Luke 15:11-32

Luke 15:11-32
Narrative Lectionary


11 Then Jesus said, “There was a manI who hadII twoIII sons.IV 

Notes on verse 11

I “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
II “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
III “two” = duo. This is two or both.
IV “sons” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

12 The youngerV of them said to his father,VI ‘Father, giveVII me the shareVIII

Notes on verse 12a

V “younger” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).
VI “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
VII “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
VIII “share” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.

of the wealthIX that will belongX to me.’ So he dividedXI his assetsXII between them. 

Notes on verse 12b

IX “wealth” = ousia. 2x in NT– both in Luke 15. From eimi (to be, exist). This is property, wealth, goods, or substance.
X “will belong” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
XI “divided” = diaireo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to divide, distribute.
XII “assets” = bios. 10x in NT– including the widow’s mite story where she gave all she had to live on in Mark 12:44 and Luke 21:4. This is physical life, livelihood, goods, or the way one lives one’s life.

13 A fewXIII daysXIV later the younger son gatheredXV

Notes on verse 13a

XIII “few” = ou + polus. Literally, “not many.” Polus is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XIV “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XV “gathered” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

allXVI he had and traveledXVII to a distantXVIII region,XIX

Notes on verse 13b

XVI “all” = pas. This is all, every.
XVII “traveled” = apodemeo. 6x in NT. From apodemos (to go abroad, sojourn in a foreign country); {from apo (from, away from) + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}}. This is to travel abroad, be away from home. This word shares a root with “democracy” and “Nicodemus.”
XVIII “distant” = makros. 6x in NT. This is long, far away, lasting a long time.
XIX “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.

and there he squanderedXX his wealth in dissoluteXXI living.XXII 

Notes on verse 13c

XX “squandered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.
XXI “dissolute” = asotos. 1x in NT. From the same as asotia (profligacy, unsaved); {from a (not, without) + sozo (to save, heal, rescue); {from sos (safe, well, rescued)}}. This is literally something that can’t be saved or something that is wasted. Figuratively, it is prodigally or riotous.
XXII “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

14 When he had spentXXIII everything,XXIV a severeXXV famineXXVI

Notes on verse 14a

XXIII “spent” = dapanao. 5x in NT. From dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is to spend, squander, waste.  It can be used literally for spending money or figuratively for expending energy or using time.
XXIV “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v13. See note XVI above.
XXV “severe” = ischuros. Related to “had” in v11. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note II above)}. This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
XXVI “famine” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.

took placeXXVII throughout that region, and he beganXXVIII to be in need.XXIX 

Notes on verse 14b

XXVII “took place” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XXVIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXIX “be in need” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.

15 So he wentXXX and hiredXXXI himself out to oneXXXII of the citizensXXXIII of that region,

Notes on verse 15a

XXX “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXXI “hired” = kollao. 12x in NT. From kolla (glue). This is to glue together. So it is joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected to. It can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something. It was also used medically for uniting wounds.
XXXII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXXIII “citizens” = polites. 4x in NT. From polis (a city or its inhabitants; is a town of variable size, but one that has walls); probably from the same as polemos (war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going); {from pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant)}. This is citizen or townsperson.

who sentXXXIV him to his fieldsXXXV to feedXXXVI the pigs.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 15b

XXXIV “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XXXV “fields” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
XXXVI “feed” = bosko. 9x in NT– 6x of the Gadarene/Gerasene demoniacs, 2x of Jesus appearing to Peter saying “tend my lambs” and “feed my sheep,” and 1x of the Prodigal Son feeding the pigs.. This is to feed or pasture a flock. Figuratively, it can mean to nourish spiritually.
XXXVII “pigs” = choiros. 12x in NT– do not throw your pearls before swine (Mt 7:6), the Gadarene or Gerasene demoniac (Mt 8, Mk 5, and Lk 8), son who had to feed the pigs in the Parable of the Prodigal Son (Lk 15). This is a swine.

