Luke 22

Luke 22


Now the FestivalI of UnleavenedII Bread, which is calledIII the Passover,IV was near.V 

Notes on verse 1

I “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
II “unleavened” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.
III “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
IV “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
V “was near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

The chief priestsVI and the scribesVII were looking forVIII a way

Notes on verse 2a

VI “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
VII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
VIII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

to put JesusIX to death,X for they were afraidXI of the people.XII

Notes on verse 2b

IX “Jesus” = autos. Literally, “him.”
X “put…to death” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
XI “were afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

Then SatanXIII enteredXIV into JudasXV calledXVI

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
XIV “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XV “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XVI “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.

Iscariot,XVII who wasXVIII oneXIX of the twelve;XX 

Notes on verse 3b

XVII “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
XVIII “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIX “one” = arithmos. Related to “put…to death” in v2. 18x in NT. Perhaps from airo (see note X above). This is a number or group. It is a total taken from adding up. It is the root of the word “arithmetic.”
XX “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

he went awayXXI and conferred withXXII the chief priests and officers of the temple policeXXIII about how he might betrayXXIV him to them. 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “entered” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XIV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “conferred with” = sullaleo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}. This is to talk together, discuss.
XXIII “officers of the temple police” = strategos. 10x in NT. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large, organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); {from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed)} + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is a military leader, general, military governor, magistrate. It can also be a temple leader such as the Levitical head of the temple guard.
XXIV “betray” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

They were greatly pleasedXXV and agreedXXVI to giveXXVII him money.XXVIII 

Notes on verse 5

XXV “were greatly pleased” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
XXVI “agreed” = suntithemi. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is literally to set together – to make an agreement, bargain, stipulate, observe.
XXVII “give” = didomi. Related to “betray” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XXVIII “money” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.

So he consentedXXIX and began to look for an opportunityXXX to betray him to them when no crowdXXXI was present.XXXII

Notes on verse 6

XXIX “consented” = exomologeo. Related to “called” in v1. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note III above)}}. This is agree, consent, or acknowledge. It can also be confess, give thanks, or praise. It includes an open, public, unabashed declaration.
XXX “opportunity” = eukairia. 2x in NT– both when Judas agrees to betray Jesus (Mt 26:16 & Lk 22:6). From eukairos (timely, suitable; sometimes refers to a holiday); {from eu (good, well done, rightly) + kairos (time, season, occasion; the proper time; not chronological time, but spiritually significant time)}. This is a fitting time or convenient one.
XXXI “crowd” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
XXXII “no…was present” = ater. 2x in NT. Perhaps from aneu (without); {perhaps related to a (not, without)}. This is without in a literal or figurative sense.

Then cameXXXIII the dayXXXIV of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover lambXXXV hadXXXVI to be sacrificed.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXIII “came” = erchomai. Related to “entered” in v3 & “went away” in v4. See note XIV above.
XXXIV “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXXV “Passover lamb” = pascha. Same as “Passover” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXVI “had” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XXXVII “sacrificed” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).

So Jesus sentXXXVIII PeterXXXIX and John,XL

Notes on verse 8a

XXXVIII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
XXXIX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XL “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

saying, “GoXLI and prepareXLII the Passover meal for us that we may eatXLIII it.” 

They asked him, “Where do you wantXLIV us to make preparationsXLV for it?” 

Notes on verses 8b-9

XLI “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XLII “prepare” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
XLIII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
XLIV “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XLV “make preparations” = hetoimazo. Same as “prepare” in v8. See note XLII above.

10 “Listen,”XLVI he said to them, “when you have entered the city,XLVII a manXLVIII carryingXLIX a jarL

Notes on verse 10a

XLVI “listen” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XLVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XLVIII “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLIX “carrying” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
L “jar” = keramion. 2x in NT. From keramos (a tile made from earth, a roof, awning); from kerannumi (to mix, mingle);from kerao (to mix). This is a pitcher or jar. It shares a root with “ceramic.”

of waterLI will meetLII you; followLIII him into the houseLIV he entersLV 

Notes on verse 10b

LI “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
LII “meet” = sunantao. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from sun (with, together with) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet or happen.
LIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LIV “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
LV “enters” = eisporeuomai. Related to “go” in v8. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (see note XLI above). 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

11 and say to the ownerLVI of the house, ‘The teacherLVII asksLVIII you, “Where is the guest room,LIX where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’LX 

