Mark 13

Mark 13


As he cameI out of the temple,II oneIII of his disciplesIV saidV to him,

Notes on verse 1a

I “came” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
II “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
III “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
IV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
V “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Look,VI Teacher,VII what large stonesVIII and what large buildings!”IX 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
VII “Teacher” = Didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
VIII “stones” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
IX “large buildings” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.

Then JesusX asked him, “Do you seeXI these greatXII buildings?

Notes on verse 2a

X “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XI “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XII “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

Not one stone will be leftXIII here upon another;XIV all will be thrown down.”XV

When he was sittingXVI on the MountXVII of OlivesXVIII opposite the temple,

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XIII “be left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XIV “another” = lithos. Same as “stones” in v1. See note VIII above.
XV “thrown down” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
XVI “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XVII “Mount” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
XVIII “Olives” = Elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, its refers to the chosen people.

Peter,XIX James,XX John,XXI and AndrewXXII askedXXIII him privately,XXIV 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XX “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XXI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v2. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note X above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXII “Andrew” = Andreas. 13x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
XXIII “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XXIV “privately” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

“Tell us, when will this be,XXV and what will be the signXXVI that allXXVII these things are about toXXVIII be accomplished?”XXIX 

Notes on verse 4

XXV “be” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XXVI “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
XXVII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXVIII “are about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXIX “be accomplished” = sunteleo. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively.

5 Then Jesus beganXXX to say to them, “BewareXXXI that no one leads you astray.XXXII 6 ManyXXXIII will comeXXXIV in my nameXXXV and say, ‘I am he!’ and they will lead many astray. 

Notes on verses 5-6

XXX “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXXI “beware” = blepo. Same as “see” in v2. See note XI above.
XXXII “leads…astray” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming fr truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
XXXIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXXIV “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XXXV “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

7 When you hearXXXVI of warsXXXVII and rumorsXXXVIII of wars, do not be alarmed;XXXIX this mustXL take place,XLI but the endXLII is still to come. 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVI “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXXVII “wars” = polemos. 18x in NT. From pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant). This is war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going. It is war in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVIII “rumors” = akoe. Related to “hear” in v7. From akouo (see note XXXVI above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
XXXIX “be alarmed” = throeo. 3x in NT. From throos (noise, tumult). This is to be disturbed, unsettled, troubled. It is feeling the desire to scream from fear, very upset, startled.
XL “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XLI “take place” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XLII “end” = telos. Related to “be accomplished” in v4. See note XXIX above.

For nationXLIII will riseXLIV against nation, and kingdomXLV against kingdom;

Notes on verse 8a

XLIII “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XLIV “rise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XLV “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

there will be earthquakesXLVI in various places;XLVII there will be famines.XLVIII This is but the beginningXLIX of the birth pangs.L

Notes on verse 8b

XLVI “earthquakes” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
XLVII “places” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XLVIII “famines” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.
XLIX “beginning” = arche. Related to “began” in v5. From archomai (see note XXX above). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
L “birth pangs” = odin. 4x in NT. Akin to odune (pain, distress, or anguish, whether physical or mental); perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is severe agony, a snare, the pain from childbirth. It can refer figuratively to pain and difficulty that comes from ushering in something new.

9 “As for yourselves, beware; for they will hand you overLI to councils;LII and you will be beatenLIII in synagogues;LIV

Notes on verse 9a

LI “hand…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
LII “councils” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
LIII “beaten” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
LIV “synagogues” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and you will standLV before governorsLVI and kingsLVII because of me, as a testimonyLVIII to them. 

Notes on verse 9b

LV “stand” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
LVI “governors” = hegemon. Related to “synagogues” in v9. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (see note LIV above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.
LVII “kings” = basileus. Related to “kingdom” in v8. See note XLV above.
LVIII “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.

