Mark 3

Mark 3


Again he enteredI the synagogue,II and a manIII wasIV there who hadV a witheredVI hand.VII 

Notes on verse 1

I “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
II “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
III “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
IV “was” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
V “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
VI “withered” = xeraino. 15x in NT. From xeros (dry, arid, withered; can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken). This is to dry up, wither, ripen, pine.
VII “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

They watched him to seeVIII whether he would cureIX him on the sabbath,X so that they might accuseXI him. And he said to the man who had the witheredXII hand, “Come forward.”XIII 

Notes on verses 2-3

VIII “watched…to see” = paratereo. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); { teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is to watch or observe carefully due to personal interest.
IX “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
X “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
XI “accuse” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
XII “withered” = xeros. 8x in NT. Related to “withered” in v1. See note VI above.
XIII “come forward” = egeiro + eis + ho + mesos. Literally, “rise up into the midst.” Egeiro is related to “accuse” in v2. Perhaps related to agora (see note XI above). This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins. Mesos is perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.

Then he said to them, “Is it lawfulXIV to do goodXV or to do harmXVI on the sabbath,

Notes on verse 4a

XIV “is…lawful” = exesti. Related to “was” in v1. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note IV above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
XV “do good” = agathopoieo. 10x in NT. From agathopoios (a do-gooder or virtuous person; someone who does intrinsically good things); {from agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause)}. This is to do good or to do right.
XVI “do harm” = kakopoieo. Related to “do good” in v4. 4x in NT. From kakopoios (evil doer, troublemaker; one who is looking for the chance to do harm; a criminal); {from kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character) + poieo (see note XV above)}. This is to do evil, to sin, to behave as an evil person or a criminal.

to saveXVII lifeXVIII or to kill?”XIX But they were silent.XX 

Notes on verse 4b

XVII “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
XVIII “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
XIX “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XX “were silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.

He looked around atXXI them with anger;XXII he was grievedXXIII

Notes on verse 5a

XXI “looked around at” = periblepo. 7x in NT- 6x in Mark & 1x in Luke. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to survey, look around closely, gaze about.
XXII “anger” = orge. From orgao (something that teems or stews; anger rising from prolonged personal contact that is fixed rather than an angry outburst; anger that stems from an individual’s sense of right and wrong, justice, etc.) or from orego (to stretch out towards, yearn for, aspire to, desire). This is impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment. Properly, this is fixed anger from ongoing personal irritation caused by something the one getting angry sees as unjust or evil. Wrath implies punishment. Can refer to human or divine wrath.
XXIII “grieved” = sullupeo. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lupeo (to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain; deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth); {from lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart)}. This is shared sorrow – grief because of someone else that leads one to sympathy.

at their hardnessXXIV of heartXXV and said to the man, “Stretch outXXVI your hand.” He stretched it out, and his hand was restored.XXVII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXIV “hardness” = porosis. 3x in NT – in Mark, Romans, and Ephesians and all in the expression “hardness of heart.” From poroo (to harden, petrify, of rock; figuratively, this can be insensitive, callous, or dense); from poros (a stone, callous). This is hardness or callousness. Figuratively, it can refer to being numb or obtuse – imperceptive.
XXV “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
XXVI “stretch out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
XXVII “restored” = apokathistemi. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.

The PhariseesXXVIII went outXXIX and immediatelyXXX conspiredXXXI with the HerodiansXXXII against him, how to destroyXXXIII him.

Notes on verse 6

XXVIII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XXIX “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “entered” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XXX “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XXXI “conspired” = sumboulion + didomi. Sumboulion is 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions. Didomi is to give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXII “Herodians” = Herodianoi. 3x in NT. From Herodes (Herod, perhaps meaning “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic”); {perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale) [from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale) {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}] OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above)}. This is Herodian – one who followed Herod Antipas. See
XXXIII “destroy” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

JesusXXXIV departedXXXV with his disciplesXXXVI to the sea,XXXVII

Notes on verse 7a

XXXIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXV “departed” = anachoreo. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}.  This is to withdraw, depart, retire, or leave. It can give a sense of seeking safety from harm or of retiring.
XXXVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XXXVII “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

and a greatXXXVIII multitudeXXXIX from GalileeXL followedXLI him; hearingXLII all that he was doing,XLIII they cameXLIV to him in great numbersXLV from Judea,XLVI

Notes on verses 7b-8a

XXXVIII “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXXIX “multitude” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XL “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
XLI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XLII “hearing” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLIII “doing” = poieo. Related to “do good” and “do harm” in v4. See note XV above.
XLIV “came” = erchomai. Related to “entered” in v1 & “went out” in v6. See note I above.
XLV “numbers” = plethos. Same as “multitude” in v7. See note XXXIX above.
XLVI “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.