Notes on verse 11

LVI “owner” = oikodespote. Related to “house” in v10 & “had” in v7. 12x in NT. From oikos (see note LIV above) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction); {perhaps from deo (see note XXXVI above) + posis (husband)}. This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
LVII “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LVIII “asks” = lego. Same as “called” in v1. See note III above.
LIX “guest room” = kataluma. 3x in NT– 2x of the guest room that Jesus seeks in which to eat his Passover for the Last Supper (Mark 14:14) (Luke 22:11) & 1x of Jesus’ birth story. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break or destroy). This is a lodging place, inn, or guest room. Properly, it is a place where one unyokes or unharnesses animals for the purpose of lodging. Alternately, it’s a place to break up a long journey.
LX “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

12 He will showLXI you a largeLXII room upstairs,LXIII already furnished.LXIV Make preparations for us there.” 13 So they wentLXV and foundLXVI everything as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover meal.LXVII

Notes on verses 12-13

LXI “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
LXII “large” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXIII “room upstairs” = anogeon. 2x in NT. From anagaion (second floor, over the ground); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area)}. This is an upper room on the second floor. It could also be a dome or balcony.
LXIV “furnished” = stronnuo. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4. 6x in NT. See note XXIII above.
LXV “went” = aperchomai. Same as “went away” in v4. See note XXI above.
LXVI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXVII “Passover meal” = pascha. Same as “Passover” in v1. See note IV above.

14 When the hourLXVIII came,LXIX he took his place at the table,LXX and the apostlesLXXI with him. 

Notes on verse 14

LXVIII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LXIX “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXX “took his place at the table” = anapipto. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.
LXXI “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “sent” in v8. From apostello (see note XXXVIII above). This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.

15 He said to them, “I have eagerlyLXXII desiredLXXIII to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,LXXIV 

Notes on verse 15

LXXII “eagerly” = epithumia. Related to “sacrificed” in v7. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (see note XXXVII above)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
LXXIII “desired” = epithumeo. Related to “sacrificed” in v7 & “eagerly” in v15. 16x in NT. See note LXXII above.
LXXIV “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.

16 for I tellLXXV you, I will not eat it until it is fulfilledLXXVI in the kingdomLXXVII of God.”LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 16

LXXV “tell” = lego. Same as “called” in v1. See note III above.
LXXVI “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LXXVII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “carrying” in v10. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note XLIX above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LXXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

17 Then he tookLXXIX a cup,LXXX and after giving thanksLXXXI he said, “TakeLXXXII this and divideLXXXIII it among yourselves, 

Notes on verse 17

LXXIX “took” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXX “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
LXXXI “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. Related to “opportunity” in v6 & “were greatly pleased” in v5. From eu (see note XXX above) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (see note XXV above)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
LXXXII “take” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LXXXIII “divide” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.

18 for I tell you that from now on I will not drinkLXXXIV of the fruitLXXXV of the vineLXXXVI until the kingdom of God comes.”LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 18

LXXXIV “drink” = pino. Related to “cup” in v17. See note LXXX above.
LXXXV “fruit” = gennema. Related to “came” in v14. 8x in NT. From gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note LXIX above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVI “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
LXXXVII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XXXIII above.

19 Then he tookLXXXVIII a loaf of bread,LXXXIX and when he had given thanks he brokeXC it and gave it to them, saying,XCI “This is my body,XCII which is given for you. DoXCIII this in remembranceXCIV of me.” 

Notes on verse 19

LXXXVIII “took” = lambano. Same as “take” in v17. See note LXXXII above.
LXXXIX “loaf of bread” = artos. Related to “put…to death” in v2 & “one” in v3. Perhaps from airo (see note X above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XC “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
XCI “saying” = lego. Same as “called” in v1. See note III above.
XCII “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XCIII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XCIV “remembrance” = anamnesis. 4x in NT. From anamimnesko (to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory); {from ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure)}}. This is intentional remembering to re-experience the effect of the event. It is active, motivated as a memorial.

20 And he did the same with the cup after supper,XCV saying, “This cup that is poured outXCVI for you is the newXCVII covenantXCVIII in my blood.XCIX 

Notes on verse 20

XCV “supper” = deipneo. 4x in NT. From deipnon (a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening); from the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is to eat the main, evening meal.
XCVI “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
XCVII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
XCVIII “covenant” = diatheke. Related to “agreed” in v5. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (see note XXVI above)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
XCIX “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

21 ButC see,CI the one who betrays me is with me, and his handCII is on the table.CIII 

Notes on verse 21

C “but” = plen. From pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (much, many, abundant). This is yet, nevertheless.
CI “see” = idou. Same as “listen” in v10. See note XLVI above.
CII “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CIII “table” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.

