Mark 10

Mark 10


He leftI that place and wentII to the regionIII of JudeaIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “left” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
II “went” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
III “region” = horion. 12x in NT. From horos (limit, boundary). This is a boundary on land or a coast. It could be district, region, territory, or frontier.
IV “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

and beyondV the Jordan.VI And crowds again gatheredVII around him; and, as was his custom,VIII he again taughtIX them.

Notes on verse 1b

V “beyond” = peran. Related to pera (on the far side); from peiro (to pierce). This is over, beyond, the opposite side.
VI “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
VII “gathered” = sumporeuomai. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey; transportation something from one place to another; focuses on the personal meaning given to getting to the destination); {from poros (passageway, ford)}. This is to journey together or assemble.
VIII “was his custom” = etho. 4x in NT– 1x of Pilate’s custom of releasing a prisoner for the crowd, 1x of Jesus’s custom of teaching the crowds, 2x of the custom of going to the synagogue. This is a custom, what is customary – doing something habitually.
IX “taught” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

Some PhariseesX came,XI and to testXII him they asked,XIII

Notes on verse 2a

X “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XI “came” = proserchomai. Related to “went” in v1. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
XII “test” = peirazo. Related to “beyond” in v1. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (see note V above). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XIII “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.

“Is it lawfulXIV for a manXV to divorceXVI his wife?”XVII 

He answered them, “What did MosesXVIII commandXIX you?” 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XIV “is…lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
XV “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XVI “divorce” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
XVII “wife” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XVIII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XIX “command” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (end, event, purpose, consummation)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.

They said, “Moses allowedXX a man to writeXXI a certificateXXII of dismissalXXIII and to divorce her.” 

Notes on verse 4

XX “allowed” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
XXI “write” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
XXII “certificate” = biblion. From biblos (the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll; could also have an association with the sacred); perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is paper, book, scroll, certificate. It is where the word “Bible” comes from.
XXIII “dismissal” = apostasion. Related to “left” in v1. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note I above). This is a repudiation or a forsaking. Properly, it is something that marked separation and so it was used specially for a bill of divorce. This is also the same root as the word “apostasy.”

But JesusXXIV said to them, “Because of your hardness of heartXXV he wrote this commandmentXXVI for you. 

Notes on verse 5

XXIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXV “hardness of heart” = sklerokardia. 3x in NT. From skleros (hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh; stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard); {from skello (to dry) or from skelos (leg); from skello (to parch)} + kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible). This is hard-hearted i.e. obstinate, rebellious. It is hard in the sense of dried out.
XXVI “commandment” = entole. Related to “command” in v3. From entellomai (see note XIX above). This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.

6 But from the beginningXXVII of creation,XXVIII ‘God madeXXIX them maleXXX and female.’XXXI 

Notes on verse 5

XXVII “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
XXVIII “creation” = ktisis. 19x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is creation, creature, or ordinance. It is also used for when a city is founded and creation as origin.
XXIX “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXX “male” = arren. 9x in NT. From arsen (male, man) OR perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is male or man.
XXXI “female” = thelus. 5x in NT. From thele (breast) OR from the- (to suckle) OR from the same as thelazo (to nurse, suckle, nursing baby); from thele (nipple). This is female or woman – a mature female.

‘For this reason a manXXXII shall leaveXXXIII his fatherXXXIV and mother and be joinedXXXV to his wife, 

Notes on verse 7

XXXII “man” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v2. Probably from aner (see note XV above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXIII “leave” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
XXXIV “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XXXV “be joined” = proskollao. 2x in NT. From pros (at, towards, with) + kollao (to glue together; joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected to; can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something; can also be used medically for uniting wounds); {from kolla (glue)}. This is to join, glue together, to be someone’s follower. It reflects a personal relationship. In the Bible, it is used of marriage.

and the twoXXXVI shall becomeXXXVII oneXXXVIII flesh.’XXXIX So they are no longer two, but one flesh. 

