Luke 17

Luke 17


Jesus said to his disciples,I “Occasions for sinII are boundIII to come,IV butV woeVI to anyone through whom they come! 

Notes on verse 1

I “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
II “sin” = skandalon. 15x in NT. Perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is a stumbling block, offense, hindrance, or scandal. Properly, this is the part of the trap that triggers it shut on the victim. So, as a snare, it is anything that causes error or offense, something that makes one stumble or traps someone. This is where the word “scandal” comes from.
III “bound” = anendektosme. Literally, not impossible. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + endechomai (to be possible, allow); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is impossible, inevitable.
IV “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
V “but” = plen. From pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (much, many, abundant). This is yet, nevertheless.
VI “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.

It would be betterVII for you if a millstoneVIII were hungIX around your neckX

Notes on verse 2a

VII “be better” = lusiteleo. 1x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld) + telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one); {from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind)}. This is to be better or of advantage.
VIII “millstone” = lithos + mulikos. Lithos is stone in a literal or figurative sense. Mulikios is 1x in NT. From mulos (a hand-mill or grinder to use with grain); {probably from the base of molis (with difficulty, scarcely); from molos (toil); probably akin to mogis (hardly, with difficulty); from mogos (laborious, toil).}. This is related to a mill.
IX “hung” = perikeimai. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie around, surround, be clothed in, be bound, hang, be subject to.
X “neck” = trachelos. 7x in NT. Probably from trachus (rough, uneven). This is the neck or throat. It can also refer to an embrace. It shares a root with the word “trachea.”

and you were thrownXI into the seaXII than for you to cause oneXIII of these littleXIV ones to sin.XV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “thrown” = rhipto. 7x in NT. Perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to cast, toss fling, or disperse. It is a quick toss in contrast to another word ballo, intentional hurling, and teino (stretching outward).
XII “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
XIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XIV “little” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
XV “cause…to sin” = skandalizo. Related to “sin” in v1. From skandalon (see note II above). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.

Be on your guard!XVI If a brotherXVII or sister sins,XVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XVI “be on…guard” = prosecho. From pros (at, toward) + echo (have, hold, possess). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
XVII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XVIII “sins” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.

you must rebukeXIX the offender,XX and if there is repentance,XXI you must forgive.XXII 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “rebuke” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
XX “offender” = autos. Literally, “him.”
XXI “is repentance” = metanoeo. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
XXII “forgive” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.

And if the same person sinsXXIII against you seven timesXXIV a dayXXV and turns backXXVI to you seven times and says,XXVII ‘I repent,’XXVIII you must forgive.”

Notes on verse 4

XXIII “sins” = hamartano. Same as “sins” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XXIV “seven times” = heptakis. 4x in NT– each in reference to forgiving seven times in the Gospels. From hepta (seven or seventh; figuratively, the number of completeness or perfection). This is seven times.
XXV “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXVI “turns back” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
XXVII “says” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXVIII “repent” = metanoeo. Same as “is repentance” in v3. See note XXI above.

The apostlesXXIX said to the Lord,XXX “IncreaseXXXI our faith!”XXXII 

Notes on verse 5

XXIX “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XXX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXXI “increase” = prostithemi. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.
XXXII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

The Lord replied, “If you hadXXXIII faith the size of a mustardXXXIV seed,XXXV you could say to this mulberry tree,XXXVI

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIII “had” = echo. Related to “be on…guard” in v3. See note XVI above.
XXXIV “mustard” = sinapi. 5x in NT. Perhaps from sinomai (to hurt or sting). This is a mustard plant.
XXXV “seed” = kokkos. 7x in NT. This is grain, kernel, or seed.
XXXVI “mulberry tree” = sukaminos. 1x in NT. From Hebrew shiqmah (a sycamore tree or its fruit; perhaps the root of the word sycamore) OR related to sukomorea (sycamore, fig mulberry); {from sukon (fig) + moron (black mulberry)}. This is a black mulberry or sycamine tree. It has black berries and has some medical applications.

‘Be uprootedXXXVII and plantedXXXVIII in the sea,’ and it would obeyXXXIX you.

