XCV—for you say that I cast out the demons by Beelzebul. 19 Now if I cast out the demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your exorcistsXCVI cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges.XCVII 

Notes on verses 18-19

XCIV “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
XCV “stand” = histemi. Related to “get up” in v7. See note XLIII above.
XCVI “exorcists” = huios. Literally, “your sons.” Same as “child” in v11. See note LV above.
XCVII “judges” = krites. 19x in NT. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judge or ruler.

20 But if it is by the fingerXCVIII of GodXCIX that I cast out the demons, then the kingdom of God has comeC upon you. 21 When a strongCI man, fully armed,CII

Notes on verses 20-21a

XCVIII “finger” = daktulos. 8x in NT. Probably from deka (ten). This is finger. It is part of where “pterodactyl” comes from.
XCIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
C “come” = phthano. 7x in NT. This is to arrive before, anticipate – coming before as a priority.
CI “strong” = ischuros. Related to “has” in v5 & “bother” in v7 & “crowd” in v14. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXIX above)}. This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
CII “fully armed” = kathoplizo. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hoplizo (to equip or arm); {from hoplon (a tool or implement; armor or weapons in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from hepo (to be busy)}. This is to arm or equip completely.

guardsCIII his castle,CIV his propertyCV is safe.CVI 

Notes on verse 21b

CIII “guards” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
CIV “castle” = aule. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
CV “property” = huparcho. Same as “are” in v13. See note LXII above.
CVI “safe” = en + eirene. Literally, “in peace.” Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

22 But when one stronger than he attacksCVII him and overpowersCVIII him, he takes awayCIX his armorCX

Notes on verse 22a

CVII “attacks” = eperchomai. Related to “come” in v2 & “gone out” in v14. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.
CVIII “overpowers” = nikao. From nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is to have victory, overcome, conquer, or prevail. It implies a victory that follows a battle. This root is part of “Nicodemus’s” name and it is also the root where Nike comes from.
CIX “takes away” = airo. Related to “bread” in v3. See note XXI above.
CX “armor” = panoplia. Related to “everyone” in v4 & “fully armed” in v21. 3x in NT. From pas (see note XXIV above) + hoplon (see note CII above). This is complete armor – a set that includes tools for offense and defense. It is the full complement of what is needed to be successful in battle. It is where the word “panoply” comes from.

in which he trustedCXI and dividesCXII his plunder.CXIII 23 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gatherCXIV with me scatters.CXV

Notes on verses 22b-23

CXI “trusted” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
CXII “divides” = diadidomi. Related to “give” in v3 & “give” in v11 & “gifts” in v13. 4x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + didomi (see note XVIII above). This is to distribute, divide, or deal out.
CXIII “plunder” = skulon. 1x in NT. Perhaps from skullo (to skin, annoy, harass). This is plunder, spoils, or booty.
CXIV “gather” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXV “scatters” = skorpizo. Related to “scorpion” in v12. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as skorpios (see note LXI above). This is to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste, cause to flee.

24 “When the uncleanCXVI spirit has gone out of a person,CXVII it wandersCXVIII through waterlessCXIX regionsCXX

Notes on verse 24a

CXVI “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
CXVII “person” = anthropos. Related to “snake” in v11. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note LVIII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXVIII “wanders” = dierchomai. Related to “come” in v2 & “gone out” in v14 & “attacks” in v22. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CXIX “waterless” = anudros. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + hudor (water, literal or figurative); {maybe from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain)}. This is waterless, dry, or a desert.
CXX “regions” = topos. Same as “place” in v1. See note IV above.

looking forCXXI a resting place,CXXII but not finding any it says, ‘I will returnCXXIII to my houseCXXIV from which I came.’CXXV 

Notes on verse 24b

CXXI “looking for” = zeteo. Same as “search” in v9. See note XLIX above.
CXXII “resting place” = anapausis. Related to “finished” in v1. 5x in NT– including “you will find rest for your souls” from Matthew 11:29. From anapauo (a break from work, which implies being refreshed; denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished); {from ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (see note V above)}. This is an intermission, refreshment, recreation, rest from work. It can also refer to inner tranquility.
CXXIII “return” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIV “house” = oikos. Same as “divided household” in v17. See note XCII above.
CXXV “came” = exerchomai. Same as “gone out” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.