Notes on verse 8

XXXVI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
XXXVII “become” = eimi. Related to “is…lawful” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXXVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXXIX “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

9 Therefore what GodXL has joined together,XLI let no oneXLII separate.”XLIII

Notes on verse 9

XL “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLI “joined together” = suzeugnumi. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeugos (yoke, couple, pair; tea of oxen, group of tied together birds); {from zugos (yoke, scales; figuratively, a burden or something linking two people to work in tandem); from zeugnumi (to yoke or join)}. This is to yoke together, join in marriage, otherwise link for common cause.
XLII “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v7. See note XXXII above.
XLIII “separate” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.

10 Then in the houseXLIV the disciplesXLV asked him again about this matter. 11 He saidXLVI to them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marriesXLVII anotherXLVIII commits adulteryXLIX against her; 12 and if she divorces her husbandL and marries another, she commits adultery.”

Notes on verses 10-12

XLIV “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XLV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XLVI “said” = lego. This is to say, speak, tell.
XLVII “marries” = gameo. From gamos (a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself). This is to marry.
XLVIII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XLIX “commits adultery” = moichao. 5x in NT. From moichos (adulterer; a man who has been with a married woman; used figuratively of an apostate). This is to commit adultery – used for men and women.
L “husband” = aner. Same as “man” in v2. See note XV above.

13 People were bringingLI little childrenLII to him in order that he might touchLIII them; and the disciples spoke sternlyLIV to them. 

Notes on verse 13

LI “bringing” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
LII “little children” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
LIII “touch” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
LIV “spoke sternly” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.

14 But when Jesus sawLV this, he was indignantLVI and said to them, “LetLVII the little children come to me; do not stopLVIII them; for it is to such as these that the kingdomLIX of God belongs.LX 

Notes on verse 14

LV “saw” = horao. Related to “man” in v7. See note XXXII above.
LVI “was indignant” = aganakteo. 7x in NT. Perhaps from agan (much) + achthos (grief); {related to agkale (bent arm); from agkos (bend, ache)}. This is being greatly grieved or displeased. Generally translated angry or indignant.
LVII “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LVIII “stop” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
LIX “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LX “belongs” = eimi. Same as “become” in v8. See note XXXVII above.

15 TrulyLXI I tell you, whoever does not receiveLXII the kingdom of God as a little child will never enterLXIII it.” 

Notes on verse 15

LXI “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXII “receive” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIII “enter” = eiserchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “came” in v2. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.

16 And he took them up in his arms,LXIV laidLXV his handsLXVI on them, and blessedLXVII them.

Notes on verse 16

LXIV “took…up in his arms” = enagkalizomai. Related to “was indignant” in v14. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + agkalizomai (to embrace); {from agkale (see note LVI above)}. This is to hug or embrace.
LXV “laid” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
LXVI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LXVII “blessed” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v11. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XLVI above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.

17 As he was setting outLXVIII on a journey,LXIX a manLXX ran upLXXI and knelt beforeLXXII him,

Notes on verse 17a

LXVIII “setting out” = ekporeuomai. Related to “gathered” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (see note VII above). This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
LXIX “journey” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LXX “a man” = heis. Same as “one” in v8. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXI “ran up” = prostrecho. 3x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run towards in order to join.
LXXII “knelt before” = gonupeteo. From gonu (knee) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to kneel or bow for supplication or entreaty.

and asked him, “GoodLXXIII Teacher,LXXIV what must I doLXXV to inheritLXXVI eternalLXXVII life?”LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 17b

LXXIII “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
LXXIV “Teacher” = didaskalos. Related to “taught” in v1.
LXXV “do” = poieo. Same as “made” in v6. See note XXIX above.
LXXVI “inherit” = kleronomeo. 18x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is to acquire or get by inheriting.
LXXVII “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where “eon” comes from.
LXXVIII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

18 Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone.LXXIX 19 You knowLXXX the commandments: ‘You shall not murder;LXXXI You shall not commit adultery;LXXXII You shall not steal;LXXXIII You shall not bear false witness;LXXXIV You shall not defraud;LXXXV HonorLXXXVI your father and mother.’” 

