Luke 2

Luke 2


IIn those daysII a decreeIII went outIV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = ginomai.  This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “decree” = dogma. 5x in NT. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion). This is opinion, ordinance, or decree. It could be civil or religious. It is where the word “dogma” comes from.
IV “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

from CaesarV AugustusVI that allVII the worldVIII should be registered.IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “Caesar” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
VI “Augustus” = Augoustos. 1x in NT. From Latin augustus (majestic, august, venerable); from augeo (to increase, grow, honor). This is Augustus, the name of an emperor that meant sanctity, but not all the way to divinity. See
VII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
VIII “world” = oikoumene. 15x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is the world – the part where people live. It was used specifically for the Roman world. It is the root of the word “ecumenic.”
IX “registered” = apographo. 4x in NT– 3x in Jesus’s birth narrative in Luke 2. From apo (from, away from) + grapho (to write, describe). This is to register, enroll, write a list.

This was the firstX registrationXI and was takenXII

Notes on verse 2a

X “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XI “registration” = apographe. Related to “registered” in v1. 2x in NT. From apographo (see note IX above). This is register, enrollment, which implies an assessment for taxation.
XII “taken” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.

while QuiriniusXIII was governorXIV of Syria.XV 

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “Quirinius” = Kurenios. 1x in NT. From Latin Quirinus (after the Sabine town Cures); {perhaps from curis (spear) and curia (court, senate or meeting house)} + -ius (suffix that turns nouns into adjectives). This is Quirinius. See;
XIV “was governor” = hegemoneuo. 2x in NT. From hegemon (leader, governor, guide, prince, commander; one who governs a province); from hegomai (to lead, suppose, think, consider; to go before as chief; that which comes first in priority; to command with authority in an official capacity); from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive). This is command, govern, be governor. To acts as a ruler. Related to the word hegemony.
XV “Syria” = Suria. 8x in NT. From Akkadian ashshur (after the god Ashur, head of their gods). This is Syria. See;

All wentXVI to their own townsXVII to be registered. JosephXVIII also wentXIX from the town

Notes on verses 3-4a

XVI “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XVII “towns” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XVIII “Joesph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
XIX “went” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.

of NazarethXX in GalileeXXI to Judea,XXII

Notes on verse 4b

XX “Nazareth” = Nazareth. 12x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See
XXI “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
XXII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

to the cityXXIII of DavidXXIV calledXXV Bethlehem,XXVI because he was descendedXXVII from the houseXXVIII and familyXXIX of David. 

Notes on verse 4c

XXIII “city” = polis. Same as “town” in v3. See note XVII above.
XXIV “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XXV “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XXVI “Bethlehem” = Bethleem. 8x in NT. From beth lechem (Bethlehem); {from bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively)} + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”
XXVII “descended” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXVIII “house” = oikos. Related to “world” in v1. See note VIII above.
XXIX “family” = patria. 3x in NT. From pater (father, ancestor, elder, senior; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is lineage, family, ancestry, tribe, nation.

He went to be registered with Mary,XXX to whom he was engagedXXXI and who wasXXXII expecting a child.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 5

XXX “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
XXXI “engaged” = mnesteuo. 3x in NT– all in reference to Mary and Joseph. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). OR from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze). This is to betroth, be engaged.
XXXII “was” = eimi. Same as “descended” in v4. See note XXVII above.
XXXIII “expecting a child” = egkuos. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, in the condition of) + the same as kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant). Literally, a swelling inside, hence, pregnant.

6 XXXIVWhile they were there, the timeXXXV cameXXXVI for her to deliverXXXVII her child. 

Notes on verse 6

XXXIV {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXXV “time” = hemera. Same as “days” in v1. See note II above.
XXXVI “came” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
XXXVII “deliver” = tikto. 18x in NT. This is used of creating new life whether as a mother or a plant or the earth as a whole. It can be rendered bright forth, bear, give birth, labor, produce, or yield. It can also refers to the pains of childbirth.

