Mark 16

Mark 16


When the sabbathI was over,II MaryIII Magdalene,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
II “was over” = diaginomai. 3x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to go through, often referring to the passage of time. It can also mean to intervene or elapse.
III “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
IV “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

and Mary the mother of James,V and SalomeVI boughtVII spices,VIII so that they might goIX and anointX him. 

Notes on verse 1b

V “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
VI “Salome” = Salome. 2x in NT– both in Mark. From Hebrew Shalem (Salem or Shalem, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Salome or Shelomah, meaning “peaceful.”
VII “bought” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
VIII “spices” = aroma. 4x in NT – all used of bringing spices for Jesus’ body. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a sweet spice, seasoning, or perfume. It is where the word “aroma” comes from.
IX “go” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
X “anoint” = aleipho. 9x in NT. From a (with) + liparos (oil, fatty; something luxurious); {from lipos (fat, grease)}. This is to anoint whether for medical reasons, as part of hospitality, for a dead body, for a celebration or festival, or to show respect.

2 And very earlyXI on the firstXII day of the week,XIII when the sunXIV had risen,XV they went to the tomb.XVI 

Notes on verse 2

XI “early” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
XII “first” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XIII “week” = sabbaton. Same as “sabbath” in v1. See note I above.
XIV “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
XV “risen” = anatello. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax)}. This is rise, shine, or dawn. It is most often used of the sun. Figuratively, it can mean achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps.
XVI “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

3 They had been saying to one another, “Who will roll awayXVII the stoneXVIII for us from the entranceXIX to the tomb?”

Notes on verse 3

XVII “roll away” = apokulio. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kulioo (to roll, wallow); {from kulindo (to roll, roll along); from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant)}. This is to roll back.
XVIII “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “entrance” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.


4 When they looked up,XX they sawXXI that the stone, which was veryXXII large,XXIII had already been rolled back.XXIV 

Notes on verse 4

XX “looked up” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.
XXI “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
XXII “very” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
XXIII “large” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XXIV “rolled back” = apokulio. Same as “roll away” in v3. See note XVII above.

5 As they enteredXXV the tomb, they sawXXVI a young man,XXVII dressedXXVIII in a whiteXXIX robe,XXX

Notes on verse 5a

XXV “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “go” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note IX above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XXVII “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
XXVIII “dressed” = periballo. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
XXIX “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.
XXX “robe” = stole. 9x in NT–the scribes who want to be greeted with respect in marketplaces (Mk 12:13; Lk 20:46), the angel presenting as a young man at the resurrection (Mk 16:5), the robe brought for the prodigal son (Lk 15:22), and the attire of the martyrs and saints in heaven in Revelation 6, 7, and 22. From stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}. This is clothing, in particular a long, flowing robe associated with elites.

sittingXXXI on the right side;XXXII and they were alarmed.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXI “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XXXII “right side” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XXXIII “alarmed” = ekthambeo. 4x in NT– 1x when Jesus healed a boy with a spirit and the crowd was overcome with awe in Mark 9:15, 1x when Jesus was distressed at Gethsemane in Mark 14:33 & 2x when Mary Magdalene, Mary, and Salome were alarmed at seeing the angel at the empty tomb and the angel says, “do not be alarmed” in Mark 16:5-6. From ekthambos (amazed, filled with wonder that affects the viewer greatly); {from ek (from, from out of) + thambos (amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened; it can be positive or negative); {akin to tapho (dumbfounded)}}. This is to amaze, be full of awe, to be distressed.

6 But he saidXXXIV to them, “Do not be alarmed; you are looking forXXXV JesusXXXVI of Nazareth,XXXVII who was crucified.XXXVIII

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIV “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXXV “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XXXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXVII “Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XXXVIII “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “robe” in v5. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note XXX above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

He has been raised;XXXIX he is not here. Look,XL there is the placeXLI they laidXLII him. 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXIX “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XL “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XLI “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XLII “laid” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.