Notes on verses 18-19

LXXIX “alone” = heis. Same as “one” in v8. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXXXI “murder” = phoneuo. 12x in NT. From phoneus (a murderer); from phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is to kill or murder. It is killing on purpose without justification.
LXXXII “commit adultery” = moicheuo. Related to “commits adultery” in v11. 15x in NT. From moichos (see note XLIX above). This is committing adultery or adultery itself. Used of a man with a married woman or a married man with anyone other than his wife.
LXXXIII “steal” = klepto. 13x in NT. This is to steal by stealth – not in the open or using violence.
LXXXIV “bear false witness” = pseudomartureo. 5x in NT. From pseudomartus (false witness); {from pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear false witness or give untrue evidence.
LXXXV “defraud” = apostereo. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + stereo (to rob). This is to keep something from somebody – to defraud, deprive, take away.
LXXXVI “honor” = timao. Related to “spoke sternly” in v13. See note LIV above.

20 He saidLXXXVII to him, “Teacher, I have keptLXXXVIII allLXXXIX these since my youth.”XC 

21 Jesus, lookingXCI at him, lovedXCII him and said, “You lackXCIII one thing;

Notes on verses 20-21a

LXXXVII “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
LXXXVIII “kept” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIX “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XC “youth” = neotes. 4x in NT. From neos (young, new, youth, person). This is youth or newness.
XCI “looking” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
XCII “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XCIII “lack” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.

go,XCIV sellXCV what you own,XCVI and giveXCVII the money to the poor,XCVIII

Notes on verse 21b

XCIV “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XCV “sell” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
XCVI “own” = echo. This is have, hold, or possess.
XCVII “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVIII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.

and you will haveXCIX treasureC in heaven;CI then come,CII followCIII me.” 

Notes on verse 21c

XCIX “have” = echo. Same as “own” in v21. See note XCVI above.
C “treasure” = thesauros. Related to “laid” in v16. 17x in NT. From tithemi (see note LXV above). This is treasure, storehouse, deposit. It can be used figuratively for treasured thoughts.
CI “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CII “come” = deuro. 9x in NT. This is come here, hither, hence, now, until now.
CIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

22 When he heard this,CIV he was shockedCV and went awayCVI grieving,CVII for he had manyCVIII possessions.CIX

Notes on verse 22

CIV Literally “at the word” = epi + ho + logos. Logos is related to “said” in v11 & “blessed” in v16. See note LXVII above.
CV “was shocked” = stugnazo. 2x in NT. From stugnos (hated, gloomy); from stugetos (hateful, repulsive, abominable); from stugeo (to hate). This is to be gloomy, saddened, threatening, cloudy, somber speech.
CVI “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “came” in v2 & “enter” in v15. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CVII “grieving” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
CVIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CIX “possessions” = ktema. Related to “creation” in v6. 4x in NT. From ktaomai (see note XXVIII above). This is a possession as something acquired. It particularly refers to field or property that is land.

23 Then Jesus looked aroundCX and said to his disciples, “How hardCXI it will be for those who have wealthCXII to enter the kingdom of God!” 

24 And the disciples were perplexedCXIII at these words.CXIV But Jesus said to them again, “Children,CXV how hardCXVI it is to enter the kingdom of God!CXVII 

Notes on verses 23-24

CX “looked around” = periblepo. Related to “looking” in v21. 7x in NT- 6x in Mark & 1x in Luke. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + blepo (see note XCI above). This is to survey, look around closely, gaze about.
CXI “hard” = duskolos. 3x in NT. From duskolos (properly, hard to satiate with food; used to mean hard to please more broadly, difficult); {from dus (un- or mis-) + kolon (food)}. This is hard, with difficulty, problematic.
CXII “wealth” = chrema. 7x in NT. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is something one uses or needs. It could be money, possessions, or wealth.
CXIII “were perplexed” = thambeo. 3x in NT. From thambos (amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened; it can be positive or negative); akin to tapho (dumbfounded). This is astonish, amaze, be terrified or dumbfounded. It can denote wonder or terror – either way, as a surprise.
CXIV “these words” = logos + autos. Literally “his words.” Logos is the same as {untranslated} in v22. See note CIV above.
CXV “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CXVI “hard” = duskolos. Related to “hard” in v23. 1x in NT. See not CXI above.
CXVII Some manuscripts add, “those who trust in wealth.” “Trust” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).