25 When it returns,CXXVI it findsCXXVII it sweptCXXVIII and put in order.CXXIX 

Notes on verse 25

CXXVI “returns” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v14. See note XVI above.
CXXVII {untranslated} = scholazo. Related to “has” in v5 & “bother” in v7 & “crowd” in v14 & “strong” in v21. 3x in NT. From schole (leisure; how one spends non-work time – so, school); perhaps from echo (have, hold, possess). This is having leisure, take vacation, not being occupied, or dedicating oneself to something. This word shares a root with “scholar.”
CXXVIII “swept” = saroo. 3x in NT. From sairo (to brush off). This is to sweep or clean out by sweeping.
CXXIX “put in order” = kosmeo. 10x in NT. From kosmos (order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants; literally, something that is ordered; can refer to all creation or decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and so more beautiful); perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is to order, arrange, beautify. It is more beautiful because it is properly arranged in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be used to mean trim a wick.

26 Then it goes and bringsCXXX sevenCXXXI other spirits more evil than itself, and they enterCXXXII and liveCXXXIII there,

Notes on verse 26a

CXXX “brings” = paralambano. Related to “receives” in v10. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note LIII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CXXXI “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
CXXXII “enter” = eiserchomai. Related to “come” in v2 & “gone out” in v14 & “attacks” in v22 & “wanders” in v24. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIII “live” = katoikeo. Related to “divided household” in v17. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note XCII above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.

and the lastCXXXIV state of that person isCXXXV worseCXXXVI than the first.”CXXXVII

Notes on verse 26b

CXXXIV “last” = eschatos. Related to “has” in v5 & “bother” in v7 & “crowd” in v14 & “strong” in v21 & {untranslated} in v25. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note XXIX above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CXXXV “is” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXXXVI “worse” = cheiron. 11x in NT. A comparative of kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is worse, more evil in a physical, mental, or moral sense.
CXXXVII “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.

27 WhileCXXXVIII he was saying this, a womanCXXXIX in the crowd raisedCXL her voiceCXLI

Notes on verse 27a

CXXXVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXXXIX “woman” = gune. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “arrived” in v5. Perhaps from ginomai (see note I above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CXL “raised” = epairo. Related to “bread” in v3 & “takes away” in v22. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note XXI above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
CXLI “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.

and said to him, “BlessedCXLII is the wombCXLIII that boreCXLIV you and the breastsCXLV that nursedCXLVI you!” 

Notes on verse 27b

CXLII “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CXLIII “womb” = koilia. From koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.
CXLIV “bore” = bastazo. Related to “kingdom” in v2. Perhaps from the base of basis (see note XV above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
CXLV “breasts” = mastos. 3x in NT. Perhaps from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze). This is breast or chest.
CXLVI “nursed” = thelazo. Literally, “at which you nursed.” 5x in NT. From thele (a nipple). This is to nurse or suckle – a nursing baby.

28 But he said, “Blessed rather are those who hearCXLVII the wordCXLVIII of God and obeyCXLIX it!”

Notes on verse 28

CXLVII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXLVIII “word” = logos. Related to “say” in v2. From lego (see note X above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXLIX “obey” = phulasso. Same as “guards” in v21. See note CIII above.