10 And the good newsLIX must firstLX be proclaimedLXI to all nations. 

Notes on verse 10

LIX “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “synagogues” and “governors” in v9. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note LIV above)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LX “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
LXI “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

11 When they bringLXII you to trial and hand you over, do not worry beforehandLXIII about what you are to say; but say whatever is givenLXIV you at that time,LXV for it is not you who speak, but the HolyLXVI Spirit.LXVII 

Notes on verse 11

LXII “bring” = ago. Related to “synagogues” and “governors” in v9 & “good news” in v10. See note LIV above.
LXIII “worry beforehand” = promerimnao. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + merimnao (to be anxious, distracted, or care for. It is being pulled in different directions – usually a negative); {from merimna (care, worry, anxiety; being separated from the whole); from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to worry or ponder ahead of time.
LXIV “given” = didomi. Related to “hand…over” in v9. See note LI above.
LXV “time” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LXVI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXVII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

12 BrotherLXVIII will betrayLXIX brother to death,LXX and a fatherLXXI his child,LXXII and children will riseLXXIII against parentsLXXIV and have them put to death;LXXV 

Notes on verse 12

LXVIII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LXIX “betray” = paradidomi. Same as “hand…over” in v9. See note LI above.
LXX “death” = thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
LXXI “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXII “child” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
LXXIII “rise” = epanistemi. Related to “stand” in v9. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LV above)}. This is stand up or rise against – used figuratively for attacking.
LXXIV “parents” = goneus. Related to “take place” in v7. From ginomai (see note XLI above). This is a parent or a father.
LXXV “put to death” = thanatoo. Related to “death” in v12. 11x in NT. From thanatos (see note LXX above). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.

13 and you will be hatedLXXVI by all because of my name. But the one who enduresLXXVII to the end will be saved.LXXVIII

Notes on verse 13

LXXVI “hated” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
LXXVII “endures” = hupomeno. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
LXXVIII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

14 “But when you seeLXXIX the desolatingLXXX sacrilegeLXXXI, LXXXII set upLXXXIII where it oughtLXXXIV not to be

Notes on verse 14a

LXXIX “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXXX “desolating” = eremosis. 3x in NT– all in reference to the “desolating sacrilege” in Gospel parallels. From eremoo (to desolate, destroy, rob, abandon, desert; to lay waste in a literal or figurative sense); from eremos (properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated; could be a deserted area or a desert place; secluded, solitary, or lonesome; any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally). This is a desolation or devastation that comes from being cut off or separated.
LXXXI “sacrilege” = bdelugma. 6x in NT. From bdelussomai (properly, to stink; to be foul and thus detestable like a bad odor; to be abhorrent or disgusted); from bdeo (to stink). This is something accursed or abominable. It is something that stinks and so is abhorrent. Specially, it can refer to an abomination or idolatry.
LXXXII Some manuscripts add “which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet.” “Daniel” = Daniel. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Danieyl (Daniel, meaning “God is my judge”); {from din (to judge) + el (God, a god)}. This is Daniel, meaning “God is my judge.” “Prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXXIII “set up” = histemi. Same as “stand” in v9. See note LV above.
LXXXIV “ought” = dei. Same as “must” in v7. See note XL above.

(let the readerLXXXV understand),LXXXVI then those in JudeaLXXXVII must fleeLXXXVIII to the mountains;LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXV “reader” = anaginosko. Related to “name” in v6. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note XXXV above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
LXXXVI “understand” = noeo. Related to “name” in v6 & “reader” in v14. 14x in NT. From nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XXXV above)}. This is to think, understand, conceive, realize, see. It is one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment. It is also one’s moral reasoning.
LXXXVII “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
LXXXVIII “flee” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
LXXXIX “mountains” = oros. Same as “Mount” in v3. See note XVII above.

15 the one on the housetopXC must not go downXCI or enterXCII the houseXCIII to takeXCIV anything away; 

Notes on verse 15

XC “housetop” = doma. Related to “large buildings” in v1. 7x in NT. From demo (see note IX above). This is housetop or roof – a flat roof. Properly, it is more generally a building, but used specifically for roofs.
XCI “go down” = katabaino. Related to “kingdom” in v8 & “kings” in v9. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XLV above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
XCII “enter” = eiserchomai. Related to “come” in v6. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXXIV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIII “house” = oikia. Related to “large buildings” in v1. From oikos (see note IX above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XCIV “take” = airo. Related to “Mount” in v3. See note XVII above.