25 It is easierCXVIII for a camelCXIX to goCXX through the eyeCXXI of a needleCXXII than for someone who is richCXXIII to enter the kingdom of God.” 

Notes on verse 25

CXVIII “easier” = eukopoteros. Related to “blessed” in v16. 7x in NT. From eukopos (easy); {from eu (see note LXVII above) + kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); {from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}}. This is easier, better for labor.
CXIX “camel” = kamelos. 6x in NT. From Hebrew gamal (camel); from gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel.
CXX “go” = dierchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “came” in v2 & “enter” in v15 & “went away” in v22. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CXXI “eye” = trumalia. 1x in NT. From truo (wear away). This is hole or eye of a needle.
CXXII “needle” = rhaphis. 2x in NT. From rhapto (to sew) OR akin to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a needle, whether for sewing cloth or for surgery.
CXXIII “rich” = plousios. Related to “many” in v22. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (see note CVIII above) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.

26 They were greatlyCXXIV astoundedCXXV and said to one another, “Then who canCXXVI be saved?”CXXVII 

27 Jesus lookedCXXVIII at them and said, “For mortalsCXXIX it is impossible,CXXX but not for God; for God all things are possible.”CXXXI

Notes on verses 26-27

CXXIV “greatly” = perissos. 17x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.
CXXV “were…astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CXXVI “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXXVII “be saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CXXVIII “looked” = emblepo. Same as “looking” in v21. See note XCI above.
CXXIX “mortals” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v7. See note XXXXII above.
CXXX “impossible” = adunatos. Related to “can” in v26. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (see note CXXVI above)}. This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “possible” = dunatos. Related to “can” in v26 & “impossible” in v27. See note CXXX above.

28 PeterCXXXII beganCXXXIII to say to him, “Look,CXXXIV we have leftCXXXV everythingCXXXVI and followed you.” 

Notes on verse 28

CXXXII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CXXXIII “began” = archomai. Related to “beginning” in v6. See note XXVII above.
CXXXIV “look” = idou. Related to “know” in v19. From eido (see note LXXX above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXXV “left” = aphiemi. Same as “let” in v14. See note LVII above.
CXXXVI “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v20. See note LXXXIX above.

29 Jesus said,CXXXVII “Truly I tell you, there is no one who has left house or brothersCXXXVIII or sistersCXXXIX or mother or father or children or fields,CXL for my sake and for the sake of the good news,CXLI 

Notes on verse 29

CXXXVII “said” = phemi. Same as “said” in v20. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXXVIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXXXIX “sisters” = adelphe. Related to “brothers” in v29. From adelphos (see note CXXXVIII above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
CXL “fields” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
CXLI “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “blessed” in v16 & “easier” in v25 & “go” in v21. From eu (see note LXVII above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note XCIV above)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.

30 who will not receiveCXLII a hundredfoldCXLIII now in this ageCXLIV—houses, brothers and sisters, mothers and children, and fields, with persecutionsCXLV—and in the ageCXLVI to come eternal life. 31 But many who are firstCXLVII will be last,CXLVIII and the last will be first.”

