Mark 5:21-43

Mark 5:21-43
Ordinary B31


21 When JesusI had crossedII again in the boatIII to the other side,IV a great crowd gatheredV around him; and he was by the sea.VI 

Notes on verse 21

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “crossed” = diaperao. 6x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + peran (over, beyond, across); {akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from peiro (to pierce)}. This is to cross or sail over entirely.
III “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
IV “other side” = peran. Related to “crossed” in v21. See note II above.
V “gathered” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
VI “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

22 Then one of the leaders of the synagogueVII namedVIII JairusIX came and, when he sawX him, fellXI at his feet 

Notes on verse 22

VII “leaders of the synagogue” = archisunagogos. Related to “gathered” in v21. 9x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + sunagoge (literally, a bringing together, a place of assembly; used for the people or for the place where they assemble; sometimes used of Christian churches; a synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church; where the word “synagogue” comes from); {from sun (with, together with) + ago (see note V above)}. This is ruler or leader of a synagogue who presided over worship.
VIII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
IX “Jairus” = Iairos. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Yair (Jair, a name meaning “he enlightens” or “enlightener”); from or (to be or become light). This is Jairus or Jair, a name meaning “he enlightens” or “enlightener.”
X “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XI “fell” = pipto. This is to fall in a literal or figurative sense.

23 and beggedXII him repeatedly, “My little daughterXIII is at the point of death.XIV

Notes on verse 23a

XII “begged” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
XIII “little daughter” = thugatrion. 2x in NT – of Jairus’s daughter and the Syrophoenician woman’s daughter. From thugater (daughter, a related female or one who lives with you). This is a little or young daughter.
XIV “at the point of death” = eschatos + echo. Eschatos is 1x in NT. From eschatos (last, end, extreme, final; often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife; so, theology focusing on these topics is called “eschatology”); from eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is extremely, utterly, at the last. So, it can refer to being at the brink of death. Echo is the same as echo above.

Come and layXV your handsXVI on her, so that she may be made well,XVII and live.”XVIII 24 So he went with him.

Notes on verses 23b-24a

XV “lay” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
XVI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XVII “made well” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
XVIII “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

And a large crowd followedXIX him and pressed inXX on him. 25 Now there was a womanXXI who had been suffering from hemorrhagesXXII for twelve years. 

Notes on verses 24b-25

XIX “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XX “pressed in” = sunthlibo. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is to press in on, to crowd. It implies compressing from all directions.
XXI “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXII “hemorrhages” = rhusis + haima. Literally “a flow of blood.” Rhusis is 3x in NT. From rheo (to flow, overflow) OR from rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); akin to eruo (to drag). Haima is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

26 She had enduredXXIII much under many physicians,XXIV and had spentXXV all that she had; and she was no better,XXVI but rather grew worse. 

Notes on verse 26

XXIII “endured” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
XXIV “physicians” = iatros. 7x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healer i.e. physician.
XXV “spent” = dapanao. 5x in NT. From dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is to spend, squander, waste.  It can be used literally for spending money or figuratively for expending energy or using time.
XXVI “was…better” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.

27 She had heardXXVII about Jesus, and came up behind him in the crowd and touchedXXVIII his cloak,XXIX 

Notes on verse 27

XXVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXVIII “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
XXIX “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

28 for she said, “If I but touch his clothes,XXX I will be made well.” 29 ImmediatelyXXXI her hemorrhageXXXII stopped;XXXIII

Notes on verses 28-29a

XXX “clothes” = himation. Same as “cloak” in v27. See note XXIX above.
XXXI “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “lay” in v23. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {from eu (good, well done) + tithemi (see note XV above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XXXII “hemorrhage” = pege + ho + haima. Literally “flow of the blood.” Pege is 11x in NT. This is a fount in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be a spring of water, a fountain, or a well. It is also used for a flow of blood. It can mean more generally the source of something: water, blood, fun. Haima is the same as “hemorrhage” in v25. See note XXII above.
XXXIII “stopped” = xeraino. 15x in NT. From xeros (dry, arid, withered; can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken). This is to dry up, wither, ripen, pine.

and she feltXXXIV in her bodyXXXV that she was healedXXXVI of her disease.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 29b

XXXIV “felt” = ginosko. Related to “named” in v22. See note VIII above.
XXXV “body” = soma. Related to “made well” in v23. Perhaps from sozo (see note XVII above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XXXVI “healed” = iaomai. Related to “physicians” in v26. See note XXIV above.
XXXVII “disease” = mastix. 6x in NT. Probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them. It is figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague. It is a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum.

30 Immediately awareXXXVIII that powerXXXIX had gone forth from him, Jesus turned aboutXL in the crowd and said, “Who touched my clothes?” 

Notes on verse 30

XXXVIII “aware” = epiginosko. Related to “named” in v22 & “felt” in v29. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note VIII above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
XXXIX “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XL “turned about” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

31 And his disciplesXLI said to him, “You seeXLII the crowd pressing in on you; how can you say, ‘Who touched me?’” 32 He looked all aroundXLIII to seeXLIV who had doneXLV it. 