22 For the SonCIV, CV of Man is goingCVI as it has been determined,CVII butCVIII woeCIX to that oneCX by whom he is betrayed!” 

Notes on verse 22

CIV “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CVI “going” = poreuomai. Same as “going” in v8. See note XLI above.
CVII “determined” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
CVIII “but” = plen. Same as “but” in v21. See note C above.
CIX “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
CX “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v10. See note XLVIII above.

23 Then they beganCXI to askCXII one another whichCXIII one of them it could be who wouldCXIV doCXV this.

Notes on verse 23

CXI “began” = archomai. Related to “chief priests” in v2. From archo (see note VI above). This is to begin or rule.
CXII “ask” = suzeteo. Related to “looking for” in v2. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeteo (see note VIII above). This is to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate.
CXIII {untranslated} = ara. Related to “put…to death” in v2 & “one” in v3 & “loaf of bread” in v19. From ara (then, since); {perhaps related to aro (to join) or from airo (see note X above)}. This is a word that cannot be translated. However, it implies a question made from one who is worried or impatient. It can also be surprise or an urgent need for an answer.
CXIV “would” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CXV “do” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.

24 A disputeCXVI also aroseCXVII among them as to which one of them was to be regardedCXVIII as the greatest.CXIX 

Notes on verse 24

CXVI “dispute” = philoneikia. 1x in NT. From philoneikos (contentious, one who loves to dispute); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + neikos (strife, quarrel); {probably akin to nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)}}}. This is one who loves to dispute, quarrelsomeness.
CXVII “arose” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXIX above.
CXVIII “regarded” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CXIX “greatest” = megas. Same as “large” in v12. See note LXII above.

25 But he said to them, “The kingsCXX of the gentilesCXXI lord it overCXXII them,

Notes on verse 25a

CXX “kings” = basileus. Related to “carrying” in v10 & “kingdom” in v16. See note LXXVII above.
CXXI “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CXXII “lord…over” = kurieuo. 7x in NT. From kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy). This is to be lord of, rule, lord over.

and those in authority overCXXIII them are calledCXXIV benefactors.CXXV 

Notes on verse 25b

CXXIII “in authority over” = exousiazo. Related to “was” in v3. 4x in NT. From exousia (power to act or weight; denotes moral authority or influence; can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength); {from exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XVIII above)}} This is to have authority over, wield power, have control, be authorized to act.
CXXIV “called” = kaleo. Same as “called” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXV “benefactors” = euergetes. Related to “opportunity” in v6 & “giving thanks” in v17. 1x in NT. From eu (see note XXX above) + the same as ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is someone who does good, a philanthropist or benefactor.

26 But not so with you; rather, the greatest among you must becomeCXXVI like the youngestCXXVII and the leaderCXXVIII like one who serves.CXXIX 27 For who is greater, the one who is at the tableCXXX or the one who serves? Is it not the one at the table? But I am amongCXXXI you as one who serves.

Notes on verses 26-27

CXXVI “become” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXIX above.
CXXVII “youngest” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).
CXXVIII “leader” = hegeomai. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4. See note XXIII above.
CXXIX “serves” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CXXX “is at the table” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
CXXXI “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.

28 “You are those who have stoodCXXXII by me in my trials,CXXXIII 29 and I conferCXXXIV on you, just as my FatherCXXXV has conferred on me, a kingdom, 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXXXII “stood” = diamino. Related to “remembrance” in v19. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + meno (see note XCIV above). This is to remain, continue, abide, stand.
CXXXIII “trials” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
CXXXIV “confer” = diatithemi. Related to “agreed” in v5 & “covenant” in v20. 7x in NT. See note XCVIII above.
CXXXV “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

30 so that you may eatCXXXVI and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sitCXXXVII on thronesCXXXVIII judgingCXXXIX the twelve tribesCXL of Israel.CXLI

Notes on verse 30

CXXXVI “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
CXXXVII “sit” = kathemai. Related to “day” in v7. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note XXXIV above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CXXXVIII “thrones” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.
CXXXIX “judging” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CXL “tribes” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
CXLI “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

31 “Simon,CXLII Simon, listen!CXLIII Satan has demandedCXLIV to siftCXLV all of you like wheat,CXLVI 

Notes on verse 31

CXLII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CXLIII “listen” = idou. Same as “listen” in v10. See note XLVI above.
CXLIV “demanded” = exaiteo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is to demand, ask for, ask for a trial.
CXLV “sift” = siniazo. 1x in NT. From sinion (a sieve). This is to winnow or test with a trial.
CXLVI “wheat” = sitos. 15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.