Notes on verse 6b

XXXVII “be uprooted” = ekrizoo. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + rhizoo (to plant, take root, establish, become stable); {from rhiza (a root literally or figuratively; the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant)}. This is to pull out by something’s roots or to root out.
XXXVIII “planted” = phuteuo. 11x in NT. From phuton (a plant) OR from the base of phuo (to grow, produce, spring up; perhaps from the sense of puff or blow – to swell up; hence, to germinate; to grow literally or figuratively). This is plant or implant. Figuratively, this word is used for Christian teaching.
XXXIX “obey” = hupakouo. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is to listen, to attend to, or obey. It is acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority.

“Who among you would say to your slaveXL who has just come inXLI from plowingXLII

Notes on verse 7a

XL “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XLI “come in” = eiserchomai. Related to “come” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XLII “plowing” = arotriao. 3x in NT. From arotron (a plow); from aroo (to plow or till). This is to plow or one who plows.

or tending sheepXLIII in the field,XLIV ‘ComeXLV here at onceXLVI and take your place at the table’?XLVII 

Notes on verse 7b

XLIII “tending sheep” = poimaino. 11x in NT. From poimen (shepherd in a literal or figurative sense – one who feeds, protects, rules). This is to tend, care for, shepherd. It focuses on tending, guiding, and protecting rather than feeding. Figuratively, it can mean to govern.
XLIV “field” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
XLV “come” = parerchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “come in” in v7. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
XLVI “at once” = eutheos. Related to “increase” in v5. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note XXXI above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XLVII “take…place at the table” = anapipto. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.

Would you not rather say to him, ‘PrepareXLVIII supperXLIX for me; put on your apronL

Notes on verse 8a

XLVIII “prepare” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
XLIX “supper” = deipneo. 4x in NT. From deipnon (a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening); from the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is to eat the main, evening meal.
L “put on your apron” = perizonnumi. 6x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + zonnumi (to gird, prepare for an active task; to gird up your loins so that you are able to move fast); {perhaps from zone (belt, waistband, purse); probably related to zugos (yoke, set of scales; what unites people in shared work; servitude or obligation); from zeugnumi (to yoke)}. This is to gird or clothe. It is to get ready for something that requires one to be active or for travel. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

and serveLI me while I eat and drink; later you may eatLII and drink’?LIII 

Notes on verse 8b

LI “serve” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
LII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
LIII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.

Do you thankLIV the slave for doingLV what was commanded?LVI 

Notes on verse 9

LIV “thank” = echo + charis. Echo is the same as “have” in v6. See note XXXIII above. Charis is from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LV “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LVI “commanded” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.

10 So you also, when you have done all that you were orderedLVII to do, say, ‘We are worthlessLVIII slaves; we have done only what we oughtLIX to have done!’”

Notes on verse 10

LVII “ordered” = diatasso. Same as “commanded” in v9. See note LVI above.
LVIII “worthless” = achreios. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + chreios (useful) OR from a (not, without) + derivative of chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request)}. This is unneeded, unprofitable, unworthy. It can also mean useless.
LIX “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.

11 LXOn the wayLXI to JerusalemLXII JesusLXIII was goingLXIV through the region

Notes on verse 11a

LX {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXI “way” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LXII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
LXIII “Jesus” = autos. Literally, “he.”
LXIV “going” = dierchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “come in” and “come” in v7. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.

betweenLXV SamariaLXVI and Galilee.LXVII 12 As he entered a village,LXVIII tenLXIX menLXX

Notes on verses 11b-12a

LXV “between” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
LXVI “Samaria” = Samareia.11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
LXVII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
LXVIII “village” = kome. Related to “hung” in v2. Perhaps from keimai (see note IX  above ). This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
LXIX “ten” = deka. This is ten, a number associated with perfection (to a lesser extent than the number seven). It is where “decade” and “decathlon” come from.
LXX “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.

with a skin diseaseLXXI approachedLXXII him. KeepingLXXIII their distance, 13 they called out,LXXIV

Notes on verses 12b-13a

LXXI “skin disease” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
LXXII “approached” = apantao. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from apo (from, away from) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet or encounter.
LXXIII “keeping” = histemi. Related to “apostles” in v5. See note XXIX above.
LXXIV “called out” = airo + phone. Literally, “lifted voice.” Airo is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin). Phone is probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.

saying, “Jesus,LXXV Master,LXXVI have mercyLXXVII on us!” 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXXVI “Master” = Epistates. Related to “apostles” in v5 & “keeping” in v12. 7x in NT– all in Luke. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XXIX above). This is a master, teacher, or commander. It is one who is in charge or who has authority.
LXXVII “have mercy” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.