And she gave birthXXXVIII to her firstbornXXXIX sonXL and wrapped him in bands of clothXLI

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVIII “gave birth” = tikto. Same as “deliver” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
XXXIX “firstborn” = prototokos. Related to “first” in v2 & “deliver” in v6. 8x in NT. From protos (see note X above) + tikto (see note XXXVII above). This is firstborn or oldest. Figuratively, it can also mean pre-eminent.
XL “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XLI “wrapped…in bands of cloth” = sparganoo. 2x in NT. From sparganon (swathing band, a strip); from the same as sparasso (to tear, rend, mangle, convulse); related to spairo (to grasp); from spao (to pull out as one draws a sword). This is to swaddle an infant, to wrap in cloths or strips.

and laidXLII him in a manger,XLIII because there was no placeXLIV in the guest room.XLV

Notes on verse 7b

XLII “laid” = anaklino. 6x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is to lay down, recline, lie back, or sit down.
XLIII “manger” = phatne. 4x in NT– 3x of Jesus in a manger, 1x Jesus argues “Does not each of you on the sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from the manger and lead it away to give it water?” in Luke 13:15. May be from pateomai (to eat). This is a manger, which is a feeding trough, or a stall where one feeds cattle.
XLIV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XLV “guest room” = kataluma. 3x in NT. – 2x of the guest room that Jesus seeks in which to eat his Passover for the Last Supper (Mark 14:14) (Luke 22:11) & 1x of Jesus’ birth story. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break or destroy). This is a lodging place, inn, or guest room. Properly, it is a place where one unyokes or unharnesses animals for the purpose of lodging. Alternately, it’s a place to break up a long journey.

Now in that same regionXLVI there were shepherdsXLVII living in the fields,XLVIII

Notes on verse 8a

XLVI “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.
XLVII “shepherds” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
XLVIII “living in the fields” = agrauleo. Related to “governor” in v2. 1x in NT. From agros (field, the country; particularly a field that has a crop; lands, country, estate, farm; a field where one drives cattle); {from ago (see note XIV above)] + aule (courtyard, court, sheepfold; palace as a place that would have a courtyard); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow without thinking about it; natural breath)}. This is camping in the fields – spending the night out in the open.

keepingXLIX watchL over their flockLI by night. 

Notes on verse 8b

XLIX “keeping” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
L “watch” = phulake. Related to “keeping” in v8. From phulasso (see note XLIX above). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
LI “flock” = poimne. Related to “shepherds” in v8. 5x in NT. Probably from poimen (see note XLVII above). This is flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats.

Then an angelLII of the LordLIII stoodLIV before them,

Notes on verse 9a

LII “angel” = aggelos. Related to “governor” in v2 & “living in the fields” in v8. Probably from ago (see note XIV above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
LIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LIV “stood” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.

and the gloryLV of the Lord shone aroundLVI them, and they were terrified.LVII 

Notes on verse 9b

LV “glory” = doxa. Related to “decree” in v1. From dokeo (see note III above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
LVI “shone around” = perilampo. 2x in NT– of the angels at the nativity in Luke 2:9 & of the light that was part of Saul/Paul’s Damascus conversion in Acts 26:13. From peri (about, concerning, around, comprehensive) + lampo (to shine, beam, literally or figuratively). This is to illuminate around.
LVII “terrified” = phobeo + phobos + megas. Literally, “they feared great fear.” Phobeo is from phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from. Phobos is related to above. See above. Megas is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid,LVIII for see,LIX I am bringing you good newsLX of greatLXI joyLXII for all the people:LXIII 

Notes on verse 10

LVIII “be afraid” = phobeo. Same as “terrified” in v9. See note LVII above.
LIX “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LX “bringing…good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “governor” in v2 & “living in the fields” in v8 & “angel” in v9.  From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note XIV above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
LXI “great” = megas. Same as “terrified” in v9. See note LVII above.
LXII “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
LXIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

11 to you is bornLXIV this dayLXV in the city of David a Savior,LXVI who is the Messiah,LXVII the Lord. 

Notes on verse 11

LXIV “is born” = tikto. Same as “deliver” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
LXV “day” = semeron. Related to “days” in v1. From hemera (see note II above). This is today, now, at present.
LXVI “Savior” = Soter. From sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.
LXVII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

12 This will be a signLXVIII for you: you will findLXIX a childLXX wrapped in bands of cloth and lyingLXXI in a manger.” 

Notes on verse 12

LXVIII “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LXIX “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXX “child” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXI “lying” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.

13 And suddenlyLXXII there wasLXXIII with the angel a multitudeLXXIV

Notes on verse 13a

LXXII “suddenly” = exaiphnes. 5x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aiphnidios (literally not apparent so sudden or unexpected); {from aiphnes (suddenly); {from a (not, without) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear); {perhaps from phos (light, radiance; light literal or figurative)}}}. This is suddenly or unexpectedly.
LXXIII “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXIV “multitude” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.