32 but I have prayedCXLVII for you that your own faithCXLVIII may not fail,CXLIX

Notes on verse 32a

CXLVII “prayed” = deomai. Related to “had” in v7 & “owner” in v11. From deo (see note XXXVI above) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
CXLVIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
CXLIX “fail” = ekleipo. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave out, omit, cease, be obscured, die out.

and you, when once you have turned back,CL strengthenCLI your brothers.”CLII 

Notes on verse 32b

CL “turned back” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CLI “strengthen” = sterizo. Related to “sent” in v8 & “apostles” in v14. 13x in NT. From sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely.
CLII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

33 And he said to him, “Lord,CLIII I am readyCLIV to goCLV with you to prisonCLVI and to death!”CLVII 

Notes on verse 33

CLIII “Lord” = Kurios. Related to “lord…over” in v25. See note CXXII above.
CLIV “ready” = hetoimos. Related to “prepare” in v8. 17x in NT. See note XLII above.
CLV “go” = poreuomai. Same as “going” in v8. See note XLI above.
CLVI “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
CLVII “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

34 Jesus said, “I tell you, Peter, the cockCLVIII will not crowCLIX this dayCLX

Notes on verse 34a

CLVIII “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CLIX “crow” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CLX “this day” = semeron. Related to “day” in v7 & “sit” in v30. From hemera (see note XXXIV above). This is today, now, at present.

until you have deniedCLXI three timesCLXII that you knowCLXIII me.”

Notes on verse 34b

CLXI “denied” = aparneomai. 11x in NT– 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
CLXII “three times” = tris. 12x in NT. From treis (three). This is three times.
CLXIII “know” = eido. Related to “listen” in v10. See note XLVI above.

35 He said to them, “When I sent you out without a purse,CLXIV bag,CLXV or sandals,CLXVI did you lackCLXVII anything?”

They said, “No, not a thing.” 

Notes on verse 35

CLXIV “purse” = ballantion. 4x in NT. Perhaps from ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is a purse or money bag.
CLXV “bag” = pera. 6x in NT. This is a wallet or leather pouch – can carry food or money.
CLXVI “sandals” = hupodema. Related to “had” in v7 & “owner” in v11 & “prayed” in v32. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (see note XXXVI above). This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.
CLXVII “lack” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.

36 He said to them, “But now, the one who hasCLXVIII a purse must takeCLXIX it, and likewiseCLXX a bag. And the one who has no swordCLXXI must sellCLXXII his cloakCLXXIII and buyCLXXIV one. 

Notes on verse 36

CLXVIII “has” = echo. Related to “crowd” in v6. See note XXXI above.
CLXIX “take” = airo. Related to “put…to death” in v2 & “one” in v3 & “loaf of bread” in v19 & {untranslated} in v23. See note X above.
CLXX “likewise” = homoios. Related to “consented” in v6. From the same as homou (together); from homos (see note XXIX above). This is similar to, resembling, like.
CLXXI “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
CLXXII “sell” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
CLXXIII “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CLXXIV “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.

37 For I tell you, this scriptureCLXXV mustCLXXVI be fulfilledCLXXVII in me,

Notes on verse 37a

CLXXV “scripture” = grapho. Related to “scribes” in v2. See note VII above.
CLXXVI “must” = dei. Same as “had” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
CLXXVII “fulfilled” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.

‘And he was countedCLXXVIII among the lawless,’CLXXIX and indeed what is written about me is being fulfilled.”CLXXX 

Notes on verse 37b

CLXXVIII “counted” = logizomai. Related to “called” in v1 & “consented” in v6. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (see note III above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXIX “lawless” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.
CLXXX “being fulfilled” = telos + echo. Telos is related to “fulfilled” in v37. See note CLXXVII above. Echo is the same as “has” in v36. See note CLXVIII above.

38 They said, “Lord, look,CLXXXI here are twoCLXXXII swords.”

He replied, “It is enough.”CLXXXIII

39 He came outCLXXXIV and went,CLXXXV as was his custom,CLXXXVI

Notes on verses 38-39a

CLXXXI “look” = idou. Same as “listen” in v10. See note XLVI above.
CLXXXII “two” = duo. Related to “twelve” in v3. See note XX above.
CLXXXIII “enough” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CLXXXIV “came out” = exerchomai. Related to “entered” in v3 & “went away” in v4 & “came” in v7. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XIV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CLXXXV “went” = poreuomai. Same as “going” in v8. See note XLI above.
CLXXXVI “custom” = ethos. Related to “gentiles” in v25. 12x in NT. From etho (see note CXXI above). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.

to the MountCLXXXVII of Olives,CLXXXVIII and the disciples followed him. 40 When he reachedCLXXXIX the place,CXC he said to them, “PrayCXCI that you may not comeCXCII into the time of trial.”CXCIII 

Notes on verses 39b-40

CLXXXVII “Mount” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise). This is mountain or hill.
CLXXXVIII “Olives” = elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, it refers to the chosen people.
CLXXXIX “reached” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXIX above.
CXC “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CXCI “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
CXCII “come” = eiserchomai. Same as “entered” in v3. See note XIV above.
CXCIII “time of trial” = peirasmos. Same as “trials” in v28. See note CXXXIII above.