But go,XLIII tell his disciplesXLIV and PeterXLV that he is going aheadXLVI of you to Galilee;XLVII there you will seeXLVIII him, just as he told you.” 

Notes on verse 7

XLIII “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XLIV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XLV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLVI “going ahead” = proago. Related to “go” in v7. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XLIII above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
XLVII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
XLVIII “see” = horao. Same as “saw” in v5. See note XXVI above.

So they went outXLIX and fledL from the tomb, for terrorLI and amazementLII had seizedLIII them; and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid.LIV

Notes on verse 8

XLIX “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “go” in v1 & “entered” in v5. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note IX above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
L “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
LI “terror” = tromos. 5x in NT. From tremo (shaking, particularly from fear or dread); from treo (to dread or terrify). This is trembling, shaking, or quaking from fear. This is the root of the term “tremolo.”
LII “amazement” = ekstasis. Related to “robe” in v5 & “crucified” in v6. 7x in NT. From existemi (o displace or take something or someone from standing; figuratively, to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself; astonished, amazed, or mad); {from ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note XXX above)}. This is bewilderment, amazement, distraction, shock, a trance, rapture. It is the root of the word “ecstasy.”
LIII “seized” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
LIV “were afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

The Longer Ending of Mark

Now after he roseLV early on the firstLVI day of the week, he appearedLVII firstLVIII to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast outLIX sevenLX demons.LXI 

Notes on verse 9

LV “rose” = anistemi. Related to “robe” in v5 & “crucified” in v6 & “amazement” in v8. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LVI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
LVII “appeared” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.
LVIII “first” = proton. Related to is “first” in v9. From protos (see note LVI above). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
LIX “cast out” = ekballo. Related to “dressed” in v5. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note XXVIII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LX “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven the number of completeness or perfection.
LXI “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

10 She went outLXII and toldLXIII those who had been with him, while they wereLXIV mourningLXV and weeping.LXVI 

Notes on verse 10

LXII “went out” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LXIII “told” = apaggello. Related to “go” and “going ahead” in v7. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note XLIII above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
LXIV “were” = ginomai. Related to “was over” in v1. See note II above.
LXV “mourning” = pentheo. 10x in NT. From penthos (mourning, sorrow, sadness, grief); perhaps from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is used for grieving a death, but also figuratively for loss of hope or end of a relationship. This is embodied grief that is readily apparent. This is grief as a feeling or the act of grieving.
LXVI “weeping” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

11 But when they heardLXVII that he was aliveLXVIII and had been seenLXIX by her, they would not believeLXX it.

Notes on verse 11

LXVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXVIII “was alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXIX “seen” = theaomai. Related to “saw” in v4. See note XXI above.
LXX “would not believe” = apisteo. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.

12 After this he appearedLXXI in anotherLXXII formLXXIII, LXXIV to twoLXXV of them,

Notes on verse 12a

LXXI “appeared” = phaneroo. Related to “appeared” in v9. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (see note LVII above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
LXXII “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
LXXIII “form” = morphe. 3x in NT. Perhaps from the base of meros (a part or share, portion); from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion}. This is outward appearance or shape. It is a form that shows inner essence – outer and inner essence in harmony.
LXXIV {untranslated} = poreuomai. Same as “went out” in v10. See note LXII above.
LXXV “two” = duo. This is two or both.

as they were walkingLXXVI into the country.LXXVII 13 And they went backLXXVIII and told the rest,LXXIX but they did not believeLXXX them.