of the heavenlyLXXV host,LXXVI praisingLXXVII GodLXXVIII and saying,LXXIX

Notes on verse 13b

LXXV “heavenly” = ouranios. 9x in NT. From ouranos (air, sky, the atmosphere, heaven; the sky that is visible; the spiritual heaven where God dwells; implies happiness, power, and eternity); {perhaps from oros (mountain, hill)}. This is heavenly or celestial. It can mean in, belonging to, or coming from heaven or the sky.
LXXVI “host” = stratia. 2x in NT– both times of the heavenly host. From stratos (encamped army); perhaps from stonnuo (to spread, to make a bed, strew).  This is literally an army, but used figuratively for hosts of angels, hosts of heaven (that is to say, stars). It is a group that is ordered or organized in some fashion.
LXXVII “praising” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
LXXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXIX “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

14 “Glory to God in the highestLXXX heaven,
    and on earthLXXXI peaceLXXXII among thoseLXXXIII whom he favors!”LXXXIV

Notes on verse 14

LXXX “highest” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.
LXXXI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
LXXXII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LXXXIII “those” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXXIV “favors” = eudokia. Related to “decree” in v1 & “glory” in v9 & “bringing…good news” in v10. 9x in NT. From eudokeo (to think well of, to be pleased or resolved; properly, what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of); {from eu (see note LX above) + dokeo (see note III above)}. This is goodwill, favor, happiness, delight, satisfaction, or desire. It is something that a person finds good or of benefit.

15 WhenLXXXV the angels had leftLXXXVI them and gone into heaven,LXXXVII the shepherds said to one another, “Let us goLXXXVIII now to Bethlehem and seeLXXXIX

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXV {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXXVI “left” = aperchomai. Related to “went out” in v1. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVII “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “heavenly” in v13. See note LXXV above.
LXXXVIII “go” = dierchomai. Related to “went out” in v1 & “left” in v15. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LXXXIX “see” = horao. Related to “those” in v14. See note LXXXIII above.

this thingXC that has taken place,XCI which the Lord has made knownXCII to us.” 

Notes on verse 15b

XC “thing” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
XCI “taken place” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XCII “made known” = gnorizo. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to declare, know, discover, make known.

16 So they wentXCIII with hasteXCIV and foundXCV Mary and Joseph and the child lying in the manger. 17 When they sawXCVI this, they made known whatXCVII had been told them about this child,XCVIII 

Notes on verses 16-17

XCIII “went” = erchomai. Related to “went out” in v1 & “left” and “go” in v15. See note IV above.
XCIV “haste” = speudo. 6x in NT– shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Jesus tells Zacchaeus to hurry down from the tree in Luke 19:5-6. Perhaps from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.
XCV “found” = aneurisko. Related to “find” in v12. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + heurisko (see note LXIX above). This is to discover, to find from searching.
XCVI “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
XCVII “what” = rhema. Same as “thing” in v15. See note XC above.
XCVIII “child” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.

18 and all who heardXCIX it were amazedC at what the shepherds told them, 19 and Mary treasuredCI

Notes on verses 18-19a

XCIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
C “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CI “treasured” = suntereo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); { teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is to keep close, preserve, remember and obey, treasure.

all these wordsCII and ponderedCIII them in her heart.CIV 

Notes on verse 19b

CII “words” = rhema. Same as “thing” in v15. See note XC above.
CIII “pondered” = sumballo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with, joined closely) + ballo (to throw, cast, rush, place, put, drop; to throw in a more or less intense/violent way). This is properly to throw together. So, it can mean happening upon someone or something with or without hostile motives. In the sense of combining, it can mean to speak, consult, or dispute. Mentally, it can mean to consider something as throwing multiple ideas together to ponder and weigh them. It can imply coming to someone’s aid, joining them, or attacking.
CIV “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

20 The shepherds returned,CV glorifyingCVI and praising God for all they had heard and seen,CVII just as it had been told them.

Notes on verse 20

CV “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CVI “glorifying” = doxazo. Related to “decree” in v1 & “glory” in v9 & “favors” in v14. From doxa (see note LV above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CVII “seen” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.

21 When the eighthCVIII day came,CIX it was time to circumciseCX the child, and he was calledCXI

Notes on verse 21a

CVIII “eighth” = okto. 10x in NT. This is eight.
CIX “came” = pleitho. Same as “came” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CX “circumcise” = peritemno. 18x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is to circumcise – literally to cut around.
CXI {untranslated} = ho + onoma + autos. Literally, “his name.” Onoma is related to “made known” in v15. May be from ginosko (see note XCII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

Jesus,CXII the name givenCXIII by the angel before he was conceivedCXIV in the womb.CXV

Notes on verse 21b

CXII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXIII “name given” = kaleo. Same as “called” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXIV “conceived” = sullambano. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arresat or take hold of someone.
CXV “womb” = koilia. From koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.

