Mark 14:12-25

Mark 14:12-25
Narrative Lectionary


12 On the first day of Unleavened Bread,A when the Passover lambB is sacrificed,C his disciplesD saidE to him,

Notes on verse 12a

A “Unleavened Bread” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.
B “Passover lamb” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
C “sacrificed” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
D “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
E “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Where do you wantF us to go and make the preparationsG for you to eatH the Passover?”I 

Notes on verse 12b

F “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
G “make the preparations” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
H “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
I “Passover” = pascha. Same as “Passover lamb” in v12. See note B above.

13 So he sentJ twoK of his disciples, saying to them, “GoL into the city,M

Notes on verse 13a

J “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
K “two” = duo. This is two or both.
L “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
M “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

and a manN carryingO a jarP of waterQ will meetR you; followS him, 

Notes on verse 13b

N “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
O “carrying” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
P “jar” = keramion. 2x in NT. From keramos (a tile made from earth, a roof, awning); from kerannumi (to mix, mingle);from kerao (to mix). This is a pitcher or jar. It shares a root with “ceramic.”
Q “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
R “meet” = apantao. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from apo (from, away from) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet or encounter.
S “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

14 and wherever he enters, say to the owner of the house,T ‘The TeacherU asks, Where is my guest roomV where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 

Notes on verse 14

T “owner of the house” = oikodespotes. 12x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction) + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
U “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
V “guest room” = kataluma. 3x in NT– 2x of the guest room that Jesus seeks in which to eat his Passover for the Last Supper (Mark 14:14) (Luke 22:11) & 1x of Jesus’ birth story. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break or destroy). This is a lodging place, inn, or guest room. Properly, it is a place where one unyokes or unharnesses animals for the purpose of lodging. Alternately, it’s a place to break up a long journey.

15 He will showW you a large room upstairs,X furnishedY and ready.Z Make preparations for us there.” 16 So the disciples set out and went to the city, and foundAA everything as he had told them; and they prepared the Passover meal.

Notes on verses 15-16

W “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
X “room upstairs” = anogeon. 2x in NT. From anagaion (second floor, over the ground); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area)}. This is an upper room on the second floor. It could also be a dome or balcony.
Y “furnished” = stronnuo. 6x in NT. This is to spread, strew, make a bed.
Z “ready” = hetoimos. Related to “preparations” in v12. 17x in NT. See note G above.
AA “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

17 When it wasBB evening,CC he came with the twelve.DD 

Notes on verse 17

BB “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
CC “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
DD “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v13. From duo (see note K above) + deka (ten). This is twelve.

18 And when they had taken their placesEE and were eating,FF JesusGG said,

Notes on verse 18a

EE “taken…places” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
FF “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
GG “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

“TrulyHH I tell you, oneII of you will betrayJJ me, one who is eatingKK with me.” 

Notes on verse 18b

HH “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
II “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
JJ “betray” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
KK “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v18. See note FF above.

19 They beganLL to be distressedMM and to say to him one after another,NN “Surely, notOO I?” 

Notes on verse 19

LL “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
MM “be distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
NN “another” = heis. Same as “one” in v18. See note II above.
OO “surely not” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?

20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who is dippingPP bread into theQQ bowlRR with me. 21 For theSS SonTT of Man goesUU as it is writtenVV of him,

Notes on verses 20-21a

PP “dipping” = embapto. 2x in NT– both of the disciple who betrays Jesus in Mt 26:23 & Mk 14:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + bapto (to dip, dye, fully cover with liquid). This is to dip into, to touch liquid. This shares a root with “baptize.”
QQ {untranslated} = heis. Same as “one” in v18. See note II above.
RR “bowl” = trublion. 2x in NT– both in this and the parallel in Mark 14. This is bowl, deep dish, or platter.
SS {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
TT “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
UU “goes” = hupago. Same as “go” in v13. See note L above.
VV “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

but woeWW to that oneXX by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been betterYY for that oneZZ not to have been born.”AAA

Notes on verse 21b

WW “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
XX “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v13. See note N above.
YY “better” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
ZZ “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v13. See note N above.
AAA “been born” = gennao. Related to “was” in v17. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note BB above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

22 While they were eating,BBB he tookCCC a loaf of bread,DDD

Notes on verse 22a

BBB “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v18. See note FF above.
CCC “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
DDD “loaf of bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.

and after blessingEEE it he brokeFFF it, gaveGGG it to them, and said, “Take; this is my body.”HHH 

Notes on verse 22b

EEE “blessing” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v12. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note E above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
FFF “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
GGG “gave” = didomi. Related to “betray” in v18. See note JJ above.
HHH “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

23 Then he took a cup,III and after giving thanksJJJ he gave it to them, and all of them drankKKK from it. 

Notes on verse 23

III “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
JJJ “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. Related to “blessing” in v22. From eu (see note EEE above) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
KKK “drank” = pino. Related to “cup” in v23. See note III above.

24 He said to them, “This is my bloodLLL of the covenant,MMM which is poured outNNN for many. 

Notes on verse 24

LLL “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
MMM “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
NNN “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.

25 Truly I tell you, I will never again drink of the fruitOOO of the vinePPP until that day when I drink it newQQQ in the kingdomRRR of God.”SSS

Notes on verse 25

OOO “fruit” = gennema. Related to “was” in v17 & “been born” in v21. 8x in NT. From gennao (see note AAA above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
PPP “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
QQQ “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
RRR “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “carrying” in v13. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note O above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
SSS “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Image credit: “The Last Supper” by Carl Bloch, late 19th century.

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