Notes on verses 12b-13

LXXVI “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
LXXVII “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
LXXVIII “went back” = aperchomai. Related to “go” in v1 & “entered” in v5 & “went out” in v8. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note IX above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIX “rest” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
LXXX “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “would not believe” in v11. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note LXX above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

14 LaterLXXXI he appearedLXXXII to the elevenLXXXIII themselves as they were sittingLXXXIV at the table;

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXI “later” = husteron. 11x in NT. From husteros (last, later); from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to). This is afterwards, eventually, lastly.
LXXXII “appeared” = phaneroo. Same as “appeared” in v12. See note LXXI above.
LXXXIII “eleven” = hendeka. Related to “first” in v2. 6x in NT. From heis (see note XII above) + deka (ten). This is eleven.
LXXXIV “sitting” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.

and he upbraidedLXXXV them for their lack of faithLXXXVI and stubbornness,LXXXVII because they had not believed those who sawLXXXVIII him after he had risen.LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXV “upbraided” = oneidizo. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.
LXXXVI “lack of faith” = apistia. Related to “would not believe” in v11 & “believe” in v13. 11x in NT. From apistos (see note LXX above). This is unfaithfulness, distrust, disbelief, disobedience.
LXXXVII “stubbornness” = sklerokardia. 3x in NT. From skleros (hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh; stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard); {from skello (to dry) or from skelos (leg); from skello (to parch)} + kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible). This is hard-hearted i.e. obstinate, rebellious. It is hard in the sense of dried out.
LXXXVIII “saw” = theaomai. Same as “seen” in v11. See note LXIX above.
LXXXIX Some manuscripts add, “from the dead” = ek + nekros. Nekros is perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

15 And he said to them, “GoXC into allXCI the worldXCII and proclaimXCIII the good newsXCIV to the wholeXCV creation.XCVI 

Notes on verse 15

XC “go” = poreuomai. Same as “went out” in v10. See note LXII above.
XCI “all” = hapas. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
XCII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
XCIII “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
XCIV “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “go” and “going ahead” in v7 & “told” in v10. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note LXIII above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
XCV “whole” = pas. Related to “all” in v15. See note XCI above.
XCVI “creation” = ktisis. 19x in NT. From ktizo (to build, create, form, shape; God’s acts of creation); probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is creation, creature, or ordinance. It is also used for when a city is founded and creation as origin.

16 The one who believes and is baptizedXCVII will be saved;XCVIII but the one who does not believe will be condemned.XCIX 

Notes on verse 16

XCVII “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XCVIII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
XCIX “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.

17 And these signsC will accompany those who believe: by using my nameCI they will cast out demons; they will speak in newCII tongues;CIII 18 they will pick upCIV snakesCV in their hands,CVI 

Notes on verses 17-18a

C “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CI “name” = onoma. Related to “upbraided” in v14. See note LXXXV above.
CII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CIII “tongues” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
CIV “pick up” = airo. Related to “spices” in v1. See note VIII above.
CV “snakes” = ophis. 14x in NT. Related to “saw” in v5. Perhaps from optanomai (to be seen, to gaze at something with eyes wide open, to see something remarkable); from horao (see note XXVI above). This is snake or serpent, often used of the devil. It is the snake as a type that is sly or cunning – someone malicious.
CVI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

and if they drinkCVII any deadlyCVIII thing, it will not hurtCIX them; they will layCX their hands on the sick,CXI and they will recover.”CXII

Notes on verse 18b

CVII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CVIII “deadly” = thanasimos. 1x in NT. From thanatos (death, whether literal or spiritual; also something fatal); from thnesko (to die, be dead). This is deadly, which is to say poisonous.
CIX “hurt” = blapto. 2x in NT. This is to harm or hinder.          
CX “lay” = epitithemi. Related to “laid” in v6. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note XLII above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
CXI “sick” = arrostos. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly) probably akin to rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); akin to eruo (to drag) or rheo (to flow, to flow like water, overflow)}. This is literally not strong so it refers to a chronic illness that persists. It is infirmity, feeble, or sick person.
CXII “recover” = kalos + echo. Kalos is from kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably. Echo is the same as “seized” in v8. See note LIII above.