14 When he sawLXXVIII them, he said to them, “GoLXXIX and showLXXX yourselves to the priests.”LXXXI

Notes on verse 14a

LXXVIII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXXIX “go” = poreuomai. Same as “way” in v11. See note LXI above.
LXXX “show” = epideiknumi. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to show, demonstrate, prove, or display.
LXXXI “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.

AndLXXXII as they went,LXXXIII they were made clean.LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LX above.
LXXXIII “went” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXXIV “made clean” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.

15 Then one of them, when he saw that he was healed,LXXXV turned back,LXXXVI praisingLXXXVII

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXV “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVI “turned back” = hupostrepho. Related to “turns back” in v4. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (see note XXVI above). This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “praising” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

GodLXXXVIII with a loudLXXXIX voice.XC 16 He prostratedXCI himselfXCII

Notes on verses 15b-16a

LXXXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXXIX “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XC “voice” = phone. Same as “called out” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
XCI “prostrated” = pipto. Related to “take…place at the table” in v7. See note XLVII above.
XCII “himself” = epi + prosopon. Literally, “on face.” Prosopon is related to “saw” in v14.  From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LXXVIII above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.

at Jesus’sXCIII feetXCIV and thankedXCV him. And he was a Samaritan.XCVI 

Notes on verse 16b

XCIII “Jesus’s” = autos. Literally, “his.”
XCIV “feet” = pous. This is foot literal or figurative.
XCV “thanked” = eucharisteo. Related to “thank” in v9 & “at once” in v7. From eu (see note XLVI above) + charis (see note LIV above). This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
XCVI “Samaritan” = Samarites. Related to “Samaria” in v11. 9x in NT. From Samareia (see note LXVI above). This is Samaritan.

17 Then Jesus asked, “Were not ten made clean? So where are the other nine?XCVII 18 Did none of themXCVIII returnXCIX to giveC gloryCI to God except this foreigner?”CII 

Notes on verses 17-18

XCVII “nine” = ennea. 5x in NT. This is nine.
XCVIII {untranslated} = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XCIX “return” = hupostrepho. Same as “turned back” in v15. See note LXXXVI above.
C “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CI “glory” = doxa. Related to “praising” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.
CII “foreigner” = allogenes. Related to {untranslated} in v11. 1x in NT. From allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); {from ginomai (see note LX above)}. This is a foreigner or stranger, i.e. someone from a different nation.

19 Then he said to him, “Get upCIII and go on your way;CIV your faith has made you well.”CV

Notes on verse 19

CIII “get up” = anistemi. Related to “apostles” in v5 & “keeping” in v12 & “Master” in v13. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXIX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CIV “go on your way” = poreuomai. Same as “way” in v11. See note LXI above.
CV “made…well” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

20 Once Jesus was askedCVI by the PhariseesCVII when the kingdomCVIII of God

Notes on verse 20a

CVI “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CVII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CVIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

was coming,CIX and he answered, “The kingdom of God is not comingCX with things that can be observed,CXI 21 nor will they say, ‘Look,CXII here it is!’ or ‘ThereCXIII it is!’ For, in fact, the kingdom of God is among you.”

Notes on verses 20b-21

CIX “coming” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CX “coming” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CXI “things that can be observed” = parateresis. 1x in NT. From paratereo (to watch or observe carefully due to personal interest); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); { teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}}. This is observation or close watching or inspection of visual evidence.
CXII “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXIII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “look” in v21. See note CXII above.

22 Then he said to the disciples, “The days are comingCXIV when you will longCXV to see one of the days of the SonCXVI of Man,CXVII and you will not see it. 

Notes on verse 22

CXIV “coming” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CXV “long” = epithumeo. 16x in NT. From epi (on, upon, fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is desire, lust, longing for, setting one’s heart on. It is a longing whether good or bad. In either case, passion and yearning is set on the object of desire.
CXVI “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXVII “Man” = anthropos. Related to “men” in v12 & “saw” in v14 & “himself” in v16. Probably from aner (see note LXX above) + ops (see note XCII above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

23 They will say to you, ‘Look there!’ or ‘Look here!’ Do not go;CXVIII do not set off in pursuit.CXIX 24 For as the lightningCXX flashesCXXI