29 When the crowds were increasing,CL he beganCLI to say, “This generationCLII is an evil generation;

Notes on verse 29a

CL “increasing” = epathroizo. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, fitting) + athroizo (to assemble). This is to assemble press in on, accumulate.
CLI “began” = archomai. Related to “are” in v13 & “ruler” in v15. From archo (see note LXII above). This is to begin or rule.
CLII “generation” = genea. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “arrived” in v5 & “woman” in v27. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note I above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.

it asks forCLIII a sign, but no sign will be givenCLIV to it except the sign of Jonah.CLV 30 For just as Jonah becameCLVI a sign to the people of Nineveh,CLVII so the Son of ManCLVIII will be to this generation. 

Notes on verses 29b-30

CLIII “asks for” = zeteo. Same as “search” in v9. See note XLIX above.
CLIV “given” = didomi. Same as “give” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CLV “Jonah” = Ionas. 9x in NT. From Hebrew yonah (Jonah, “dove”); the same as yonah (dove or pigeon; used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships; also figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty); perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is Jonah or Jonas, meaning “dove.”
CLVI “became” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CLVII “people of Nineveh” = Nineuites. 3x in NT. From Akkadian Ninua or Old Babylonian Ninuwa; from nina (literally, a fish). This is Ninevite, perhaps meaning “house of fish.” See
CLVIII “Man” = anthropos. Same as “person” in v24. See note CXVII above.

31 The queenCLIX of the SouthCLX will riseCLXI at the judgmentCLXII with the peopleCLXIII of this generation and condemnCLXIV them,

Notes on verse 31a

CLIX “queen” = basilissa. Related to “kingdom” in v2 & “bore” in v27. 4x in NT. From basileus (see note XV above). This is queen.
CLX “South” = notos. 7x in NT. This is south wind, hence, a reference to the South.
CLXI “rise” = egeiro. Same as “get up” in v8. See note XLVI above.
CLXII “judgment” = krisis. Related to “judges” in v19. From krino (see note XCVII above). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.
CLXIII “people” = aner. Related to “person” in v24. See note CXVII above.
CLXIV “condemn” = katakrino. Related to “judges” in v19 & “judgment” in v31. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note XCVII above). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.

because she cameCLXV from the endsCLXVI of the earthCLXVII to listenCLXVIII

Notes on verse 31b

CLXV “came” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v14. See note XVI above.
CLXVI “ends” = peras. Related to “time of trial” in v4 & “test” in v16. 4x in NT. Related to peirar (end, limit) OR related to peran (see note XXVII above). This is end, boundary, limit.
CLXVII “earth” = ge. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XVII above.
CLXVIII “listen” = akouo. Same as “hear” in v28. See note CXLVII above.

to the wisdomCLXIX of Solomon,CLXX and indeed,CLXXI something greaterCLXXII than Solomon is here! 

Notes on verse 31c

CLXIX “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
CLXX “Solomon” = Solomon. 12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”
CLXXI “indeed” = idou. Related to “persistence” in v8 & “know” in v13. From eido (see note XLV above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CLXXII “greater” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.

32 The peopleCLXXIII of Nineveh will rise upCLXXIV at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repentedCLXXV at the proclamationCLXXVI of Jonah, and indeed, something greater than Jonah is here!

Notes on verse 32

CLXXIII “people” = aner. Same as “people” in v31. See note CLXIII above.
CLXXIV “rise up” = anistemi. Same as “get up” in v7. See note XLIII above.
CLXXV “repented” = metanoeo. Related to “name” in v2 & “thinking” in v17. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (see note LXXXVIII above)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
CLXXVI “proclamation” = kerugma. 9x in NT. From kerusso (proclaim, preach, publish; properly, to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade). This is proclamation – both the preaching and that which is preached. Sometimes times used to refer to the Gospel itself.