Notes on verses 30-31

CXLII “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CXLIII “hundredfold” = hekatontaplasion. Related to “many” in v22 & “rich” in v25. 3x in NT. From hekaton (hundred) + perhaps polus (see note CVIII above). This is a hundredfold. Used figuratively, it can mean totality.
CXLIV “age” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CXLV “persecutions” = diogmos. 10x in NT. From dioko to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight). This is chase, pursuit, or persecution. It is hunting someone like an animal.
CXLVI “age” = aion. Related to “eternal” in v17. See note LXXXVII above.
CXLVII “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CXLVIII “last” = eschatos. Related to “own” in v21. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note XCVI above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”

32 They were on the road,CXLIX going upCL to Jerusalem,CLI and Jesus was walking aheadCLII of them; they were amazed,CLIII and those who followed were afraid.CLIV

Notes on verse 32a

CXLIX “road” = hodos. Same as “journey” in v17. See note LXIX above.
CL “going up” = anabaino. Related to “kingdom” in v14. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note LIX above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CLI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CLII “walking ahead” = proago. Related to “go” in v21 & “good news” in v29. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XCIV above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CLIII “were amazed” = thambeo. Same as “were perplexed” in v24. See note CXIII above.
CLIV “were afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

He took the twelveCLV asideCLVI again and began to tell them what was toCLVII happenCLVIII to him, 33 saying, “See,CLIX we are going up to Jerusalem, and the SonCLX of ManCLXI

Notes on verses 32b-33a

CLV “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v8. From duo (see note XXXVI above) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
CLVI “took…aside” = paralambano. Related to “receive” in v30. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note CXLII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CLVII “was to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CLVIII “happen” = sumbaino. Related to “kingdom” in v14 & “going up” in v32. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from basis (see note LIX above). This is to walk together, happen, occur, meet. It could also be things that work together as a unit.
CLIX “see” = idou. Same as “look” in v28. See note CXXXIV above.
CLX “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CLXI “Man” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v7. See note XXXII above.

will be handed overCLXII to the chief priestsCLXIII and the scribes,CLXIV

Notes on verse 33b

CLXII “handed over” = paradidomi. Related to “give” in v21. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XCVII above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
CLXIII “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “beginning” in v6 & “began” in v28. From archo (see note XXVII above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
CLXIV “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “write” in v4. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note XXI above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.

and they will condemnCLXV him to death;CLXVI then they will hand him over to the Gentiles;CLXVII 

Notes on verse 33c

CLXV “condemn” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CLXVI “death” = thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CLXVII “Gentiles” = ethnos. Related to “was his custom” in v1. Probably from etho (see note VIII above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

34 they will mockCLXVIII him, and spit upon him, and flogCLXIX him, and killCLXX him; and after threeCLXXI daysCLXXII he will rise again.”CLXXIII

Notes on verse 34

CLXVIII “mock” = empaizo. Related to “little children” in v13. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (see note LII above)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
CLXIX “flog” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.
CLXX “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CLXXI “three” = treis. This is three.
CLXXII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLXXIII “rise again” = anistemi. Same as “left” in v1. See note I above.

35 JamesCLXXIV and John,CLXXV the sons of Zebedee,CLXXVI came forwardCLXXVII to him and said to him, “Teacher, we wantCLXXVIII you to do for us whatever we askCLXXIX of you.” 

Notes on verse 35

CLXXIV “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CLXXV “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v5. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXIV above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CLXXVI “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v5 & “John” in v35. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (see note XXIV above)}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
CLXXVII “came forward” = prosporeuomai. Related to “gathered” in v1 & “setting out” in v17. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with, among) + poreuomai (see note VII above). This is to approach, come near.
CLXXVIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CLXXIX “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.

36 And he said to them, “What is it you want me to do for you?” 

37 And they said to him, “GrantCLXXX us to sit,CLXXXI one at your right handCLXXXII and one at your left,CLXXXIII in your glory.”CLXXXIV 

Notes on verses 36-37

CLXXX “grant” = didomi. Same as “give” in v21. See note XCVII above.
CLXXXI “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CLXXXII “right hand” = dexios. Related to “receive” in v15. Perhaps from dechomai (see note LXII above). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CLXXXIII “left” = aristeros. 4x in NT. From aristos (best). This is better, used figuratively to refer to the left or left hand side.
CLXXXIV “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

38 But Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking.CLXXXV Are you ableCLXXXVI to drinkCLXXXVII the cupCLXXXVIII that I drink, or be baptized with the baptismCLXXXIX that I am baptizedCXC with?” 