16 He would gladlyXXXVIII have filledXXXIX his stomachXL with the podsXLI that the pigs were eating,XLII and no one gave him anything. 

Notes on verse 16

XXXVIII “would gladly” = epithumeo. 16x in NT. From epi (on, upon, fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is desire, lust, longing for, setting one’s heart on. It is a longing whether good or bad. In either case, passion and yearning is set on the object of desire.
XXXIX “filled” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
XL “stomach” = koilia. From koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.
XLI “pods” = keration. 1x in NT. From keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power); from kar (hair). This is literally something that is horned. It is particularly used for carob pods or husks.
XLII “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.

17 But when he cameXLIII to his senses he said,XLIV ‘How many of my father’s hired handsXLV have

Notes on verse 17a

XLIII “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XLIV “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
XLV “hired hands” = misthios. 3x in NT– all in Luke 15. From misthos (wages, pay, salary; reward, recompense, punishment; pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, good or bad). This is a hired servant – a worked that is paid compared to a slave.

breadXLVI enough and to spare,XLVII but here I am dyingXLVIII of hunger!XLIX 

Notes on verse 17b

XLVI “bread” = artos. Related to “divided” in v12. Perhaps from airo (see note XI above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XLVII “have…enough and to spare” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
XLVIII “dying” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XLIX “hunger” = limos. Same as “famine” in v14. See note XXVI above.

18 I will get upL and go to my father, and I will sayLI to him, “Father, I have sinnedLII against heavenLIII and beforeLIV you; 

Notes on verse 18

L “get up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LI “say” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.
LII “sinned” = hamartano. Related to “share” in v12. From a (not) + meros (see note VIII above). This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
LIII “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “divided” in v12 & “bread” in v17. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note XI above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LIV “before” = enopios. Related to “man” in v11. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note I above). This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.

19 I amLV no longer worthyLVI to be calledLVII your son; treatLVIII me like one of your hired hands.”’ 

Notes on verse 19

LV “am” = eimi. Related to “wealth” in v12. See note IX above.
LVI “worthy” = axios. Related to “gathered” in v13. From ago (see note XV above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
LVII “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LVIII “treat” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

20 So he set offLIX and wentLX to his father. But while he wasLXI still far off,LXII his father sawLXIII him

Notes on verse 20a

LIX “set off” = anistemi. Same as “get up” in v18. See note L above.
LX “went” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v17. See note XLIII above.
LXI “was” = apecho. Related to “had” in v11 & “severe” in v14. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note II above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
LXII “far off” = makran. Related to “distant” in v13. 9x in NT. From makros (see note XVIII above). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIII “saw” = horao. Related to “man” in v11 & “before” in v18. See note I above.

and was filled with compassion;LXIV he ranLXV and put his arms around himLXVI and kissedLXVII him. 

Notes on verse 20b

LXIV “filled with compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
LXV “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
LXVI “put his arms around him” = epipipto + epi + ho + trachelos + autos. Literally, “fell upon his neck.” Epipipto is 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence. Trachelos is 7x in NT. Probably from trachus (rough, uneven). This is the neck or throat. It can also refer to an embrace. It shares a root with the word “trachea.”
LXVII “kissed” = kataphileo. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (friendship love and fondness with personal attachment; kiss as a sign of love deriving from this personal affection -cherishing); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person)}. This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.

21 Then the son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’LXVIII 

22 But the father said to his slaves,LXIX ‘Quickly,LXX bring outLXXI

Notes on verses 21-22a

LXVIII Some manuscripts add “make me as one of you hired hands” = poieo + ego + hos + heis + ho + misthios + su. Poieo is the same as “treat” in v19. See note LVIII above. Heis is the same as “one” in v15. See note XXXII above. Misthios is the same as “hired hands” in v17. See note XLV above.
LXIX “slaves” = doulos. Related to “traveled” in v13. Perhaps from deo (see note XVII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
LXX “quickly” = tachu. 12x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly, but not immediately. It is without undue delay.
LXXI “bring out” = ekphero. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lead, produce, carry out.