33 “No one after lightingCLXXVII a lampCLXXVIII putsCLXXIX it in a cellarCLXXX or under a bushel basket;CLXXXI 

Notes on verse 33a

CLXXVII “lighting” = hapto. 5x in NT. This is to touch, cling, light on fire.
CLXXVIII “lamp” = luchnos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from the base of leukos (bright, white, brilliant); from luke (light). This is a lamp that is portable and fueled by oil. It can mean light in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXIX “puts” = tithemi. Related to “set before” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CLXXX “cellar” = krupte. 1x in NT. From kruptos (something concealed, hidden, secret, or private; the inner nature); from krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is somewhere out of sight like a cellar or a crypt. It is where the word “crypt” comes from.
CLXXXI “bushel basket” = modios. 3x in NT – in synoptic gospel parallels. This is a modius or bushel basket, which holds a peck. It can refer to the quantity or the container that holds that quantity. See

rather, one puts it on the lampstandCLXXXII so that those who enterCLXXXIII may seeCLXXXIV the light.CLXXXV 

Notes on verse 33b

CLXXXII “lampstand” = luchnia. Related to “lamp” in v33. 12x in NT. From luchnos (see note CLXXVIII above). This is a lampstand or candlestick.
CLXXXIII “enter” = eisporeuomai. Related to “go” in v5. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (see note XXXI above). 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXIV “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
CLXXXV “light” = pheggos. Related to “voice” in v27. 2x in NT. Perhaps related to phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note CXLI above). This is light or radiance.

34 Your eyeCLXXXVI is the lamp of your body.CLXXXVII If your eye is healthy,CLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 34a

CLXXXVI “eye” = ophthalmos. Related to “snake” in v11 & “person” in v24. From optanomai (see note LVIII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CLXXXVII “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CLXXXVIII “healthy” = haplous. 2x in NT. From a (with) + perhaps ploos (voyage, navigation); {from pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR from a (with) + pleko (to weave together, braid, twine). This is simple, single, without secrets, healthy, clear.

your wholeCLXXXIX body is full of light,CXC but if it is unhealthy,CXCI your body is full of darkness.CXCII 

Notes on verse 34b

CLXXXIX “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXC “full of light” = photeinos. Related to “voice” in v27 & “light” in v33. 5x in NT. From phos (see note CLXXXV above). This is bright, luminous, transparent.
CXCI “unhealthy” = poneros. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXCII “darkness” = skoteinos. 3x in NT. From skotos (to darken or obscure in a literal or figurative sense); from skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is dark or full of darkness, opaque. It focuses on the impact of darkness literal or figurative.

35 Therefore considerCXCIII whether the lightCXCIV in you is not darkness.CXCV 36 But if your whole body is fullCXCVI of light,CXCVII with no partCXCVIII of it in darkness,CXCIX

Notes on verses 35-36a

CXCIII “consider” = skopeo. Related to “scorpion” in v12 & “scatters” in v23. 6x in NT. From skopos (see note LXI above). This is to look at, take heed, consider, observe, aim at, or spy. This word shares a root with “scope” in English.
CXCIV “light” = phos. Related to “voice” in v27 & “light” in v33 & “full of light” in v34. See note CLXXXV above.
CXCV “darkness” = skotos. Related to “darkness” in v34. See note CXCII above.
CXCVI “full” = holos. Same as “whole” in v34. See note CLXXXIX above.
CXCVII “light” = photeinos. Same as “full of light” in v34. See note CXC above.
CXCVIII “part” = meros. Related to “sins” in v4 & “divided” in v17. See note XXIII above.
CXCIX “darkness” = skoteinos. Same as “darkness” in v34. See note CXCII above.

it will be as full of lightCC as when a lamp gives you lightCCI with its rays.”CCII

Notes on verse 36b

CC “light” = photeinos. Same as “full of light” in v34. See note CXC above.
CCI “gives…light” = photizo. Related to “voice” in v27 & “light” in v33 & “full of light” in v34 & “light” in v35. 11x in NT. From phos (see note CLXXXV above). This is to shine or give light, illumine or reveal. Properly, it is to enlighten in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to brighten up or to make one see.
CCII “rays” = astrape. 9x in NT. From astrapto (to flash with or like lightning, be dazzling); probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed). This is lightning, brightness, glare, or ray.