41 Then he withdrewCXCIV from them about a stone’sCXCV throw,CXCVI knelt down,CXCVII and prayed,CXCVIII 

Notes on verse 41

CXCIV “withdrew” = apospao. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is to draw forth, part, draw away, pull out a sword. Figuratively, to withdraw or retire.
CXCV “stone’s” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCVI “throw” = bole. Related to “purse” in v35. 1x in NT. From ballo (see note CLXIV above). This is a throw or casting.
CXCVII “knelt down” = tithemi + ho + gonu. Literally, “lay the knee.” Tithemi is related to “agreed” in v5 & “covenant” in v20 & “confer” in v29. See note XXVI above. Gonu is 12x in NT. This is knee.
CXCVIII “prayed” = proseuchomai. Same as “pray” in v40. See note CXCI above.

42 “Father, if you are willing,CXCIX removeCC this cup from me, yetCCI not my willCCII but yours be done.”CCIII 

Notes on verse 42

CXCIX “are willing” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CC “remove” = paraphero. 4x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry away, remove, mislead, to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense.
CCI “yet” = plen. Same as “but” in v21. See note C above.
CCII “will” = thelema. Related to “want” in v9. From thelo (see note XLIV above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CCIII “be done” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXIX above.

[[43 Then an angelCCIV from heavenCCV appearedCCVI to him and gave him strength.CCVII 

Notes on verse 43

CCIV “angel” = aggelos. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4 & “leader” in v26. Probably from ago (see note XXIII above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CCV “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “Mount” in v39. May be related to oros (see note CLXXXVII above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CCVI “appeared” = horao. Related to “man” in v10. See note XLVIII above.
CCVII “gave…strength” = enischuo. Related to “crowd” in v6 & “has” in v36. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXXI above)}}. This is to strengthen or invigorate.

44CCVIII In his anguishCCIX he prayedCCX more earnestly,CCXI

Notes on verse 44a

CCVIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXIX above.
CCIX “anguish” = agonia. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4 & “leader” in v26 & “angel” in v43. 1x in NT. From agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (see note XXIII above). This is a contest, anxiety, agony. It is the emotional state of an athlete before a match. It focuses on the pressure that is felt.
CCX “prayed” = proseuchomai. Same as “pray” in v40. See note CXCI above.
CCXI “more earnestly” = ektenesteron. 1x in NT. From ektenes (stretched fervent zealous); from ekteino (to stretch out, reach, lay hands on; casting an anchor); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain)}. This is more intently or earnestly.

and his sweatCCXII became like great dropsCCXIII of blood falling downCCXIV on the ground.]]CCXV 

Notes on verse 44b

CCXII “sweat” = hidros. 1x in NT. From idos (sweat). This is perspiration.
CCXIII “great drops” = thrombos. Related to “turned back” in v32. 1x in NT. From trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment); from the base of trope (see note CL). This is a lump or clot – a great drop.
CCXIV “falling down” = katabaino. Related to “carrying” in v10 & “kingdom” in v16 & “kings” in v25. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XLIX above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXV “ground” = ge. Related to “room upstairs” in v12. See note LXIII above.

45 When he got upCCXVI from prayer,CCXVII he cameCCXVIII to the disciples and found them sleepingCCXIX because of grief,CCXX 

Notes on verse 45

CCXVI “got up” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v8 & “apostles” in v14 & “strengthen” in v32. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CCXVII “prayer” = proseuche. Related to “pray” in v40. From proseuchomai (see note CXCI above). This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
CCXVIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XXXIII above.
CCXIX “sleeping” = koimao. Related to “is at the table” in v27. 18x in NT. From keimai (see note CXXX above). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CCXX “grief” = lupe. 16x in NT. This is pain, whether physical or mental. It includes grief, sorrow, distress, or a heavy heart.

46 and he said to them, “Why are you sleeping?CCXXI Get up and prayCCXXII that you may not comeCCXXIII into the time of trial.”