16 the one in the fieldXCV must not turnXCVI backXCVII to getXCVIII a coat.XCIX 

Notes on verse 16

XCV “field” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
XCVI “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
XCVII “back” = opiso. Related to “see” in v14. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (to appear, be seen); from horao (see note LXXIX above). This is back, behind, after.
XCVIII “get” = airo. Same as “take” in v15. See note XCIV above.
XCIX “coat” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

17 WoeC to those who are pregnantCI and to those who are nursing infantsCII in those days!CIII 18 PrayCIV that it may not beCV in winter.CVI 

Notes on verses 17-18

C “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
CI “are pregnant” = en + gaster + echo. Literally, “in womb having.” Gaster is 9x in NT. This is belly or womb. It can be used specifically to mean pregnant. This is one of the roots of the word “gastronomy.” Echo is to have, hold, or possess.
CII “nursing infants” = thelazo. 5x in NT. From thele (a nipple). This is to nurse or suckle – a nursing baby.
CIII “days” = hemera. Related to “sitting” in v3. Perhaps from hemai (see note XVI above). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CIV “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
CV “be” = ginomai. Same as “take place” in v7. See note XLI above.
CVI “winter” = cheimon. 6x in NT. Related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)}. This is winter, storm, bad weather – winter as the rainy season.

19 For in those days there will beCVII suffering,CVIII such as has not beenCIX from the beginning of the creationCX that GodCXI createdCXII until now, no, and never will be.CXIII 

Notes on verse 19

CVII “be” = eimi. Same as “be” in v4. See note XXV above.
CVIII “suffering” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.
CIX “been” = ginomai. Same as “take place” in v7. See note XLI above.
CX “creation” = ktisis. 19x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is creation, creature, or ordinance. It is also used for when a city is founded and creation as origin.
CXI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXII “created” = ktizo. Related to “creation” in v19. 15x in NT. See note CX above.
CXIII “be” = ginomai. Same as “take place” in v7. See note XLI above.

20 And if the LordCXIV had not cut shortCXV those days, no oneCXVI would be saved;

Notes on verse 20a

CXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXV “cut short” = koloboo. 4x in NT– all in Mt 24 & parallel in Mk 13.  From the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to curtail, cut short, abbreviate, or figuratively to abridge.
CXVI “one” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

but for the sake of the elect,CXVII whom he chose,CXVIII he has cut short those days. 21 And if anyone says to you at that time, ‘Look! Here is the Messiah!’CXIX or ‘Look! There he is!’—do not believeCXX it. 

Notes on verses 20b-21

CXVII “elect” = eklektos. Related to “said” in v1. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note V above)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a personal choice – a favorite.
CXVIII “chose” = eklego. Related to “said” in v1 & “elect” in v20. See note CXVII above.
CXIX “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CXX “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

22 False messiahsCXXI and false prophetsCXXII will appearCXXIII and produceCXXIV signs and omens,CXXV to lead astray,CXXVI if possible,CXXVII the elect. 

Notes on verse 22

CXXI “false messiahs” = pseudochristos. Related to “Messiah” in v21. 2x in NT. From pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)} + christos (see note CXIX above). This is false Christ or false Messiah.
CXXII “false prophets” = pseudoprophetes. Related to – rel to “false messiahs” in v22 & {untranslated} in v14. 11x in NT. From pseudes (see note CXXI above) + prophetes (see note LXXXII above). This is false prophet – one who pretends they are prophesying from God or who teaches something that is false, but still attributes it to God.
CXXIII “appear” = egeiro. Same as “rise” in v8. See note XLIV above.
CXXIV “produce” = didomi. Same as “given” in v11. Seen note LXIV above.
CXXV “omens” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
CXXVI “lead astray” = apoplanao. Related to “leads…astray” in v5. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + planao (see note XXXII above). This is to wander away, seduce, lead astray.
CXXVII “possible” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.