37 While he was speaking, a PhariseeCCIII invitedCCIV him to dineCCV with him,

Notes on verse 37a

CCIII “Pharisee” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CCIV “invited” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CCV “dine” = aristao. Related to “bread” in v3 & “takes away” in v22 & “raised” in v27. 3x in NT. From ariston (breakfast or lunch; literally not having a boundary); {perhaps from eri (early) + ed (to eat)} or {from arrhen (male); from arsen (man)} or airo (see note XXI above). This is to have breakfast or lunch. It is the meal one has in about the middle of one’s day. It can be at any time before evening supper.

so he went inCCVI and took his place at the table.CCVII 38 The Pharisee was amazed to seeCCVIII that he did not firstCCIX washCCX before dinner.CCXI 

Notes on verses 37b-38

CCVI “went in” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v26. See note CXXXII above.
CCVII “took…place at the table” = anapipto. Related to “falls” in v17. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (see note XCIII above). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.
CCVIII “see” = horao. Related to “snake” in v11 & “person” in v24 & “eye” in v34. See note LVIII above.
CCIX “first” = proton. Related to “first” in v26. From protos (see note CXXXVII above). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CCX “wash” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
CCXI “dinner” = ariston. Related to “bread” in v3 & “takes away” in v22 & “raised” in v27 & “dine” in v37. 3x in NT. See note CCV above.

39 Then the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees cleanCCXII the outside of the cupCCXIII and of the dish,CCXIV

Notes on verse 39a

CCXII “clean” = katharizo. Related to “unclean” in v24. From katharos (see note CXVI above). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
CCXIII “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
CCXIV “dish” = pinax. 5x in NT. Perhaps from plax (something flat and broad, stone tablet); from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a dish, platter, disc, board, or charger.

but inside you are fullCCXV of greedCCXVI and wickedness.CCXVII 

Notes on verse 39b

CCXV “are full” = gemo. 11x in NT. This is to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal.
CCXVI “greed” = harpage. 3x in NT. From harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is plunder, extortion, seizure – taking from violent greed.
CCXVII “wickedness” = poneria. Related to {untranslated} in v4. 7x in NT. From poneros (see note XXVIII above). This is iniquity, wickedness, pain-ridden evil. It is the drudgery of evil and sin. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

40 You fools!CCXVIII Did not the one who madeCCXIX the outside make the inside also? 41 SoCCXX giveCCXXI as almsCCXXII those things

Notes on verses 40-41a

CCXVIII “fools” = aphron. 11x in NT. From a (not, without) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is not having reason – foolish, unperceptive, unwise. It denotes short-sightedness and lack of perspective, which leads one to act without prudence. It is not grasping cause and effect, even willful ignorance. It implies being rash or egotistical.
CCXIX “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CCXX “so” = plen. Related to “greater” in v31. From pleion (see note CLXXII above). This is yet, however, but.
CCXXI “give” = didomi. Same as “give” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCXXII “alms” = eleemosune. 13x in NT. From eleos (mercy, compassion). This is compassion – particularly in giving to the poor. Often, it is translated as alms or charity.

that are withinCCXXIII and thenCCXXIV everythingCCXXV will be cleanCCXXVI for you.

Notes on verse 41b

CCXXIII “are within” = eneimi. Related to {untranslated} in v1. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + eimi (see note II above). This is to be within.
CCXXIV “then” = idou. Same as “indeed” in v31. See note CLXXI above.
CCXXV “everything” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CCXXVI “clean” = katharos. Related to “unclean” in v24 & “clean” in v39. See note CXVI above.