47 While he was still speaking,CCXXIV suddenlyCCXXV a crowd came, and the oneCCXXVI calledCCXXVII Judas,

Notes on verses 46-47a

CCXXI “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXII “pray” = proseuchomai. Same as “pray” in v40. See note CXCI above.
CCXXIII “come” = eiserchomai. Same as “entered” in v3. See note XIV above.
CCXXIV “speaking” = laleo. Related to “conferred with” in v4. See note XXII above.
CCXXV “suddenly” = idou. Same as “listen” in v10. See note XLVI above.
CCXXVI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CCXXVII “called” = lego. Same as “called” in v1. See note III above.

one of the twelve, was leadingCCXXVIII them. He approachedCCXXIX JesusCCXXX to kissCCXXXI him, 48 but Jesus said to him, “Judas, is it with a kissCCXXXII that you are betraying the Son of Man?” 

Notes on verses 47b-48

CCXXVIII “leading” = proerchomai. Related to “entered” in v3 & “went away” in v4 & “came” in v7 & “came out” in v39. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + erchomai (see note XIV above). This is to go ahead, go forward precede.
CCXXIX “approached” = eggizo. Same as “was near” in v1. See note V above.
CCXXX “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v8. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XL above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CCXXXI “kiss” = phileo. Related to “dispute” in v24. From philos (see note CXVI above). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment. It can also mean kiss.
CCXXXII “kiss” = philema. Related to “dispute” in v24 & “kiss” in v47. 7x in NT. From phileo (see note CCXXXI above). This is a kiss of friendship or other deep bond.

49 When those who were around him sawCCXXXIII what was coming,CCXXXIV they asked, “Lord, should we strikeCCXXXV with the sword?” 50 Then oneCCXXXVI of them struck the slaveCCXXXVII

Notes on verses 49-50a

CCXXXIII “saw” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v43. See note CCVI above.
CCXXXIV “coming” = eimi. Same as “was” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCXXXV “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
CCXXXVI “one” = heis. Same as “one” in v47. See note CCXXVI above.
CCXXXVII “slave” = doulos. Related to “had” in v7 & “owner” in v11 & “prayed” in v32 & “sandals” in v35. Perhaps from deo (see note XXXVI above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

of the high priestCCXXXVIII and cut offCCXXXIX his rightCCXL ear.CCXLI 

Notes on verse 50b

CCXXXVIII “high priest” = archiereus. Same as “chief priests” in v2. See note VI above.
CCXXXIX “cut off” = aphaireo. Related to “put…to death” in v2 & “one” in v3 & “loaf of bread” in v19 & {untranslated} in v23 & “take” in v36. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (see note X above). This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXL “right” = dexios. Related to “took” in v17. Perhaps from dechomai (see note LXXIX above). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CCXLI “ear” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.

51 But Jesus said, “NoCCXLII more of this!” And he touchedCCXLIII his earCCXLIV and healedCCXLV him. 

52 Then Jesus said to the chief priests, the officers of the templeCCXLVI police, and the eldersCCXLVII

Notes on verses 51-52a

CCXLII “no” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to allow, leave, put up with something.
CCXLIII “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
CCXLIV “ear” = otion. Related to “ear” in v50. 5x in NT. From ous (see note CCXLI above). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.
CCXLV “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXLVI “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v2. From hieros (see note VI above). This is the word for temple.
CCXLVII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

who had comeCCXLVIII for him, “Have you come outCCXLIX with swords and clubsCCL as though I were a rebel?CCLI 

Notes on verse 52b

CCXLVIII “come” = paraginomai. Related to “came” in v14 & “fruit” in v18. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note LXIX above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CCXLIX “come out” = exerchomai. Same as “came out” in v39. See note CLXXXIV above.
CCL “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
CCLI “rebel” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

53 When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not layCCLII hands on me. But this is your hour and the powerCCLIII of darkness!”CCLIV

Notes on verse 53

CCLII “lay” = ekteino. Related to “more earnestly” in v44. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (see note CCXI above). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
CCLIII “power” = exousia. Related to “was” in v3 & “in authority over” in v25. See note CXXIII above.
CCLIV “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.