19 SoCXIII then the LordCXIV Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken upCXV into heavenCXVI and sat downCXVII at the right handCXVIII of God.CXIX 

Notes on verse 19

CXIII “so” = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXV “taken up” = analambano. 13x in NT. From ana (up, again, anew) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take up, lead away, raise. It is often used of the ascension.
CXVI “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXVII “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CXVIII “right hand” = dexios. Same as “right side” in v5. See note XXXII above.
CXIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

20 And they went out and proclaimed the good newsCXX everywhere,CXXI while the Lord worked withCXXII them

Notes on verse 20a

CXX “proclaimed the good news” = kerusso. Same as “proclaim” in v15. See note XCIII above.
CXXI “everywhere” = pantachou. Related to “all” and “whole” in v15. 8x in NT. From pas (see note XCI above). This is universally, everywhere.
CXXII “worked with” = sunergeo. 5x in NT. From sunergos (co-worker, associate, helper, co-laborer or one’s companion during labor); {from sun (with, together with) + ergon (work, task, deed, labor, effort) {from ergo (to work, accomplish, do)}}. This is to work together, help in labor, be a co-worker, to cooperate. This root is where “synergy” comes from.

and confirmedCXXIII the messageCXXIV by the signs that accompaniedCXXV it.

Notes on verse 20b

CXXIII “confirmed” = bebaioo. 8x in NT. From bebaios (properly, ground that is solid enough to walk over; firm, unshakable; figuratively, guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring; literally and figuratively “solid footing”); from the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). This is secure, guantee, reliable, firm, dependable. It is something that you can put your trust in.
CXXIV “message” = logos. Related to “said” in v6. From lego (see note XXXIV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXV “accompanied” = epakoloutheo. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow along, pursue, imitate, devote to, accompany.

The Shorter Ending of Mark

And allCXXVI that had been commandedCXXVII them they toldCXXVIII brieflyCXXIX to those around Peter.

Notes on SEa

CXXVI “all” = pas. Same as “whole” in v15. See note XCV above.
CXXVII “commanded” = paraggello. Related to “go” and “going ahead” in v7 & “told” in v10 & “good news” in v15. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note LXIII above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
CXXVIII “told” = exaggello. Related to “go” and “going ahead” in v7 & “told” in v10 & “good news” in v15 & “commanded” in v20. From ek (from, rom out of) + aggello (see note LXIII above). This is to proclaim, declare in public, celebrate.
CXXIX “briefly” = suntomos. 2x in NT. From suntomos (cut short); from suntemno (cut shot, decide, contract with a slice; figuratively, do quickly); {from sun (with, together with) + the same as tomos (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut with a as with a single slice)}}. This is briefly or concisely.

And afterward Jesus himself sent outCXXX through them, from eastCXXXI to west,CXXXII the sacredCXXXIII and imperishableCXXXIV proclamationCXXXV

Notes on SEb

CXXX “sent out” = exapostello. Related to “robe” in v5 & “crucified” in v6 & “amazement” in v8 & “rose” in v9. 13x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {from histemi (see note XXX above)}}. This is to send away, dismiss, send someone for a mission.
CXXXI “east” = anatole. Related to “risen” in v2. 11x in NT. From anatello (see note XV above). This is rising, as in the place where the sun rises. So, it refers to the east.
CXXXII “west” = dusme. 6x in NT. From duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); from duo (to sink). This is a setting i.e. the west, the region to the west, or the sunset.
CXXXIII “sacred” = hieros. 4x in NT. This is sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart. It is something consecrated to God or a god.
CXXXIV “imperishable” = aphthartos. 8x in NT. From a (not, without) + phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is imperishable, undecaying, immortal, incorruptible.
CXXXV “proclamation” = kerugma. Related to “proclaim” in v15. 9x in NT. From kerusso (see note XCIII above). This is proclamation – both the preaching and that which is preached. Sometimes times used to refer to the Gospel itself.

of eternalCXXXVI salvation.CXXXVII, CXXXVIII

Notes on SEc

CXXXVI “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CXXXVII “salvation” = soteria. Related to “saved” in v16. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (see note XCVIII above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
CXXXVIII {untranslated} = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “Jesus is Alive!” by LUMO Project.

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