42 “But woeCCXXVII to you Pharisees! For you titheCCXXVIII mintCCXXIX and rueCCXXX

Notes on verse 42a

CCXXVII “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
CCXXVIII “tithe” = apodekatoo. Related to “finger” in v20. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dekatoo (to tithe or gather a tithe); {from deakte (tenth, tithe); from deka (see note XCVIII above)}. This is to collect, receive, or pay a tithe.
CCXXIX “mint” = heduosmon. 2x in NT. From the same as hedeos (sweetly, gladly, enjoyable; with pleasure); {from hedus (sweet) or from hedone (pleasure, passion – particularly of physical senses); {from hedomai (to enjoy oneself); from handano (to please)}} + osme (smell, aroma, fragrance – literal or figurative); {from ozo (to stink, emit a scent)}. This is a plant with a sweet fragrance like mint or peppermint.
CCXXX “rue” = peganon. 1x in NT. Perhaps from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is rue – a plant that adds flavoring to dishes or can be used as a garnish.

and herbsCCXXXI of all kindsCCXXXII and neglectCCXXXIII justiceCCXXXIV and the loveCCXXXV of God;

Notes on verse 42b

CCXXXI “herbs” = lachanon. 4x in NT. From lachaino (to dig). This is a vegetable, herb, or other plant in a garden.
CCXXXII “all kinds” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CCXXXIII “neglect” = parerchomai. Related to “come” in v2 & “gone out” in v14 & “attacks” in v22 & “wanders” in v24 & “enter” in v26. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note XVI above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
CCXXXIV “justice” = krisis. Same as “judgment” in v31. See note CLXII above.
CCXXXV “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.

it is these you oughtCCXXXVI to have practiced,CCXXXVII without neglectingCCXXXVIII the others. 

Notes on verse 42c

CCXXXVI “ought” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CCXXXVII “practiced” = poieo. Same as “made” in v40. See note CCXIX above.
CCXXXVIII “neglecting” = pariemi. Related to “forgive” in v4. 2x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + hiemi (see note XXII above). This is to pass by, hang down, loosen, droop, neglect, be wearied.

43 Woe to you Pharisees! For you loveCCXXXIX to have the seat of honorCCXL in the synagoguesCCXLI and to be greeted with respectCCXLII in the marketplaces.CCXLIII 

Notes on verse 43

CCXXXIX “love” = agapao. Related to “love” in v42. See note CCXXXV above.
CCXL “seat of honor” = protokathedria. Related to “first” in v26 & “first” in v38. 4x in NT– all in parallel passages in the gospels. From protos (see note CXXXVIII above) + kathedra (a seat or bench in a literal or figurative sense); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + the same as hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat)}}. This is the best or most honorable seat – the one who sits down first or who sits up front.
CCXLI “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “gather” in v23. From sunago (see note CXIV above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
CCXLII “greeted with respect” = aspasmos. 10x in NT. From aspazomai (to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim); {perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull)}. This is a greeting whether face to face or in a letter.
CCXLIII “marketplaces” = agora. Related to “get up” in v8. 11x in NT.  From ageiro (see note XLVI above). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.

44 Woe to you! For you are like unmarkedCCXLIV gravesCCXLV on which peopleCCXLVI unknowinglyCCXLVII walk.”CCXLVIII

Notes on verse 44

CCXLIV “unmarked” = adelos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + delos (clear, evident, unmistakable, self-evident). This is indistinct or unseen or uncertain.
CCXLV “graves” = mnemeion. Related to “breasts” in v27. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (see note CXLV above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CCXLVI “people” = anthropos. Same as “person” in v24. See note CXVII above.
CCXLVII “unknowingly” = ou + eido. Eido is the same as “know” in v13. See note LXIV above.
CCXLVIII “walk” = peripateo. Related to “children” in v7. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (see note XL above)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

45 One of the experts in the lawCCXLIX answered him, “Teacher,CCL when you say these things, you insultCCLI us, too.” 

Notes on verse 45

CCXLIX “experts in the law” = nomikos. 9x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is about the law or one who is knowledgeable in the law, a lawyer. It refers to the law of and derived from the Old Testament – Jewish law including the tradition of the elders. This is someone with a level of expertise beyond that of a scribe. Ezra would be a lawyer.
CCL “Teacher” = Didaskalos. Related to “teach” in v1. From didasko (see note VIII above). This is teacher or master.
CCLI “insult” = hubrizo. 5x in NT. From hubris (insult, damage, harm, reproach, insolence; damage that includes reproach); from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another). This is to insult, mistreat, steal. Figuratively, it is to harm someone so that they experience a loss, particularly to their reputation or honor. So, it is violence or abuse. This is where the word “hubris” comes from.

