Luke 23:32-47

Luke 23:32-47
Narrative Lectionary 338


32 Two othersA also, who were criminals,B were led awayC to be put to deathD with him. 

Notes on verse 32

A “others” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
B “criminals” = kakourgos. 4x in NT – 3x of those crucified with Jesus in Luke 23 & 1x of the author of 2 Timothy  being chained like a criminal (2:9). From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue) + the same as ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is literally wrongdoer – a criminal, someone who does evil.
C “led away” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
D “be put to death” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.

33 When they came to the placeE that is calledF The Skull,G they crucifiedH Jesus there with the criminals,

Notes on verse 33a

E “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
F “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
G “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.
H “crucified” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

oneI on his rightJ and one on his left.K 

Notes on verse 33b

I {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
J “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
K “left” = aristeros. 4x in NT. From aristos (best). This is better, used figuratively to refer to the left or left hand side.

34 Then JesusL said, “Father, forgiveM them; for they do not knowN what they are doing.”O 

Notes on verse 34a

L “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
M “forgive” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
N “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
O “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

And they castP lotsQ to divideR his clothing.S 

Notes on verse 34b

P “cast” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
Q “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
R “divide” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
S “clothing” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

35 And the peopleT stood by,U watching;V

Notes on verse 35a

T “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
U “stood by” = histemi. Related to “crucified” in v33. See note H above.
V “watching” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.

but the leadersW scoffedX at him, saying, “He savedY others;Z

Notes on verse 35b

W “leaders” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
X “scoffed” = ekmukterizo. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + mukterizo (to sneer at, mock, ridicule, reject; to turn one’s nose at someone or to make mouths); {from mukter (nostril) OR from mukaomai (to roar or bellow); {from muzo (to moo)}}. This is to deride, ridicule, sneer, reject. It is to snort in contempt.
Y “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
Z “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

let him save himself if he is the MessiahAA of God,BB his chosenCC one!” 

Notes on verse 35c

AA “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
BB “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CC “chosen” = eklektos. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a personal choice – a favorite.

36 The soldiersDD also mockedEE him, coming upFF and offeringGG him sour wine,HH 

Notes on verse 36

DD “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
EE “mocked” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
FF “coming up” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
GG “offering” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
HH “sour wine” = oxos. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (point). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.

37 and saying, “If you are the KingII of the Jews,JJ save yourself!” 

Notes on verse 37

II “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
JJ “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

38 There was also an inscriptionKK over him, “This is the King of the Jews.”LL

Notes on verse 38

KK “inscription” = epigraphe. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (to write, describe)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.
LL Some manuscripts add “written in Greek and Latin and Hebrew.” “written” = gamma. Related to “inscription” in v38. 15x in NT. From grapho (see note KK above). This is what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning. “Greek” = Hellenikos. 2x in NT. From Hellen (Greek; used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage); {from Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon)}. This is Hellenic, the Greek language. See “Latin” = Rhomaikos. 1x in NT. From Rhomaisti (Roman, of Rome); from Rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Roman i.e. the Roman language Latin. See “Hebrew” = Hebraikos. 1x in NT. From Eber (Heber, one of Christ’s ancestors); from Hebrew Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebraic i.e. the language of the Hebrews.

39 One of the criminals who were hangedMM there kept deridingNN him and saying, “Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us!” 

Notes on verse 39

MM “hanged” = kremannumi. 7x in NT. This is to hang or suspend. Figuratively, it means to depend.
NN “kept deriding” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

40 But the otherOO rebukedPP him, saying,QQ “Do you not fearRR God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?SS 

Notes on verse 40

OO “other” = heteros. Same as “others” in v32. See note A above.
PP “rebuked” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
QQ “saying” = phemi. Related to “kept deriding” in v39. See note NN above.
RR “fear” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
SS “sentence of condemnation” = krima. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.

41 And we indeedTT have been condemned justly,UU for we are gettingVV what we deserveWW for our deeds,XX

Notes on verse 41a

TT “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v33. See note I above.
UU “justly” = dikaios. 5x in NT. From dikaios (correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person; implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is righteously, uprightly, or equitably. It can also refer to something being as it ought.
VV “getting” = apolambano. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive back, separate, to get one’s due.
WW “deserve” = axios. Related to “led away” in v32. From ago (see note C above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
XX “deeds” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.

but this man has doneYY nothing wrong.”ZZ 42 Then he said, “Jesus, rememberAAA me when you come into your kingdom.”BBB 

43He replied, “TrulyCCC I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.”DDD

Notes on verses 41b-43

YY “done” = prasso. Same as “deeds” in v41. See note XX above.
ZZ “wrong” = atopos. Related to “place” in v33. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + topos (see note E above). This is literally out of place. It can be unusual, improper, or amiss. It can also be wrong in a moral sense, improper, harmful, unreasonable.
AAA “remember” = mimnesko. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
BBB “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “king” in v37. From basileus (see note II above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CCC “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
DDD “Paradise” = paradeisos. 3x in NT. From “Persian pardeda- (enclosure, garden, park); from Old Iranian paradaioa and pardesa (estate); from Proto-Iranian paridayjah (enclosure).” This is a garden or paradise. It could be park grounds for leisure or hunting, a grove, or specifically Eden. It is the same root that “paradise” comes from. See

44 It was now about noon,EEE and darknessFFF cameGGG over the wholeHHH landIII until three in the afternoon,JJJ 

Notes on verse 44

EEE “noon” = hora + hektos. Literally “sixth hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
FFF “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
GGG “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
HHH “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
III “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
JJJ “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally “ninth hour.” Hora is same as “noon” in v44. See note EEE above.

45 while the sun’s light failed;KKK and the curtainLLL of the templeMMM was tornNNN in two. 

Notes on verse 45

KKK “failed” = ekleipo. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave out, omit, cease, be obscured, die out.
LLL “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
MMM “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
NNN “was torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).

46 Then Jesus, cryingOOO with a loud voice,PPP said, “Father, into your handsQQQ I commendRRR my spirit.”SSS Having said this, he breathed his last.TTT 

Notes on verse 46

OOO “crying” = phoneo. Related to “kept deriding” in v39 & “saying” in v40. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note NN above) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
PPP “voice” = phone. Related to “kept deriding” in v39 & “saying” in v40 & “crying” in v46. See note OOO above.
QQQ “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
RRR “commend” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to se beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
SSS “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
TTT “breathed his last” = ekpeneuo. Related to “spirit” in v46. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pneo (see note SSS above). This is to breathe out. Figuratively, it sis breathing out for the last time.

47 When the centurionUUU sawVVV what had taken place,WWW

Notes on verse 47a

UUU “centurion” = hekatontarches. Related to “leaders” in v35. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (see note W above). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
VVV “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
WWW “taken place” = ginomai. Same as “came” in v44. See note GGG above.

he praisedXXX God and said, “CertainlyYYY this manZZZ was innocent.”AAAA

Notes on verse 47b

XXX “praised” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
YYY “certainly” = ontos. 10x in NT. From eimi (to be, exist). This is really, certainly. It refers to something that matters or that is genuine.
ZZZ “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
AAAA “innocent” = dikaios. Related to “justly” in v41. See note UU above.

Image credit: Window from the reformed church in Pfäffikon, Switzerland. Photo by Roland zh, 2010.

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