22 When the time cameCXVI for their purificationCXVII according to the lawCXVIII of Moses,CXIX

Notes on verse 22a

CXVI “came” = pleitho. Same as “came” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CXVII “purification” = katharismos. 7x in NT. From katharizo (to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean; includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense); from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is cleansing or purification. It can be used in a literal, ritual, or moral sense.
CXVIII “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
CXIX “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

they brought him upCXX to JerusalemCXXI to presentCXXII him to the Lord 

Notes on verse 22b

CXX “brought…up” = anago. Related to “governor” in v2 & “living in the fields” in v8 & “angel” in v9 & “bringing…good news” in v10. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see XIV above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.
CXXI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CXXII “present” = paristemi. Related to “stood” in v9. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note LIV above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.

23 (as it is writtenCXXIII in the law of the Lord, “EveryCXXIV firstbornCXXV

Notes on verse 23a

CXXIII “written” = grapho. Related to “registered” inv 1 & “registration” in v2. See note IX above.
CXXIV “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXV “firstborn” = diaoigo + metra. Literally, “opening a womb.” Diaoigo is 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound. Metra is 2x in NT. From meter (mother literally or figuratively). This is the womb.

maleCXXVI shall be designatedCXXVII as holyCXXVIII to the Lord”), 

Notes on verse 23b

CXXVI “male” = arren. 9x in NT. From arsen (male, man) OR perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is male or man.
CXXVII “designated” = kaleo. Same as “called” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXVIII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

24 and they offeredCXXIX a sacrificeCXXX according to what is stated in the law of the Lord, “a pairCXXXI of turtledovesCXXXII

Notes on verse 24a

CXXIX “offered” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXX “sacrifice” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “pair” = zeugos. 2x in NT. From the same as zugos (yoke, scales; figuratively, a burden or something linking two people to work in tandem); from zeugnumi (to yoke or join). This is yoke, couple, pair; tea of oxen, group of tied together birds.
CXXXII “turtledoves” = trugon. 1x in NT. From truzo (to murmur or coo); akin to trizo (to grate, gnash teeth, creak, squeak). This is a turtledove.

or twoCXXXIII youngCXXXIV pigeons.”CXXXV

25 NowCXXXVI there was a manCXXXVII in JerusalemCXXXVIII

Notes on verses 24b-25a

CXXXIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CXXXIV “young” = neossos. 1x in NT. Related to nossos (young, young bird); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a nestling or a young one.
CXXXV “pigeons” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.
CXXXVI “now” = idou. Same as “see” in v10. See note LIX above.
CXXXVII “man” = anthropos. Same as “those” in v14. See note LXXXIII above.
CXXXVIII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. Related to “Jerusalem” in v22. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (see note CXXI above). Different spelling as “Jerusalem” above, but same meaning.

whose nameCXXXIX was Simeon;CXL this man was righteousCXLI

Notes on verse 25b

CXXXIX “name” = onoma. Same as {untranslated} in v21. See note CXI above.
CXL “Simeon” = Sumeon. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
CXLI “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice. 

and devout,CXLII looking forward toCXLIII the consolationCXLIV

Notes on verse 25c

CXLII “devout” = eulabes. Related to “bringing…good news” in v10 & “favors” in v14 &“conceived” in v21. 4x in NT. From eu (see note LX above) + lambano (see note CXIV above). This is literally handling well or grasping what is good. So, cautious or circumspect. By extension, it refers to devout, pious, or God fearing
CXLIII “looking forward to” = prosdechomai. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.
CXLIV “consolation” = paraklesis. Related to “called” in v4. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note XXV above)}. This is calling someone for help, a personal exhortation, comfort, encouragement, joy, entreaty, urging. This word comes from a legal setting – as bringing evidence to advocate for another in court. This word is related to the word “Advocate” or paraclete used for the Holy Spirit.

of Israel,CXLV and the Holy SpiritCXLVI restedCXLVII on him. 

Notes on verse 25d

CXLV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CXLVI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXLVII “rested” = eimi. Same as “descended” in v4. See note XXVII above.

26 It had been revealedCXLVIII to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not seeCXLIX deathCL before he had seenCLI the Lord’s Messiah. 

Notes on verse 26

CXLVIII “revealed” = chrematizo. 9x in NT– including Matthew 2:12 when the wise men were warned in a dream not to return to Herod. 9x in NT. From chrema (something one uses or needs; money, possessions, wealth); from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is to conduct business, instruct, warn, reveal, to utter an oracle, be warned by God.
CXLIX “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
CL “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CLI “seen” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.