54 Then they seizedCCLV him and led him away,CCLVI bringingCCLVII him into the high priest’s house. But Peter was following at a distance. 55 When they had kindledCCLVIII a fireCCLIX in the middleCCLX

Notes on verses 54-55a

CCLV “seized” = sullambano. Related to “take” in v17. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note LXXXII above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CCLVI “led…away” = ago. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4 & “leader” in v26 & “angel” in v43 & “anguish” in v44. See note XXIII above.
CCLVII “bringing” = eisago. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4 & “leader” in v26 & “angel” in v43 & “anguish” in v44 & “led…away” in v54. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + ago (see note XXIII above). This is to bring in in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLVIII “kindled” = hapto. Related to “touched” in v51. 5x in NT. See note CCXLIII above.
CCLIX “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
CCLX “middle” = mesos. Same as “among” in v27. See note CXXXI above.

of the courtyardCCLXI and sat down together,CCLXII Peter satCCLXIII among them. 

Notes on verse 55b

CCLXI “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
CCLXII “sat down together” = sugkathizo. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kathizo (to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest); {from kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit together.
CCLXIII “sat” = kathemai. Same as “sit” in v30. See note CXXXVII above.

56 Then a female servant,CCLXIV, CCLXV seeingCCLXVI him in the firelight,CCLXVII staredCCLXVIII at him and said, “This man also was with him.” 

Notes on verse 56

CCLXIV “female servant” = paidiske. Related to “strike” in v49. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note CCXXXV above). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
CCLXV {untranslated} = kathemai. Same as “sit” in v30. See note CXXXVII above.
CCLXVI “seeing” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v43. See note CCVI above.
CCLXVII “firelight” = phos. Related to “crow” in v34. From phao (see note CLIX above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
CCLXVIII “stared” = atenizo. Related to “more earnestly” in v44 & “lay” in v53. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (see note CCXI above). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.

57 But he deniedCCLXIX it, saying, “Woman,CCLXX I do not know him.” 

58 A littleCCLXXI later someone else,CCLXXII on seeingCCLXXIII him, said,CCLXXIV “You also are one of them.”

But Peter said,CCLXXV “Man, I am not!” 

Notes on verses 57-58

CCLXIX “denied” = arneomai. Related to “denied” in v34. See note CLXI above.
CCLXX “woman” = gune. Related to “came” in v14 & “fruit” in v18 & “come” in v52. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LXIX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CCLXXI “little” = brachus. 7x in NT. This is little, few, small area, short interval of time.
CCLXXII “someone else” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CCLXXIII “seeing” = horao. Same as “appeared” in v43. See note CCVI above.
CCLXXIV “said” = phemi. Related to “crow” in v34 & “firelight” in v56. See note CLIX above.

59 Then about an hour laterCCLXXVI still anotherCCLXXVII kept insisting,CCLXXVIII “SurelyCCLXXIX this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean.”CCLXXX 

Notes on verse 59

CCLXXVI “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v58. See note CCLXXIV above.
CCLXXVII “later” = diistemi. Related to “sent” in v8 & “apostles” in v14 & “strengthen” in v32 & “got up” in v45. 3x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is to set apart, create an interval, remove.
CCLXXVIII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CCLXXIX “surely” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CCLXXX “Galilean” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.

60 But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about!” At that moment,CCLXXXI while he was still speaking, the cock crowed. 61 The Lord turnedCCLXXXII and lookedCCLXXXIII at Peter. Then Peter rememberedCCLXXXIV the wordCCLXXXV of the Lord,

Notes on verses 60-61a

CCLXXXI “at that moment” = parachrema. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary)}. This is immediately or soon.
CCLXXXII “turned” = strepho. Related to “turned back” in v32 & “great drops” in v44. See note CL above.
CCLXXXIII “looked” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CCLXXXIV “remembered” = hupomimnesko. Related to “remembrance” in v19 & “stood” in v28. 7x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + mimnesko (see note XCIV above). This is to remind, call attention to.
CCLXXXV “word” = logos. Related to “called” in v1 & “consented” in v6 & “counted” in v37. See note CLXXVIII above.

how he had said to him, “Before the cock crows today,CCLXXXVI you will denyCCLXXXVII me three times.” 62 And he went outCCLXXXVIII and weptCCLXXXIX bitterly.CCXC

Notes on verses 61b-62

CCLXXXVI “today” = semeron. Same as “this day” in v34. See note CLX above.
CCLXXXVII “deny” = aparneomai. Same as “denied” in v34. See note CLXI above.
CCLXXXVIII “went out” = exerchomai. Same as “came out” in v39. See note CLXXXIV above.
CCLXXXIX “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
CCXC “bitterly” = pikros. 2x in NT. – both in Peter’s denial of Jesus (Mt 26:75 & Lk 22:62). From pirkos (bitter, sharp, literal or figurative sense); perhaps from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is bitterly, which can be used figuratively to mean violently.