Notes on verse 38

CLXXXV “asking” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v35. See note CLXXIX above.
CLXXXVI “are…able” = dunamai. Same as “can” in v26. See note CXXVI above.
CLXXXVII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CLXXXVIII “cup” = poterion. Related to “drink” in v38. From pino (see note CLXXXVII above). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
CLXXXIX “baptism” = baptisma. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
CXC “baptized” = baptizo. Related to “baptism” in v38. See note CLXXXIX above.

39 They replied, “We are able.”

Then Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you will drink; and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized; 40 but to sit at my right hand or at my leftCXCI is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.”CXCII

41 When the tenCXCIII heardCXCIV this, they began to be angryCXCV with James and John. 

Notes on verses 39-41

CXCI “left” = euonumos. Related to “blessed” in v16 & “easier” in v25 & “good news” in v29. 9x in NT. From eu (see note LXVII above) + onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation; thought to include something of the essence of the person and not separate from the person); {may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience)}. This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.
CXCII “prepared” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
CXCIII “ten” = deka. Related to “twelve” in v32. See note CLV above.
CXCIV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXCV “be angry” = aganakteo. Same as “was indignant” in v14. See note LVI above.

42 So Jesus calledCXCVI them and said to them, “You know that among the Gentiles those whom they recognizeCXCVII as their rulersCXCVIII lord it overCXCIX them, and their great onesCC are tyrants overCCI them. 

Notes on verse 42

CXCVI “called” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
CXCVII “recognize” = dokeo. Related to “glory” in v37. See note CLXXXIV above.
CXCVIII “rulers” = archo. Related to “beginning” in v6 & “began” in v28. 2x in NT. See note XXVII above.
CXCIX “lord…over” = katakurieuo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + kurieuo (to rule, have authority or dominion); {from kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy)}. This is to exercise lordship authority, over dominion. It can also mean to overpower or master. It is having control and authority for that control. Generally the negative sense of control – to subjugate.
CC “great ones” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CCI “are tyrants over” = katexousiazo. Related to “is…lawful” in v2 & “become” in v8. 2x in NT. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + exousiazo (to wield power or authority over, to master or control; to have authority to act); {from exousia (power to act or weight; denotes moral authority or influence; can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength); {from exesti (see note XIV above)}. This is having power or authority over – to use authority oppressively, to dominate or bring down.

43 But it is not so among you; but whoever wishesCCII to becomeCCIII great among you must be your servant,CCIV 44 and whoever wishes to be first among you must be slaveCCV of all. 

Notes on verses 43-44

CCII “wishes” = thelo. Same as “want” in v35. See note CLXXVIII above.
CCIII “become” = ginomai. Related to “wife” in v2. See note XVII above.
CCIV “servant” = diakonos. Related to “persecutions” in v30. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (see note CXLV above). This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
CCV “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

45 For the Son of Man came not to be servedCCVI but to serve, and to give his lifeCCVII a ransomCCVIII for many.”

Notes on verse 45

CCVI “be served” = diakoneo. Related to “persecutions” in v30 & “servant” in v43. From diakonos (see note CCIV above). This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CCVII “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CCVIII “ransom” = lutron. Related to “divorce” in v2. 2x in NT. From luo (see note XVI above). This is ransom, the money used to free slaves. It is also a sacrifice of expiation. Figuratively, it can be atonement.