23 But be alert;CXXVIII I have already toldCXXIX you everything.CXXX

24 “But in those days, after that suffering,

the sunCXXXI will be darkened,CXXXII
    and the moonCXXXIII will not give its light,CXXXIV

Notes on verses 23-24

CXXVIII “be alert” = blepo. Same as “see” in v2. See note XI above.
CXXIX “already told” = prolego. Related to “said” in v1 & “elect” and “chose” in v20. 14x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + lego (see note V above). This is to forewarn, state clearly, predict. It is saying ahead of time.
CXXX “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXXXI “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
CXXXII “darkened” = skotizo. 5x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is to darken or obscure in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIII “moon” = selene. 9x in NT. From selas (bright flame). This is moon as bright.
CXXXIV “light” = pheggos. Related to {untranslated} in v14 & “false prophets” in v22. 2x in NT. Perhaps from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note LXXXII above). This is light, splendor, radiance.

25 and the starsCXXXV will be fallingCXXXVI from heaven,CXXXVII
    and the powersCXXXVIII in the heavens will be shaken.CXXXIX

Notes on verse 25

CXXXV “stars” = aster. Perhaps from stronnumi (to spread, furnish, strew). This is a star in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXVI “falling” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
CXXXVII “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “Mount” in v3. May be related to oros (see note XVII above) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXXXVIII “powers” = dunamis. Related to “possible” in v22. From dunamai (see note CXXVII above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CXXXIX “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.

26 Then they will see ‘the SonCXL of ManCXLI coming in clouds’CXLII with greatCXLIII power and glory.CXLIV 

Notes on verse 26

CXL “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXLI “Man” = anthropos. Related to “Andrew” in v3 & “see” in v14 & “back” in v16. Probably from aner (see note XXII above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note XCVII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXLII “clouds” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
CXLIII “great” = polus. Same as “many” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
CXLIV “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

27 Then he will send outCXLV the angels,CXLVI and gatherCXLVII his elect from the fourCXLVIII winds,CXLIX from the endsCL of the earthCLI to the ends of heaven.

Notes on verse 27

CXLV “send out” = apostello. Related to “stand” in v9 & “rise” in v12. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note LV above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXLVI “angels” = aggelos. Related to “synagogues” and “governors” in v9 & “good news” in v10 & “bring” in v11. Probably from ago (see note LIV above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CXLVII “gather” = episunago. Related to “synagogues” and “governors” in v9 & “good news” in v10 & “bring” in v11 & “angels” in v27. 8x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + sunago (to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain); {from sun (with, together with) + ago (see note LIV above)}. This is to gather together, group together, assemble.
CXLVIII “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
CXLIX “winds” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.
CL “ends” = akron. 6x in NT. Related to akantha (thorn bush, thorn); from ake (point, edge). This is end, tip, top, extreme. It is where the city of Akron takes its name from.
CLI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

28 “From the fig tree learnCLII its lesson:CLIII as soon as its branchCLIV becomesCLV tenderCLVI and puts forthCLVII its leaves,CLVIII you knowCLIX that summerCLX is near. 

Notes on verse 28

CLII “learn” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v1. See note IV above.
CLIII “lesson” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
CLIV “branch” = klados. 11x in NT. From klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This is a branch, twig, or bough. It can also refer to descendants.
CLV “becomes” = ginomai. Same as “take place” in v7. See note XLI above.
CLVI “tender” = hapalos. 2x in NT. This is tender or soft.
CLVII “puts forth” = ekphuo. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is to sprout up or put forth.
CLVIII “leaves” = phullon. Related to “puts forth” in v28. 6x in NT. Perhaps from the same as phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (see note CLVII above). This is a sprout or a leaf.
CLIX “know” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v6 & “reader” and “understand” in v14. See note XXXV above.
CLX “summer” = theros. 3x in NT. From thero (to heat). This is properly heat so it refers to the summer.