27 Guided by the Spirit, Simeon cameCLII into the temple,CLIII and when the parentsCLIV brought inCLV

Notes on verse 27a

CLII “came” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v16. See note XCIII above.
CLIII “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
CLIV “parents” = goneus. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From ginomai (see note I above). This is a parent or a father.
CLV “brought in” = eisago. Related to “governor” in v2 & “living in the fields” in v8 & “angel” in v9 & “bringing…good news” in v10 & “brought…up” in v22. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to bring in, lead in, or introduce in a literal or figurative sense.

the childCLVI Jesus to doCLVII for him what was customaryCLVIII under the law, 

Notes on verse 27b

CLVI “child” = paidion. Same as “child” in v17. See note XCVIII above.
CLVII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CLVIII “was customary” = ethizo. 1x in NT. From ethos (custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires; can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition); from etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom or customary.

28 Simeon tookCLIX him in his armsCLX and praisedCLXI God, saying,

Notes on verse 28

CLIX “took” = dechomai. Related to “looking forward to” in v25. See note CXLIII above.
CLX “arms” = agkale. 1x in NT. From agkos (a bend). This is the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load.
CLXI “praised” = eulogeo. Related to “bringing…good news” in v10 & “favors” in v14 & “devout” in v25 & “saying” in v13. From eu (see note LX above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note LXXIX above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.

29 “Master,CLXII now you are dismissingCLXIII your servantCLXIV in peace,
    according to your word,

Notes on verse 29

CLXII “Master” = Despotes. Related to “servant” in v29. 10x in NT. Perhaps from deo (see note CLXIV below). This is lord, master, despot, sovereign Lord. It is an authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction.
CLXIII “dismissing” = apoluo. Related to “guest room” in v7. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note XLV above). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CLXIV “servant” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

30 for my eyesCLXV have seenCLXVI your salvation,CLXVII
31     which you have preparedCLXVIII in the presenceCLXIX of all peoples,

Notes on verses 30-31

CLXV “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “those” in v14. From optanomai (see note LXXXIII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.    
CLXVI “seen” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
CLXVII “salvation” = soterios. Related to “savior” in v11. 5x in NT. From soter (see note LXVI above). This is salvation, defender, something or someone saving.
CLXVIII “prepared” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
CLXIX “presence” = prosopon. Related to “those” in v14 & “eyes” in v30 & “see” in v15. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note LXXXIII above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.

32 a lightCLXX for revelationCLXXI to the gentilesCLXXII
    and for glory to your people Israel.”

Notes on verse 32

CLXX “light” = phos. Related to “suddenly” in v13. See note LXXII above.
CLXXI “revelation” = apokalupsis. 18x in NT. From apokalupto (properly to uncover; revealing something that was hidden or obstructed; particularly refers to revealing the essence of something; to make plain or manifest); {from apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is uncovering, unveiling, appearing, manifestation, or revelation. This is where the word “apocalypse” comes from.
CLXXII “gentiles” = ethnos. Related to “was customary” in v27. Probably from etho (see note CLVIII above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

33 And the child’s fatherCLXXIII and motherCLXXIV were amazed at what was being said about him. 34 Then Simeon blessedCLXXV them and said to his mother Mary, “CLXXVIThis child is destinedCLXXVII for the fallingCLXXVIII

Notes on verses 33-34a

CLXXIII “father” = pater. Related to “family” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CLXXIV “mother” = meter. Related to “firstborn” in v23. See note CXXV above.
CLXXV “blessed” = eulogeo. Same as “praised” in v28. See note CLXI above.
CLXXVI {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v10. See note LIX above.
CLXXVII “destined” = keimai. Same as “lying” in v12. See note LXXI above.
CLXXVIII “falling” = ptosis. 2x in NT– here and in the Parable of the wise and foolish builders, “great was its fall” in Matthew 7:27. From pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is a falling or ruin.

and the risingCLXXIX of manyCLXXX in Israel and to be a sign that will be opposedCLXXXI 

Notes on verse 34b

CLXXIX “rising” = anastasis. Related to “stood” in v9 & “present” in v22. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LIV above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
CLXXX “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CLXXXI “opposed” = antilego. Related to “saying” in v13 & “praised” in v28. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note LXXIX above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

35 so that the inner thoughtsCLXXXII of many will be revealedCLXXXIII

Notes on verse 35a

CLXXXII “inner thoughts” = kardia + dialogismos. Kardia is the same as “heart” in v19. See note CIV above. Dialogismos is related to “saying” in v13 & “praised” in v28 & “opposed” in v34. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note CLXI above)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
CLXXXIII “revealed” = apokalupto. Related to “revelation” in v32. See note CLXXI above.

and a swordCLXXXIV will pierceCLXXXV your own soul, CLXXXVI too.”