46 And he said, “Woe also to you experts in the law! For you loadCCLII peopleCCLIII with burdensCCLIV hard to bear,CCLV and you yourselves do not lift aCCLVI finger to easeCCLVII them. 

Notes on verse 46

CCLII “load” = phortizo. Related to “bring” in v4. 2x in NT. From the same as phortion (burden, cargo, ship freight; an individual’s burden; the invoice of freight); from phortos (load, cargo); from phero (see note XXVI above). This is to load, weigh down a boat or pack animal. It can also mean to overload in a figurative sense.
CCLIII “people” = anthropos. Same as “person” in v24. See note CXVII above.
CCLIV “burdens” = phortion. Related to “bring” in v4 & “load” in v46. 6x in NT. See note CCLII above.
CCLV “hard to bear” = dusbastaktos. Related to “kingdom” in v2 & “bore” in v27 & “queen” in v31. 2x in NT. From dus (either negates a good meaning or amplifies a negative one; hard) + bastaktos (borne); {from bastazo (see note CXLIV)}. This is hard to carry, oppressive, burdensome.
CCLVI “a” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CCLVII “lift…to ease” = prospsauo. 1x in NT. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + psauo (to touch). This is to touch to provide relief.

47 Woe to you! For you buildCCLVIII the tombsCCLIX of the prophetsCCLX whom your ancestorsCCLXI killed.CCLXII 

Notes on verse 47

CCLVIII “build” = oikodomeo. Related to “divided household” in v17 & “live” in v26. From oikos (see note XCII above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CCLIX “tombs” = mnemeion. Same as “graves” in v44. See note CCXLV above.
CCLX “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “voice” in v27 & “light” in v33 & “full of light” in v34 & “light” in v35 & “gives…light” in v36. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CXLI above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CCLXI “ancestors” = pater. Same as “Father” in v2. See note XI above.
CCLXII “killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

48 So you are witnessesCCLXIII and approveCCLXIV of the deedsCCLXV of your ancestors, for theyCCLXVI killed them, and you build their tombs. 

Notes on verse 48

CCLXIII “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
CCLXIV “approve” = suneudokeo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eudokeo (to think well of, to be pleased or resolved; properly, what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of); {from eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}}. This is to approve, applaud, consent. It can be to resoundingly agree in partnership with others.
CCLXV “deeds” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
CCLXVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.

49 For this reason the Wisdom of God said, ‘I will sendCCLXVII them prophets and apostles,CCLXVIII some of whom they will kill and persecute,’CCLXIX 

Notes on verse 49

CCLXVII “send” = apostello. Related to “get up” in v7 & “stand” in v18. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XLIII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CCLXVIII “apostles” = apostolos.Related to “get up” in v7 & “stand” in v18 & “send” in v49. From apostello (see note CCLXVII above). This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
CCLXIX “persecute” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.