Notes on verses 23-24a

CXVIII “go” = aperchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “come in” and “come” in v7 & “going” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIX “set off in pursuit” = dioko. Related to “serve” in v8. See note LI above.
CXX “lightning” = astrape. 9x in NT. From astrapto (to flash with or like lightning, be dazzling); probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed). This is lightning, brightness, glare, or ray.
CXXI “flashes” = astrapto. Related to “lightning” in v24. 2x in NT. See note CXX above.

and lights upCXXII the skyCXXIII from one side to the other, so will the Son of ManCXXIV be in his day. 25 But firstCXXV he mustCXXVI endure

Notes on verses 24b-25a

CXXII “lights up” = lampo. 7x in NT. This is to give light or shine literally or figuratively. This is where the word “lamp” comes from.
CXXIII “sky” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXXIV “man” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v22. See note CXVII above.
CXXV “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CXXVI “must” = dei. Related to “slave” in v7. From deo (see note XL above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.

muchCXXVII sufferingCXXVIII and be rejectedCXXIX by this generation.CXXX 

Notes on verse 25b

CXXVII “much” = polus. Related to “but” in v1. See note V above.
CXXVIII “endure…suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
CXXIX “rejected” = apodokimazo. Related to “praising” in v15 & “glory” & “bound” in v1. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dokimazo (to test, examine, prove; to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable; to test in a literal or figurative sense); {from dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (see note III above) or dokeo (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is rejected or disqualified following a test. It is rejected after rigorous investigation and so seen as useless or unworthy.
CXXX “generation” = genea. Related to {untranslated} in v11 & “foreigner” in v18. From genos (see note CII above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.

26 Just as it wasCXXXI in the days of Noah,CXXXII so, too, it will be in the days of the Son of Man.CXXXIII 27 They were eatingCXXXIV and drinking and marryingCXXXV and being given in marriageCXXXVI

Notes on verses 26-27a

CXXXI “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LX above.
CXXXII “Noah” = Noe. 8x in NT. From Hebrew nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is Noah, meaning rest.
CXXXIII “Man” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v22. See note CXVII above.
CXXXIV “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
CXXXV “marrying” = gameo. From gamos (a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself). This is to marry.
CXXXVI “given in marriage” = gamisko. Related to “marrying” in v27. 8x in NT. From gamos (see note CXXXV above). This is to give in marriage – to match a daughter to a husband.

until the day Noah entered the ark,CXXXVII and the floodCXXXVIII cameCXXXIX and destroyedCXL all of them. 

Notes on verse 27b

CXXXVII “ark” = kibotos. 6x in NT. This is a wooden box or chest. It also refers to Noah’s ark and the ark of the covenant.
CXXXVIII “flood” = kataklusmos. 4x in NT– all referring to the Great Flood with Noah and the ark. From katakluzo (to inundate, flood over, overwhelm); {from kata (down, against, throughout) + kludon (billow of water, wave, surge of the sea); {from kluzo (to wash over)}}. This is a flood or deluge. It is also where the English “cataclysm” comes from.
CXXXIX “came” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CXL “destroyed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

28 Likewise,CXLI just as it wasCXLII in the days of Lot,CXLIII they were eatingCXLIV and drinking, buyingCXLV and selling,CXLVI planting and building,CXLVII 

Notes on verse 28

CXLI “likewise” = homoios. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is similar to, resembling, like.
CXLII “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LX above.
CXLIII “Lot” = Lot. 4x in NT. From Hebrew Lot (Lot; “covering”); from the same as lot (envelope, veil); from lut (to wrap, envelop). This is Lot, “covering.”
CXLIV “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v27. See note CXXXIV above.
CXLV “buying” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
CXLVI “selling” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
CXLVII “building” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.

29 but on the day that Lot leftCXLVIII SodomCXLIX it rainedCL fireCLI and sulfurCLII from heavenCLIII and destroyed all of them; 

Notes on verse 29

CXLVIII “left” = exerchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “come in” and “come” in v7 & “going” in v11 & “go” in v23. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CXLIX “Sodom” = Sodoma. 10x in NT. From Hebrew Sedom (Sodom, the Canaanite city; root may mean scorch; perhaps this was a volcanic or coal rich area). This is Sodom.
CL “rained” = brecho. 7x in NT. This is to rain, wash, moisten.
CLI “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
CLII “sulfur” = theion. Related to “God” in v15. 7x in NT. Perhaps from theion (divine, like God); from theos (see note LXXXVIII above). This is brimstone or sulfur. It can also refer to being similar to sulfur as a smoky rock that is on fire.
CLIII “heaven” = ouranos. Same as “sky” in v24. See note CXXIII above.