Notes on verse 35b

CLXXXIV “sword” = rhomphaia. 7x in NT– 1x Simeon’s words to Mary “a sword will pierce your own soul,” 6x in the book of Revelation. Probably of foreign origin. This refers to a Thracian long sword that could thrust and slash. It may have come from an Egyptian god. Figuratively, it refers to war or intense grief. Since the sword was so powerful, it can symbolize dominance.
CLXXXV “pierce” = dierchomai. Same as “go” in v15. See note LXXXVIII above.
CLXXXVI “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

36 There was also a prophet,CLXXXVII AnnaCLXXXVIII the daughterCLXXXIX of Phanuel,CXC

Notes on verse 36a

CLXXXVII “prophet” = prophetis. Related to “suddenly” in v13 & “light” in v32. 2x in NT– of Anna in Luke 2:36 and Jezebel in Revelation 2:20. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light) or phaino (see note LXXII above)}}. This is a female prophet.
CLXXXVIII “Anna” = Hanna. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Channah (Channah, Hannah; “favored”); from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is Anna, meaning “favored.”
CLXXXIX “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
CXC “Phanuel” = Phanouel. Related to “Israel” in v25. 1x in NT.  From Hebrew Penuel (Penuel, Peniel, “face of God; a place and proper name); {from panim (face in a literal or figurative sense; presence, anger, respect; can be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence); {from panah (to turn, face, appear)} + el (see note CXLV above)}. This is Phanuel, the Greek version of Penuel, meaning “face of God.”

of the tribeCXCI of Asher.CXCII She was of a greatCXCIII age,CXCIV

Notes on verse 36b

CXCI “tribe” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
CXCII “Asher” = Aser. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Asher (Asher; “happy one”; one of Jacob’s children and the tribe of his descendants; may also be a city); from ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is Asher, meaning “happy one.”
CXCIII “great” = polus. Same as “many” in v34. See note CLXXX above.
CXCIV “was of…age” = probaino + en + hemera. Literally, “advanced in days.” Probaino is related to “went” in v4. 5x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note XIX above). This is to go forward literally or to advance in years. Hemera is the same as “days” in v1. See note II above.

having livedCXCV with her husbandCXCVI sevenCXCVII yearsCXCVIII after her marriage,CXCIX 

Notes on verse 36c

CXCV “lived” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CXCVI “husband” = aner. Related to “those” in v14. See note LXXXIII above.
CXCVII “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.
CXCVIII “years” = etos. This is year or age.
CXCIX “marriage” = parthenia. 1x in NT. From parthenos (virgin, chaste, unmarried; can refer to a woman past puberty who is not yet married, since she was presumed to be a virgin). This is maidenhood or virginity.

37 then as a widowCC to the ageCCI of eightyCCII-four.CCIII

Notes on verse 37a

CC “widow” = chera. Perhaps from the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is widow literally or figuratively.
CCI “age” = etos. Same as “years” in v36. See note CXCVIII above.
CCII “eighty” = ogdoekonta. Related to “eight” in v21. 2x in NT. From ogdoos (the eighth); {from okto (see note CVIII above)} + deka (ten; -teen). This is eighty.
CCIII “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.

She never leftCCIV the temple but worshipedCCV there with fastingCCVI and prayerCCVII night and day. 

Notes on verse 37b

CCIV “left” = aphistemi. Related to “stood” in v9 & “present” in v22 & “rising” in v34. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note LIV above). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.
CCV “worshiped” = latreuo. From latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task). Properly, this is giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so. It can be serve, minister, worship, or give homage.
CCVI “fasting” = nesteia. 6x in NT. From nesteuo (to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast); from nestis (hungry, fasting, fasting for religious reasons); {from ne (not) + the same as esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}}. This is fasting, hunger. Can be used specifically for the fast done on the Day of Atonement.
CCVII “prayer” = deesis. Related to “servant” and “Master” in v29. 18x in NT. From deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); from deo (see note CLXIV above). This is a request coming from a deep personal need or want. So, it is supplication or prayer.

38 At that momentCCVIII she cameCCIX and began to praiseCCX God

Notes on verse 38a

CCVIII “moment” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CCIX “came” = ephistemi. Same as “stood” in v9. See note LIV above.
CCX “praise” = anthomologeomai. Related to “saying” in v13 & “praised” in v28 & “opposed” in v34 & “inner thoughts” in v35. 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note LXXIX above)}}. This is to confess, give thanks to, fully acknowledge, give praise.

and to speak about the childCCXI to all who were looking forCCXII the redemptionCCXIII of Jerusalem.