Jerusalem,XLVII Idumea,XLVIII beyond the Jordan,XLIX and the region around TyreL and Sidon.LI 

Notes on verse 8b

XLVII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XLVIII “Idumea” = Idoumaia. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Edom (Edom or Idumaea, meaning “red”); from the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is Idumea or Edom, south of Judea.
XLIX “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
L “Tyre” = Turos. 11x in NT. From Phoenician t-s-r (rock; “after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built”). This is Tyre, the capital of Phoenicia. See
LI “Sidon” = Sidon. 10x in NT. From Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidon – a city in Phoenicia. See &

9 He told his disciples to have a boatLII ready forLIII him because of the crowd, so that they would not crushLIV him; 

Notes on verse 9

LII “boat” = ploiarion. 5x in NT– all in the gospels. From ploion (boat, ship, vessel); from pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a little boat or vessel.
LIII “have…ready for” = proskartereo. 10x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kartereo (to be strong, endure; figuratively to be steadfast, to persevere, to be patient); {from kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised)}. This is to show strength consistently in the face of trials. It can also mean to persist, stand ready, be earnest, or attend to something.
LIV “crush” = thlibo. 10x in NT. Perhaps from tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); from tribo (to rub or thresh). This is to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict. Figuratively, it is to oppress or afflict.

10 for he had cured many,LV so that all who had diseasesLVI pressed uponLVII him to touchLVIII him. 

Notes on verse 10

LV “many” = polus. Same as “great” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
LVI “diseases” = mastix. 6x in NT. Probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them. It is figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague. It is a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum.
LVII “pressed upon” = epipipto. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.
LVIII “touch” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.

11 Whenever the uncleanLIX spiritsLX sawLXI him,

Notes on verse 11a

LIX “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
LX “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXI “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.

they fell down beforeLXII him and shouted,LXIII “You are the SonLXIV of God!”LXV 

Notes on verse 11b

LXII “fell down before” = prospipto. Related to “pressed upon” in v10. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall on or fall before. It can be a violent attack, bowing before, or beat against.
LXIII “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
LXIV “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LXV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

12 But he sternlyLXVI orderedLXVII them not to makeLXVIII him known.LXIX

Notes on verse 12

LXVI “sternly” = polus. Same as “great” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
LXVII “ordered” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
LXVIII “make” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v8. See note XLIII above.
LXIX “known” = phaneros. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.

13 He went upLXX the mountainLXXI and called toLXXII him those whom he wanted,LXXIII and they cameLXXIV to him. 

Notes on verse 13

LXX “went up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
LXXI “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
LXXII “called to” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
LXXIII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXXIV “came” = aperchomai. Related to “entered” in v1 & “went out” in v6 & “came” in v8. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to depart, follow,  or go off in a literal or figurative sense.

14 And he appointedLXXV twelve,LXXVI whom he also namedLXXVII apostles,LXXVIII to be with him, and to be sent outLXXIX to proclaim the message,LXXX 

Notes on verse 14

LXXV “appointed” = poieo. Same as “doing” in v8. See note XLIII above
LXXVI “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
LXXVII “named” = onomazo. 10x in NT. From onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation; thought to include something of the essence of the person and not separate from the person); may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is to name – either to name someone or call out their name. More broadly, it can mean to mention or utter.
LXXVIII “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “restored” in v5. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); from histemi (see note XXVII above)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
LXXIX “sent out” = apostello. Related to “restored” in v5 & “apostles” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXX “proclaim the message” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

15 and to have authorityLXXXI to cast outLXXXII demons.LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXI “authority” = exousia. Related to “was” in v1 & “is…lawful” in v4. From exesti (see note XIV above). This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LXXXII “cast out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

16 So he appointed the twelve: SimonLXXXIV (to whom he gaveLXXXV the nameLXXXVI Peter);LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXIV “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
LXXXV “gave” = epitithemi. Related to “immediately” in v6. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note XXX above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
LXXXVI “name” = onoma. Related to “named” in v14. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXVII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.