63 Now the menCCXCI who were holdingCCXCII Jesus began to mockCCXCIII him and beatCCXCIV him; 

Notes on verse 63

CCXCI “men” = aner. Related to “man” in v10. See note XLVIII above.
CCXCII “holding” = sunecho. Related to “crowd” in v6 & “has” in v36 & “gave…strength” in v43 & “kept insisting” in v59. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + echo (see note XXXI above). This is to hold together or hold fast, to close or press together. It can also be to be struck by an illness, arrested, compressed as by a multitude or a siege. Figuratively, it can mean to compel, perplex, preoccupy, or generally afflict.
CCXCIII “began to mock” = empaizo. Related to “strike” in v49 & “female servant” in v56. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (see note CCLXIV above)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
CCXCIV “beat” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.

64 they also blindfoldedCCXCV himCCXCVI and kept askingCCXCVII him, “Prophesy!CCXCVIII Who is it who struckCCXCIX you?” 

Notes on verse 64

CCXCV “blindfolded” = perikalupto. 3x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is to cover around, blindfold, cover entirely, overlay.
CCXCVI Some manuscripts add, “they were striking his face” = tupto + autou + ho + prosopon. Tupto is 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended. Prosopon is related to “man” in v10 & “appeared” in v43. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note XLVIII above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CCXCVII “kept asking” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CCXCVIII “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “crow” in v34 & “firelight” in v56 & “said” in v58. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CLIX above)}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CCXCIX “struck” = paio. Related to “strike” in v49 & “servant-girl” in v56 & “began to mock” in v63. 5x in NT. See note CCXXXV above.

65 They kept heaping manyCCC otherCCCI insultsCCCII on him.

Notes on verse 65

CCC “many” = polus. Related to “but” in v21. See note C above
CCCI “other” = heteros. Same as “someone else” in v58. See note CCLXXII above.
CCCII “kept heaping…insults” = blasphemeo. Related to “crow” in v34 & “firelight” in v56 & “said” in v58 & “prophesy” in v64. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note CLIX above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

66 When day came,CCCIII the assembly of the eldersCCCIV of the people, both chief priests and scribes, gathered together,CCCV

Notes on verse 66a

CCCIII “came” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v14. See note LXIX above.
CCCIV “assembly of the elders” = presbuterion. Related to “elders” in v52. 3x in NT. From presbuteros (see note CCXLVII above). This is a body of elders, whether of the church or the Sanhedrin.
CCCV “gathered together” = sunago. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4 & “leader” in v26 & “angel” in v43 & “anguish” in v44 & “led…away” and “bringing” in v54. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXIII above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

and they broughtCCCVI him to their council.CCCVII 67 They said, “If you are the Messiah,CCCVIII tell us.”

Notes on verses 66b-67a

CCCVI “brought” = apago. Related to “officers of the temple police” in v4 & “leader” in v26 & “angel” in v43 & “anguish” in v44 & “led…away” and “bringing” in v54 & “gathered together” in v66. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note XXIII above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
CCCVII “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CCCVIII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

He replied, “If I tell you, you will not believe,CCCIX 68 and if I questionCCCX you, you will not answer. 69 But from now on the Son of Man will be seatedCCCXI at the right handCCCXII of the powerCCCXIII of God.” 

Notes on verses 67b-69

CCCIX “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v32. From pistis (see note CXLVIII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCCX “question” = erotao. Related to “kept asking” in v64. See note CCXCVII above.
CCCXI “seated” = kathemai. Same as “sit” in v30. See note CXXXVII above.
CCCXII “right hand” = dexios. Same as “right” in v50. See note CCXL above.
CCCXIII “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

70 AllCCCXIV of them asked, “Are you, then, the Son of God?”

He saidCCCXV to them, “You sayCCCXVI that I am.” 

71 Then they said, “What further testimonyCCCXVII do we need?CCCXVIII We have heardCCCXIX it ourselves from his own lips!””CCCXX

Notes on verses 70-71

CCCXIV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
CCCXV “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v58. See note CCLXXIV above.
CCCXVI “say” = lego. Same as “called” in v1. See note III above.
CCCXVII “testimony” = marturia. From martureo (to bear witness, testify, give evidence; to testify in a literal or figurative sense); from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CCCXVIII “need” = echochreia. Echo is the same as “has” in v36. See note CLXVIII above. Chreia is related to “at the moment” in v60. From chraomai (see note CCLXXXI above). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
CCCXIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CCCXX “lips” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

Image credit: “Kiss of Judas” by Franco Fiabane at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes del Nevegal. Photo by Sergio Bertolini, 2007.

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