50 so that this generation may be chargedCCLXX with the bloodCCLXXI of allCCLXXII the prophets shedCCLXXIII since the foundationCCLXXIV of the world,CCLXXV 

Notes on verse 50

CCLXX “charged” = ekzeteo. Related to “search” in v9. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + zeteo (see note XLIX above). This is to seek out, inquire, investigate, crave. It can also mean to worship.
CCLXXI “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CCLXXII “all” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CCLXXIII “shed” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
CCLXXIV “foundation” = katabole. Related to “casting out” in v14. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (see note LXXIV above)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
CCLXXV “world” = kosmos. Related to “put in order” in v25. See note CXXIX above

51 from the blood of AbelCCLXXVI to the blood of Zechariah,CCLXXVII who perishedCCLXXVIII

Notes on verse 51a

CCLXXVI “Abel” = Habel. 4x in NT. From Hebrew Hebel (Abel); perhaps from hebel (emptiness, vapor, breath; something that is fleeting or futile, worthless or a delusion; something that is passing and does not satisfy); related to habal (to be vain, behave in an empty way). This is Abel, meaning “vanity” or “breath.”
CCLXXVII “Zechariah” = Zacharias. Related to “John” in v1. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Zekaryah (Zechariah, “the Lord has remembered”); {from zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note IX above)}. This is Zechariah, Zacharias, meaning “the Lord has remembered.”
CCLXXVIII “perished” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

between the altarCCLXXIX and the sanctuary.CCLXXX Yes,CCLXXXI I tell you, it will be charged against this generation. 

Notes on verse 51b

CCLXXIX “altar” = thusiasterion. From thusia (a sacrifice or offering; the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed; a sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.); from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is altar that is used for sacrifice.
CCLXXX “sanctuary” = oikos. Same as “divided household” in v17. See note XCII above.
CCLXXXI “yes” = nai. This is yes, truly, indeed. It is a strong affirmation.

52 Woe to you experts in the law! For you have taken away the keyCCLXXXII of knowledge;CCLXXXIII you did not enterCCLXXXIV yourselves, and you hinderedCCLXXXV those who were entering.”CCLXXXVI

Notes on verse 52

CCLXXXII “key” = kleis. Related to “locked” in v7. 6x in NT. From kleio (see note XXXIX above). This is a key as the thing that locks a lock. It can be key in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXXIII “knowledge” = gnosis. Related to “name” in v2 & “thinking” in v17 & “repented” in v32. From ginosko (see note XIII above). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.
CCLXXXIV “enter” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v26. See note CXXXII above.
CCLXXXV “hindered” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
CCLXXXVI “entering” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v26. See note CXXXII above.

53 When he wentCCLXXXVII outside, the scribesCCLXXXVIII and the Pharisees became hostileCCLXXXIX to him

Notes on verse 53a

CCLXXXVII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “gone out” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CCLXXXVIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CCLXXXIX “became hostile” = deinos + enecho. Deinos is 2x in NT. From the same as deilos (fearful, timid, faithless, fear of losing); from deos (fear, reverence); from deido (to fear). This is terribly, very, excessively. Enecho is related to “has” in v5 & “bother” in v7 & “crowd” in v14 & “strong” in v21 & {untranslated} in v25 & “last” in v26. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note XXIX above). This is to ensnare, to hold onto anger, to subject, to be hostile, to submit.

and began to interrogateCCXC him about many things,CCXCI 54 lying in waitCCXCII for him, to catchCCXCIII him in something he might say.CCXCIV

Notes on verses 53b-54

CCXC “interrogate” = apostomatizo. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + stoma (mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground); {perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut).}. This is to question, dictate, interrogate.
CCXCI “many things” = pleion. Same as “greater” in v31. See note CLXXII above.
CCXCII “lying in wait” = enedreuo. Related to “seat of honor” in v43. 2x in NT. From enedra (an ambush, treachery, fraud); {from en (in, on, with) + hedraios (see note CCXL above)}. This is to plot, defraud, or ambush.
CCXCIII “catch” = thereuo. 1x in NT. From thera (hunting, game, a net, trap, destruction); from ther (wild animal – particularly one that is hunted). This is to hunt, trap, or catch.
CCXCIV “say” = stoma. Related to “interrogate” in v53. See note CCXC above.

Image credit: “Jesus Delivers a Mute Man” by LUMO Project.

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