30 it will be like that on the day that the Son of ManCLIV is revealed.CLV 31 On that day, anyone on the housetopCLVI

Notes on verses 30-31a

CLIV “Man” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v22. See note CXVII above.
CLV “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
CLVI “housetop” = doma. 7x in NT. From demo (to build). This is housetop or roof – a flat roof. Properly, it is more generally a building, but used specifically for roofs.

who has belongingsCLVII in the houseCLVIII must not come downCLIX to take them away,CLX and likewise anyone in the field must not turn back.CLXI 

Notes on verse 31b

CLVII “belongings” = skeuos. This is a vessel, object, article, property, a tool. It is an implement or other equipment in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to a vessel of mercy or a wife.
CLVIII “house” = oikia. Related to “building” in v28. From oikos (see note CXLVII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CLIX “come down” = katabaino. Related to “kingdom” in v20. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note CVIII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CLX “take…away” = airo. Same as “called out” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
CLXI “turn back” = epistrepho + eis + ho + opiso. Literally, “return to the things behind.” Epistrepho is the same as “turns back” in v4. See note XXVI above. Opiso is related to “men” in v12 & “saw” in v14 & “himself” in v16 & “man” in v22. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note XCII above). This is back, behind, after.

32 RememberCLXII Lot’s wife.CLXIII 33 Those who tryCLXIV

Notes on verses 32-33a

CLXII “remember” = mnemoneuo. From mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to remember, recollect. It does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be simply calling something to mind. It can mean to punish or rehearse.
CLXIII “wife” = gune. Related to {untranslated} in v11 & “foreigner” in v18 & “generation” in v25. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CLXIV “try” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

to make their lifeCLXV secureCLXVI will loseCLXVII it, but those who lose their life will keepCLXVIII it. 

Notes on verse 33b

CLXV “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLXVI “make…secure” = peripoieo. Related to “doing” in v9. 3x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + poieo (see note LV above). This is to make or do comprehensively. It is to acquire, purchase. Keep, or preserve
CLXVII “lose” = apollumi. Same as “destroyed” in v27. See note CXL above.
CLXVIII “keep” = zoogoneo. Related to {untranslated} in v11 & “foreigner” in v18 & “generation” in v25 & “wife” in v32. 3x in NT. From zoon (literally a thing that is alive; so, an animal or living creature); {from zao (to live literally or figuratively)} + ginomai (see note LX above). This is to save or keep alive. It can also mean survive or bring to birth.

34 I tell you, on that night there will be twoCLXIX in one bed;CLXX one will be takenCLXXI and the otherCLXXII left.CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 34

CLXIX “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CLXX “bed” = kline. 9x in NT. From klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is couch, bed, mat. Either a couch laid on to eat or for sleeping.
CLXXI “taken” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CLXXII “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CLXXIII “left” = aphiemi. Same as “forgive” in v3. See note XXII above.

35 There will be two women grinding mealCLXXIV together; one will be taken and the other left.”CLXXV 

37 Then they asked him, “Where, Lord?”

He said to them, “Where the corpseCLXXVI is, there the eaglesCLXXVII will gather.”CLXXVIII

Notes on verses 35-37

CLXXIV “grinding meal” = aletho. 2x in NT– in this passage and in the parallel in Matthew 24:41. From the same as aleuron (flour, meal); from aleo (to grind). This is to grind.
CLXXV Some authorities add verse 36: “Two will be in the field; one will be taken and the other left.”
CLXXVI “corpse” = soma. Related to “made…well” in v19. Perhaps from sozo (see note CV above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CLXXVII “eagles” = aetos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is eagle or vulture. It could also refer more generally to a bird of prey.
CLXXVIII “gather” = episunago. Related to “went” in v14. 8x in NT– all in the Gospels, including Jesus’s lament to gather the people together as a hen gathers her brood. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + sunago (to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain); {from sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is to gather, assembly. It is to come together for a reason.

Image credit: “Chromolithograph of the cover of E.T. Paull’s The Burning of Rome sheet music,” 1903. Photo by William Creswell, 2011

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