29 So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that he is near, at the very gates.CLXI 30 TrulyCLXII I tell you, this generationCLXIII will not pass awayCLXIV until all these things have taken place. 31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my wordsCLXV will not pass away.

Notes on verses 29-31

CLXI “gates” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CLXII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CLXIII “generation” = genea. Related to “take place” in v7 & “parents” in v12. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XLI above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CLXIV “pass away” = parerchomai. Related to “come” in v6 & “enter” in v15. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note XXXIV above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
CLXV “words” = logos. Related to “said” in v1 & “elect” and “chose” in v20 & “already told” in v23. From lego (see note V above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

32 “But about that day or hourCLXVI no one knows,CLXVII neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. 33 Beware, keep alert;CLXVIII for you do not know when the timeCLXIX will come.CLXX 

Notes on verses 32-33

CLXVI “hour” = hora. Same as “time” in v11. See note LXV above.
CLXVII “knows” = eido. Related to “look” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXVIII “keep alert” = arupneo. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + hupnos (sleep – literal or figurative); {perhaps from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to)}. This is awake, not asleep, vigilant, alert.
CLXIX “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CLXX “come” = eimi. Same as “be” in v4. See note XXV above.

34 It is like a man going on a journey,CLXXI when he leaves homeCLXXII and putsCLXXIII his slavesCLXXIV in charge,CLXXV

Notes on verse 34a

CLXXI “going on a journey” = apodemos. Related to “must” in v7. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (see note XL above)}. This is to go abroad or travel from home.
CLXXII “home” = oikia. Same as “house” in v15. See note XCIII above.
CLXXIII “puts” = didomi. Same as “given” in v11. See note LXIV above.
CLXXIV “slaves” = doulos. Related to “must” in v7 & “going on a journey” in v34. Perhaps from deo (see note XL above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CLXXV “charge” = exousia. Related to “be” in v4. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XXV above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

each with his work,CLXXVI and commandsCLXXVII the doorkeeperCLXXVIII to be on the watch.CLXXIX 

Notes on verse 34b

CLXXVI “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
CLXXVII “commands” = entellomai. Related to “be accomplished” in v4 & “end” in v7. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (see note XXIX above)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.
CLXXVIII “doorkeeper” = thuroros. Related to “gates” in v29. 4x in NT. From thura (see note CLXI above) + ouros (guardian).  This is gate warden or porter.
CLXXIX “be on the watch” = gregoreo. Related to “rise” in v8. From egeiro (see note XLIV above). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.

35 Therefore, keep awakeCLXXX—for you do not know when the masterCLXXXI of the house will come, in the evening,CLXXXII or at midnight, or at cockcrow,CLXXXIII or at dawn,CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 35

CLXXX “keep awake” = gregoreo. Same as “be on the watch” in v34. See note CLXXIX above.
CLXXXI “master” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v20. See note CXIV above.
CLXXXII “evening” = opse. Related to “back” in v16. 3x in NT. From opiso (see note XCVII above). This is after, late, in the end, in the evening.
CLXXXIII “cockcrow” = alektorophonia. Related to {untranslated} in v14 & “false prophets” in v22 & “light” in v24. 1x in NT. From alektor (to ward off); {perhaps from aleko (to ward off)} + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); {probably from phemi (see note LXXXII above)}. This is the time when the rooster crows – after midnight and before thee in the morning.
CLXXXIV “dawn” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.

36 or else he may findCLXXXV you asleepCLXXXVI when he comes suddenly.CLXXXVII 37 And what I say to you I say to all: Keep awake.”

Notes on verses 36-37

CLXXXV “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLXXXVI “asleep” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXVII “suddenly” = exaiphnes. Related to {untranslated} in v14 & “false prophets” in v22 & “light” in v24 & “cockcrow” in v35. 5x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + the same as aiphnidios (literally not apparent so sudden or unexpected); {from aiphnes (suddenly); {from a (not, without) + phaino (see note LXXXII above)}}. This is suddenly or unexpectedly.

Image credit: “The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, A.D. 70” by David Roberts, 1850.

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