a robeLXXII—the bestLXXIII one—and put it onLXXIV him;

Notes on verse 22b

LXXII “robe” = stole. Related to “get up” in v18. 9x in NT–the scribes who want to be greeted with respect in marketplaces (Mk 12:13; Lk 20:46), the angel presenting as a young man at the resurrection (Mk 16:5), the robe brought for the prodigal son (Lk 15:22), and the attire of the martyrs and saints in heaven in Revelation 6, 7, and 22. From stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note L above)}. This is clothing, in particular a long, flowing robe associated with elites.
LXXIII “best” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
LXXIV “put…on” = enduo. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (to go down, sink, or set)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.

putLXXV a ringLXXVI on his fingerLXXVII and sandalsLXXVIII on his feet.LXXIX 

Notes on verse 22c

LXXV “put” = didomi. Same as “give” in v12. See note VII above.
LXXVI “ring” = daktulios. 1x in NT. From daktulos (finger); probably from deka (ten). This is a ring that is worn on your finger.
LXXVII “finger” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LXXVIII “sandals” = hupodema. Related to “traveled” in v13 & “slaves” in v22. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (see note XVII above)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
LXXIX “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.

23 And getLXXX the fattedLXXXI calfLXXXII and killLXXXIII it, and let us eatLXXXIV and celebrate,LXXXV 

Notes on verse 23

LXXX “get” = phero. Related to “bring out” in v22. See note LXXI above.
LXXXI “fatted” = siteutos. 3x in NT– all in Luke 15. From sitos (any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains). This is grain-fed or fattened.
LXXXII “calf” = moschos. 6x in NT. This is a young cow of either sex or young shoot.
LXXXIII “kill” = thuo. Related to “would gladly” in v16. 14x in NT. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXXIV “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
LXXXV “celebrate” = euphraino. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.

24 for this son of mine was deadLXXXVI and is alive again;LXXXVII he was lostLXXXVIII and is found!’LXXXIX And they began to celebrate.

Notes on verse 24

LXXXVI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
LXXXVII “is alive again” = anazao. Related to “living” in v13. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + zao (see note XXII above). This is to live again, revive, resurrect. It can be literal or figurative.
LXXXVIII “lost” = apollumi. Same as “dying” in v17. See note XLVIII above.
LXXXIX “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

25 “Now his elderXC son was in the field, and as he came and approachedXCI the house,XCII

Notes on verse 25a

XC “elder” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XCI “approached” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
XCII “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.

he heardXCIII musicXCIV and dancing.XCV 

Notes on verse 25b

XCIII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XCIV “music” = sumphonia. Related to “said” in v17. 1x in NT. From sumphonos (harmonious, agreeing, consent; having one voice i.e. a shared understanding); {from sun (with, together with) + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); {probably from phemi (see note XLIV above)}}. This is where the word “symphony” comes from. It is music with harmonized instruments.
XCV “dancing” = choros. 1x in NT. This is a group dance, usually in a ring – a choir dancing. It might imply that they were also singing. It is where the word “chorus” comes from.

26 He calledXCVI one of the slavesXCVII and askedXCVIII what was going on.XCIX 

Notes on verse 26

XCVI “called” = proskaleo. Related to “called” in v19. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note LVII above). This is to call to oneself, summon.
XCVII “slaves” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
XCVIII “asked” = punthanomai. 12x in NT. This is to ask in order to learn. It is not to ask a favor (erotao in Greek), to demand something felt to be owed (aiteo), to search for a hidden thing (zeteo), or to ask for urgent help (deomai). This is to figure something out through questions.
XCIX “was going on” = eimi. Same as “am” in v19. See note LV above.