46 They came to Jericho.CCIX As he and his disciples and a largeCCX crowd were leavingCCXI Jericho, BartimaeusCCXII son of Timaeus,CCXIII

Notes on verse 46a

CCIX “Jericho” = Hiericho. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Yriychow (Jericho); {perhaps from yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (small, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy)}. This is Jericho, meaning either “fragrant” or “moon.”
CCX “large” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CCXI “leaving” = ekporeuomai. Same as “setting out” in v17. See note LXVIII above.
CCXII “Bartimaeus” = Bartimaios. Related to “spoke sternly” in v13 & “honor” in v19 & “Timaeus” in v46. 1x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + timaios (see note CCXIII below). This is Bartimaeus, literally “son of Timeaus” or “son of he who’s highly prized,” “son of honor.” See
CCXIII “Timaeus” = Timaios. Related to “spoke sternly” in v13 & “honor” in v19. 1x in NT. Probably from timao (see note LIV above). This is Timaeus or Timay. It is a name that means, “highly prized.”

a blindCCXIV beggar,CCXV was sittingCCXVI by the roadside.CCXVII 

Notes on verse 46b

CCXIV “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
CCXV “beggar” = prosaiteo. Related to “ask” in v35. 3x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with, among) + aiteo (see note CLXXIX above). This is to beg, ask for over and over again, solicit.
CCXVI “sitting” = kathemai. Related to “days” in v34. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note CLXXII above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CCXVII “roadside” = hodos. Same as “journey” in v17. See note LXIX above.

47 When he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth,CCXVIII he began to shout outCCXIX and say, “Jesus, Son of David,CCXX have mercyCCXXI on me!” 

Notes on verse 47

CCXVIII “Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
CCXIX “shout out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CCXX “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CCXXI “have mercy” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.

48 Many sternly ordered him to be quiet,CCXXII but he cried out even more loudly,CCXXIII “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 

49 Jesus stood stillCCXXIV and said, “CallCCXXV him here.”

Notes on verses 48-49a

CCXXII “be quiet” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CCXXIII “even more loudly” = polus + mallon. Polus is the same as “many” in v22. See note CVIII above. Mallon is rather, more than, or better.
CCXXIV “stood still” = histemi. Related to “left” in v1 & “dismissal” in v4. See note I above.
CCXXV “call” = phoneo. Related to “said” in v20. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note LXXXVII above); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

And they called the blind man, saying to him, “Take heart;CCXXVI get up,CCXXVII he is calling you.” 50 So throwing offCCXXVIII his cloak,CCXXIX he sprang upCCXXX and came to Jesus. 

51 Then Jesus said to him, “What do you want me to do for you?”

The blind man said to him, “My teacher,CCXXXI let me see again.”CCXXXII 

Notes on verses 49b-51

CCXXVI “take heart” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
CCXXVII “get up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CCXXVIII “throwing off” = apoballo. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw off, cast aside. Figuratively, it is to lose or abandon.
CCXXIX “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CCXXX “sprang up” = eispedao. 3x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + pedao (to leap or spring). This is to rush in or spring in.
CCXXXI “my teacher” = Rhabbouni. 2x in NT – here and in John 20 when Mary Magdalene recognizes Jesus at the tomb. From rhabbi (a title of respect for a teacher-scholar; literally, great one or honorable sir; also my master or my teacher); from Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is Rabbi, Lord, my master, my teacher in Aramaic.
CCXXXII “see again” = anablepo. Related to “looking” in v21 & “looked around” in v23. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (see note XCI above). This is to look up or regain sight.

52 Jesus said to him, “Go;CCXXXIII your faithCCXXXIV has made you well.”CCXXXV ImmediatelyCCXXXVI he regained his sightCCXXXVII and followed him on the way.CCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 52

CCXXXIII “go” = hupago. Same as “go” in v21. See note XCIV above.
CCXXXIV “faith” = pistis. Related to {untranslated} in v24. From peitho (see note CXVII above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
CCXXXV “made…well” = sozo. Same as “be saved” in v26. See note CXXVII above.
CCXXXVI “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “blessed” in v16 & “easier” in v25 & “good news” in v29 & “left” in v40 & “laid” in v16 & “treasure” in v21. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note LXVII above) + tithemi (see note LXV above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CCXXXVII “regained…sight” = anablepo. Same as “see again” in v51. See note CCXXXII above.
CCXXXVIII “way” = hodos. Same as “journey” in v17. See note LXIX above.

Image credit: “Jesus and the Rich Young Ruler” – painter unknown, 1879.

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