Notes on verse 38b

CCXI “child” = autos. Literally, “him.”
CCXII “looking for” = prosdechomai. Same as “looking forward to” in v25. See note CXLIII above.
CCXIII “redemption” = lutrosis. Related to “guest room” in v7 & “dismissing” in v29. 3x in NT. From lutroo (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner); from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (see note XLV above). This is ransoming, release, liberation, or redemption It is paying to free someone from imprisonment because of debt or from slavery more generally. Used figuratively for spiritual redemption.

39 When they had finishedCCXIV everythingCCXV required by the law of the Lord, they returnedCCXVI to Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth. 

Notes on verse 39

CCXIV “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CCXV “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v1. See note VII above.
CCXVI “returned” = epistrepho. Related to “returned” in v20. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (see note CV above). This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

40 The childCCXVII grewCCXVIII and became strong,CCXIX

Notes on verse 40a

CCXVII “child” = paidion. Same as “child” in v17. See note XCVIII above.
CCXVIII “grew” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
CCXIX “became strong” = krataioo. 4x in NT. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is to strengthen, confirm, empower, or prevail.

filledCCXX with wisdom,CCXXI and the favorCCXXII of God was upon him.

Notes on verse 40b

CCXX “filled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CCXXI “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
CCXXII “favor” = charis. Related to “joy” in v10. Perhaps from chairo (see note LXII above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

41 Now every year his parents wentCCXXIII to Jerusalem for the festivalCCXXIV of the Passover.CCXXV 42 And when he wasCCXXVI twelveCCXXVII years old, they went upCCXXVIII as usualCCXXIX for the festival. 

Notes on verses 41-42

CCXXIII “went” = poreuomai. Same as “went” in v3. See note XVI above.
CCXXIV “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
CCXXV “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
CCXXVI “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCXXVII “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v24 & “eighty” in v37. From duo (see note CXXXIII above) + deka (see note CCII above). This is twelve.
CCXXVIII “went up” = anabaino. Same as “went” in v4. See note XIX above.
CCXXIX “as usual” = kata + ho + ethos. Literally, “according to the custom.” Ethos is related to “was customary” in v27 & “Gentiles” in v32. 12x in NT. See note CLVIII above.

43 When the festival was endedCCXXX and they started to return,CCXXXI the boyCCXXXII Jesus stayed behindCCXXXIII in Jerusalem, but his parents were unawareCCXXXIV of this. 

Notes on verse 43

CCXXX “was ended” = teleioo. Related to “finished” in v39. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note CCXIV above).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CCXXXI “return” = hupostrepho. Same as “returned” in v20. See note CV above.
CCXXXII “boy” = pais. Related to “child” in v17. See note XCVIII above.
CCXXXIII “stayed behind” = hupomeno. Related to “engaged” in v5. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (see note XXXI above). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
CCXXXIV “were unaware” = ou + ginosko. Ginosko is related to “made known” in v15 & {untranslated} in v21. See note XCII above.

44 AssumingCCXXXV that he was in the group of travelers,CCXXXVI they wentCCXXXVII a day’s journey.CCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 44a

CCXXXV “assuming” = nomizo. Related to “law” in v22. 15x in NT. From nomos (see note CXVIII above). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CCXXXVI “group of travelers” = sunodia. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is caravan, a company travelling together. It is where the word “synod” comes from.
CCXXXVII “went” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v16. See note XCIII above.
CCXXXVIII “journey” = hodos. Related to “group of travelers” in v44. See note CCXXXVI above.

Then they started to lookCCXXXIX for him among their relativesCCXL and friends.CCXLI 

Notes on verse 44b

CCXXXIX “started to look” = anazeteo. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to look for thoroughly – a difficult searching. It is a full inquiry or investigation that is conducted with persistence.
CCXL “relatives” = suggenes. Related to {untranslated} in v1 & “parents” in v27. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note I above)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
CCXLI “friends” = gnostos. Related to “made known” in v15 & {untranslated} in v21 & “know” in v43. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note XCII above). This is known or acquaintance.