27 He replied, ‘Your brotherC has come,CI and your father has killed the fatted calf because he has got him backCII safe and sound.’CIII 

Notes on verse 27

C “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CI “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
CII “got…back” = apolambano. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive back, separate, to get one’s due.
CIII “safe and sound” = hugiaino. 12x in NT. From hugies (healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome; figuratively, sound or true teaching); from the base of auxano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, sound, reasonable, pure, total health. This is the root that “hygiene” comes from.

28 Then he became angryCIV and refusedCV to go in.CVI His father came outCVII and began to pleadCVIII with him. 

Notes on verse 28

CIV “became angry” = orgizo. 8x in NT. From orge (impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment); from orgao (something that teems or stews; this is anger rising from prolonged personal contact that is fixed rather than an angry outburst; it can also be anger that stems from an individual’s sense of right and wrong, justice, etc.). This is being angry, enraged, exasperated. It is a fixed, sustained anger.
CV “refused” = ou + thelo. Literally, “was not willing.” Thelo is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CVI “go in” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v17. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XLIII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CVII “came out” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “go in” in v28. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XLIII above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CVIII “plead” = parakaleo. Related to “called” in v19 & “called” in v26. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note LVII above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

29 But he answeredCIX his father, ‘Listen!CX For allCXI these yearsCXII I have been working like a slaveCXIII for you,

Notes on verse 29a

CIX “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
CX “listen” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXI “all” = tosoutos. From tosos (so much) + houtos (this; third person pronoun); {perhaps from ho (the) + autos (the third person pronoun)}. This is so much of something, whether in number, space, size, etc.
CXII “years” = etos. This is year or age.
CXIII “working like a slave” = douleuo. Related to “traveled” in v13 & “slaves” and “sandals in v22. From doulos (see note LXIX above). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.

and I have never disobeyedCXIV your command,CXV yet you have never given me even a young goatCXVI so that I might celebrate with my friends.CXVII 

Notes on verse 29b

CXIV “disobeyed” = parerchomai. Related to “came” in v17 & “go in” and “came out” in v28. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note XLIII above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
CXV “command” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
CXVI “young goat” = eriphos. 2x in NT– here and in Luke 15:29 as the goat that the elder son wants for a party in the parable of the prodigal son. Perhaps from the same as erion (wool); from eiros (wool). This comes from the root in the sense of hairiness – a kid or male goat.
CXVII “friends” = philos. Related to “kissed” in v20. See note LXVII above.

30 But when this son of yours cameCXVIII back, who has devouredCXIX your assets with prostitutes,CXX you killed the fatted calf for him!’ 

Notes on verse 30

CXVIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v17. See note XLIII above.
CXIX “devoured” = katesthio. Related to “eating” in v16. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + esthio (see note XLII above). This is to eat up, to consume totally so that there is nothing left. It can also be to annoy, injure, or squander.
CXX “prostitutes” = porne. 12x in NT. From pornos (fornicator or immoral person); perhaps from pernemi (to sell off or export); related to piprasko (to sell with travel involved; to sell into slavery; to be devoted to); from perao (to travel); from peran (over, beyond). This is prostitute. Can be used figuratively to refer to a community that is taken with idolatry.

31 Then the father said to him, ‘Son,CXXI you are alwaysCXXII with me, and allCXXIII that is mine is yours. 

Notes on verse 31

CXXI “son” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CXXII “always” = pantote. Related to “all” in v13. From pas (see note XVI above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
CXXIII “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v13. See note XVI above.

32 But we had toCXXIV celebrate and rejoice,CXXV because this brother of yours was deadCXXVI and has come to life;CXXVII he was lost and has been found.’”

Notes on verse 32

CXXIV “had to” = dei. Related to “traveled” in v13 & “slaves” and “sandals in v22 & “working like a slave” in v29. From deo (see note XVII above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXV “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
CXXVI “dead” = nekros. Same as “dead” in v24. See note LXXXVI above.
CXXVII “come to life” = zao. Same as “living” in v13. See note XXII above.

Image credit: “Parable of the Forgiving Father” by Rev. Henry Martin.

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