17 JamesLXXXVIII son of ZebedeeLXXXIX and JohnXC the brotherXCI of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges,XCII that is, Sons of Thunder);XCIII 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXVIII “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LXXXIX “Zebedee” = Zebedaios. Related to “Jesus” in v7. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (see note XXXIV above)}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
XC “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v7 & “Zebedee” in v17. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXXIV above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XCI “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XCII “Boanerges” = Boanerges. 1x in NT. From Aramaic ben (son); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + regesh (tumult); {corresponding to regesh (a crowd that is in an uproar – a throng or an insurrection); from ragash (to be in an uproar, in tumult, to rage)}. This is Boanerges, meaning “sons of thunder” or “sons of tumult.”
XCIII “Thunder” = Bronte. 12x in NT. Related to bremo (to roar). This is thunder. It’s part of the root of brontosaurus, literally thunder lizard. This is also where the last name Brontё comes from.

18 and Andrew,XCIV and Philip,XCV and Bartholomew,XCVI and Matthew,XCVII

Notes on verse 18a

XCIV “Andrew” = Andreas. Related to “man” in v1. 13x in NT. From aner (see note III above). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
XCV “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XCVI “Bartholomew” = Bartholomaios. Related to “Boanerges” in v17. 4x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son, age); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (see note XCII above)} + Talmay (Talmay, meaning “plowman” or “ridged”); {from the same as telem (furrow or ridge; root may mean to accumulate)}. This is Bartholomew, meaning “son of Tolmai.”
XCVII “Matthew” = Matthaios. Related to “Jesus” in v7 & “Zebedee” and “John” in v17. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note XXXIV above). This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See

and Thomas,XCVIII and James son of Alphaeus,XCIX and Thaddaeus,C and Simon the Cananaean,CI 

Notes on verse 18b

XCVIII “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
XCIX “Alphaeus” = Alphaios. 5x in NT. From Hebrew halap (to exchange, renew, traverse). This is Alphaeus, which shares a root with Clopas. It means “traverse” or “exchange.” See
C “Thaddaeus” = Thaddaios. 2x in NT. Perhaps from Aramaic taddai (perhaps breasts or large-hearted). This is Thaddaeus, perhaps meaning “courageous heart.” See &
CI “Cananaean” = Kananaios. 2x in NT. From Aramaic qanaan (jealous); from Hebrew qanna (jealous); from the same as qinah (zeal, jealousy, envy, anger, rivalry); from qanah (to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy). This s Cananaean, meaning Zealot, zealous, or Canaanite.

19 and JudasCII Iscariot,CIII who betrayedCIV him.

Notes on verse 19a

CII “Judas” = Ioudas. Related to “Judea” in v7. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note XLVI above). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
CIII “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
CIV “betrayed” = paradidomi. Related to “conspired” in v6. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

Then he went home;CV 20 and the crowd came togetherCVI again, so that they couldCVII not evenCVIII eat.CIX 

Notes on verses 19b-20

CV “home” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
CVI “came together” = sunerchomai. Related to “entered” in v1 & “went out” in v6 & “came” in v8 & “came” in v13.  From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to accompany, go with, cohabit.
CVI “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CVIII {untranslated} = artos. Related to “mountain” in v13. Perhaps from airo (see note LXXI above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
CIX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

21 When his familyCX heard it, they went out to restrainCXI him, for people were saying, “He has gone out of his mind.”CXII 

Notes on verse 21

CX “his family” = ho + para + autos. Literally, “those belonging to him.”
CXI “restrain” = krateo. Related to “have…ready for” in v9. From kratos (see note LIII above). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
CXII “gone out of his mind” = existemi. Related to “restored” in v5 & “apostles” and “sent out” in v14. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note XXVII above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.

22 And the scribesCXIII who came downCXIV from Jerusalem said, “He has Beelzebul,CXV and by the rulerCXVI of the demons he casts out demons.” 

Notes on verse 22

CXIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXIV “came down” = katabaino. Related to “went up” in v13. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note LXX above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CXV “Beelzebul” = Beelzeboul. 7x in NT. From Hebrew baal zebub (Baal Zebub, meaning “Baal of flies,” a god of the Phoenicians); {from Baal (Baal); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + zebub (a fly, particularly one that stings; root may mean to flit). This is Beelzebul – literally “lord of the flies.”
CXVI “ruler” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.

23 And he called them to him, and spoke to them in parables,CXVII “How can SatanCXVIII cast out Satan? 24 If a kingdomCXIX is dividedCXX against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.CXXI

Notes on verses 23-24

CXVII “parables” = parabole. Related to “cast out” in v15. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (see note LXXXII above)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
CXVIII “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
CXIX “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “went up” in v13 & “came down” in v22. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note LXX above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CXX “divided” = merizo. 14x in NT. From meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to divide, distribute, assign, apportion – separate into parts, bestow, share.
CXXI “stand” = histemi. Related to “restored” in v5 & “apostles” and “sent out” in v14 & “gone out of his mind” in v21. See note XXVII above.