45 When they did not find him, they returnedCCXLII to Jerusalem to searchCCXLIII for him. 46 CCXLIVAfter threeCCXLV days they found him in the temple,

Notes on verses 45-46a

CCXLII “returned” = hupostrepho. Same as “returned” in v20. See note CV above.
CCXLIII “search” = anazeteo. Same as “started to look” in v44. See note CCXXXIX above.
CCXLIV {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCXLV “three” = treis. This is three.

sittingCCXLVI amongCCXLVII the teachers,CCXLVIII listeningCCXLIX to them and asking them questions.CCL 

Notes on verse 46b

CCXLVI “sitting” = kathezomai. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base).  This is to sit down or be sitting.
CCXLVII “among” = en + mesos. Mesos is perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
CCXLVIII “teachers” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CCXLIX “listening” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v18. See note XCIX above.
CCL “asking…questions” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.

47 And all who heard him were amazedCCLI at his understandingCCLII and his answers. 48 When his parents sawCCLIII him they were astonished,CCLIV

Notes on verses 47-48a

CCLI “amazed” = existemi. Related to “stood” in v9 & “present” in v22 & “rising” in v34 & “left” in v37. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note LIV above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
CCLII “understanding” = sunesis. 7x in NT. From suniemi (to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight; this is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole; making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life; it can also imply acting piously or being wise); from sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is understanding, cleverness, intelligence, knowledge, or insight. Just as the root verb, it is synthesized reasoning that brings facts together to understand indirect truths from the facts at hand.
CCLIII “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v15. See note LXXXIX above.
CCLIV “astonished” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.

and his mother said to him, “Child,CCLV why have you treatedCCLVI us like this? CCLVIIYour father and I have been anxiouslyCCLVIII lookingCCLIX for you.” 

Notes on verse 48b

CCLV “child” = teknon. Related to “deliver” in v6 & “firstborn” in v7. From tikto (see note XXXVII above). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CCLVI “treated” = poieo. Same as “do” in v27. See note CLVII above.
CCLVII {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v10. See note LIX above.
CCLVIII “anxiously” = odunao. 4x in NT– 1x of Jesus’s parents when they lose him at the Temple (Luke 2:48), 2x of the Rich Man’s agony in the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:24-25), and 1x when Paul feels grief on saying goodbye to the Ephesian elders (Acts 20:38). From odunao (pain, grief, sorrow, whether physical or mental); from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is to cause or experience great pain, whether of mind or body. It is personal anguish that is shown through grieving.
CCLIX “looking” = zeteo. Related to “started to look” in v44. See note CCXXXIX above.

49 He said to them, “Why were you searchingCCLX for me? Did you not knowCCLXI that I mustCCLXII be in my Father’s house?” 50 But they did not understandCCLXIII whatCCLXIV he said to them. 

Notes on verses 49-50

CCLX “searching” = zeteo. Same as “looking” in v48. See note CCLIX above.
CCLXI “know” = eido. Related to “see” in v10. See note LIX above.
CCLXII “must” = dei. Related to “servant” and “Master” in v29 & “prayer” in v37. From deo (see note CLXIV above). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CCLXIII “understand” = suniemi. Related to “understanding” in v47. See note CCLI above.
CCLXIV “what” = rhema. Same as “thing” in v15. See note XC above.

51 Then he went downCCLXV with them and cameCCLXVI to Nazareth and was obedientCCLXVII to them, and his mother treasuredCCLXVIII all these thingsCCLXIX in her heart.

Notes on verse 51

CCLXV “went down” = katabaino. Related to “went” in v4 & “was” in v6. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XIX above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v16. See note XCIII above.
CCLXVII “obedient” = hupotasso. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to place under. So it is to subject, submit, obey, or subordinate.
CCLXVIII “treasured” = diatereo. Related to “treasured” in v19. 2x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tereo (see note CI above) This is to hold fast, treasure, keep something with care to make sure it is safe – thoroughly watched or observed. It can also mean totally avoid.
CCLXIX “things” = rhema. Same as “thing” in v15. See note XC above.

52 And Jesus increasedCCLXX in wisdom and in yearsCCLXXI and in divineCCLXXII and humanCCLXXIII favor.

Notes on verse 52

CCLXX “increased” = prokopto. 6x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to advance, lead, proceed. It is to trailblaze while moving forward. It can also mean other forms of advancing like time passing or profit increasing.
CCLXXI “years” = helikia. 8x in NT. From the same as helikos (of what size, how much; properly, full grown, an adult); from helix (mature, adult, of the same age). This refers to maturity, stature, life span, or being of a suitable age. It could refer to maturity in terms of years or size.
CCLXXII “divine” = theos. Same as “God” in v13. See note LXXVIII above.
CCLXXIII “human” = anthropos. Same as “those” in v14. See note LXXXIII above.

Image credit: “Adoration of the Shepherds” by Adi Holzer, 2000. Photo by Bianca Schützenhöfer, 2012.

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