25 And if a houseCXXII is divided against itself, that house will not be ableCXXIII to stand. 26 And if Satan has risen upCXXIV against himself and is divided, he cannot stand, but his endCXXV has come.CXXVI 

Notes on verses 25-26

CXXII “house” = oikia. Related to “home” in v19. From oikos (see note CV above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CXXIII “be able” = dunamai. Same as “could” in v20. See note CVII above.
CXXIV “risen up” = anistemi. Related to “restored” in v5 & “apostles” and “sent out” in v14 & “gone out of his mind” in v21 & “stand” in v24. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXVII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXXV “end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.
CXXVI “come” = echo. Same as “had” in v1. See note V above.

27 But no one can enter a strong man’sCXXVII house and plunderCXXVIII his propertyCXXIX without first tying upCXXX the strong man; then indeed the house can be plundered.

Notes on verse 27

CXXVII “strong man’s” = ischuros. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
CXXVIII “plunder” = diarpazo. Related to “mountain” in v13 & perhaps related to {untranslated} in v20. 3x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take); probably related to airo (see note LXXI above). This is to plunder or spoil.
CXXIX “property” = skeuos. This is a vessel, object, article, property, a tool. It is an implement or other equipment in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to a vessel of mercy or a wife.
CXXX “tying up” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.

28 “TrulyCXXXI I tell you, peopleCXXXII will be forgivenCXXXIII for their sinsCXXXIV and whatever blasphemiesCXXXV they utter;CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 28

CXXXI “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXXXII “people” = huios + anthropos. Literally, “sons of humankind.” Huios is the same as “Son” in v11. See note LXIV above. Anthropos is the same as “man” in v1. See note III above.
CXXXIII “be forgiven” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CXXXIV “sins” = hamartema. Related to “divided” in v24. 4x in NT. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (see note CXX above)}. This is sin, evil deed – the pain that results from sin.
CXXXV “blasphemies” = blasphemia. Related to “known” in v12. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (see note LXIX above)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CXXXVI “utter” = blasphemeo. Related to “known” in v12 & “blasphemies” in v28. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (see note CXXXV above) + pheme (see note CXXXV above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

29 but whoever blasphemesCXXXVII against the HolyCXXXVIII Spirit can neverCXXXIX have forgiveness,CXL but is guiltyCXLI of an eternalCXLII sin”— 

30 for they had said, “He has an unclean spirit.”

Notes on verses 29-30

CXXXVII “blasphemes” = blasphemeo. Same as “utter” in v28. See note CXXXVI above.
CXXXVIII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXXXIX “never” = oueis + ho + aion. Literally, “not…to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CXL “forgiveness” = aphesis. Related to “be forgiven” in v28. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (see note CXXXIII above). This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CXLI “guilty” = enochos. Related to “had” in v1. 10x in NT. From enecho (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note V above)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.
CXLII “eternal” = aionios. Related to “never” in v29. From aion (see note CXXXIX above). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.

31 Then his mother and his brothers came; and standingCXLIII outside, they sent to him and calledCXLIV him. 32 A crowd was sittingCXLV around him; and they said to him, “CXLVIYour mother and your brothers and sistersCXLVII are outside, asking forCXLVIII you.” 

Notes on verses 31-32

CXLIII “standing” = steko. Related to “restored” in v5 & “apostles” and “sent out” in v14 & “gone out of his mind” in v21 & “stand” in v24 & “risen up” in v26. 11x in NT. From histemi (see note XXVII above). This is to stand fast or be stationary. Figuratively, it can mean to persevere.
CXLIV “called” = kaleo. Related to “called to” in v13. See note LXXII above.
CXLV “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CXLVI {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXLVII “sisters” = adelphe. Related to “brother” in v17. From adelphos (see note XCI above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLVIII “asking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

33 And he replied, “Who are my mother and my brothers?” 34 And looking at those who sat around him, he said, “CXLIXHere are my mother and my brothers! 35 Whoever does the willCL of GodCLI is my brother and sister and mother.”

Notes on verses 33-35

CXLIX {untranslated} = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v32. See note CXLVI above.
CL “will” = thelema. Related to “wanted” in v13. From thelo (see note LXXIII above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CLI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Image credit: “The Blind and Mute Man Possessed by Devils” by James Tissot, between 1886 and 1894.

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