Notes on verses 31-32

XLI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XLII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XLIII “looked all around” = periblepo. Related to “see” in v31. 7x in NT- 6x in Mark & 1x in Luke. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + blepo (see note XLII above). This is to survey, look around closely, gaze about.
XLIV “see” = horao. Same as “saw” in v22. See note X above.
XLV “done” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

33 But the woman, knowingXLVI what had happenedXLVII to her, came in fearXLVIII and trembling,XLIX fell down beforeL him, and told him the whole truth.LI 

Notes on verse 33

XLVI “knowing” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XLVII “happened” = ginomai. Related to “woman” in v25. See note XXI above.
XLVIII “in fear” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XLIX “trembling” = tremo. 3x in NT. From treo (to dread or terrify). This is to tremble or shake, whether from fear or dread.
L “fell down before” = prospipto. Related to “fell” in v22. 8x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + pipto (see note XI above). This is to fall on or fall before. It can be a violent attack, bowing before, or beat against.
LI “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.

34 He said to her, “Daughter,LII your faithLIII has made you well; goLIV in peace,LV and be healedLVI of your disease.”

Notes on verse 34

LII “daughter” = thugater. Related to “little daughter” in v23. See note XIII above.
LIII “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
LIV “go” = hupago. Related to “gathered” in v21 & “leader of the synagogue” in v22. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note IV above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LV “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LVI “healed” = hugies. 12x in NT. Perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome. Figuratively, it can mean a sound or true teaching. It is where “hygiene” comes from.

35 While he was still speaking, some people came from the leader’s house to say, “Your daughter is dead.LVII Why troubleLVIII the teacherLIX any further?” 

Notes on verse 35

LVII “is dead” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
LVIII “trouble” = skullo. 4x in NT. This is to skin or flay. Figuratively, it can be to distress, annoy, or harass.
LIX “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.

36 But overhearingLX whatLXI they said, Jesus said to the leader of the synagogue, “Do not fear, only believe.”LXII 

Notes on verse 36

LX “overhearing” = parakouo. Related to “heard” in v27. 3x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + akouo (see note XXVII above). This is to hear sideways, whether overhear, mishear, or pretend as though one did not hear. It can imply disobedience.
LXI “what” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LXII “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v34. From pistis (see note LIII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

37 He allowedLXIII no one to followLXIV him except Peter,LXV James,LXVI and John,LXVII the brotherLXVIII of James.

Notes on verse 37

LXIII “allowed” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LXIV “follow” = sunakoloutheo. Related to “followed” in v24. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + akoloutheo (see note XIX above). This is to accompany or follow with.
LXV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LXVI “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LXVII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v21. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note I above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
LXVIII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

38 When they came to the houseLXIX of the leader of the synagogue, he sawLXX a commotion,LXXI people weepingLXXII and wailingLXXIII loudly. 

Notes on verse 38

LXIX “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
LXX “saw” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
LXXI “commotion” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
LXXII “weeping” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
LXXIII “wailing” = alalazo. 2x in NT. From alalai (battle cry) OR from alale (a halloo). This is to make a war cry, wail, sound a cymbal, clang.

39 When he had entered, he said to them, “Why do you make a commotionLXXIV and weep? The childLXXV is not dead but sleeping.”LXXVI 

Notes on verse 39

LXXIV “make a commotion” = thorubeo. Related to “commotion” in v38. 5x in NT. From thorubos (see note LXXI above). This is to disturb, agitate, cause tumult, trouble, create panic.
LXXV “child” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
LXXVI “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.

40 And they laughedLXXVII at him. Then he put them all outside,LXXVIII and tookLXXIX the child’s fatherLXXX and mother and those who were with him, and went inLXXXI where the child was. 

Notes on verse 40

LXXVII “laughed” = katagelao. 3x in NT – all in parallels of this story. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + gelao (to laugh or smile because of joy or being satisfied). This is to deride ridicule, or laugh at.
LXXVIII “put…outside” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIX “took” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
LXXX “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXI “went in” = eisporeuomai. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

41 He tookLXXXII her by the hand and said to her, “Talitha cum,”LXXXIII which means,LXXXIV “Little girl,LXXXV get up!”LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 41

LXXXII “took” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
LXXXIII “Talitha cum” = Talitha + koum. Talitha is 1x in NT. From Aramaic. It means little girl or young girl. Koum is 1x in NT. From Aramaic qum (to arise, approach, establish, stand, endure); related to Hebrew qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is to stand up or arise.
LXXXIV “means” = eimi + methermeneuo. Literally “is interpreted.” Methermeneuo is 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
LXXXV “little girl” = korasion. 8x in NT– 4x of the girl restored to life & 4x of Salome. From kore (maiden). This is a little girl or maiden.
LXXXVI “get up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

42 And immediately the girl got upLXXXVII and began to walk aboutLXXXVIII (she was twelve years of age). At this they were overcomeLXXXIX, XC with amazement.XCI 

Notes on verse 42

LXXXVII “got up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXXXVIII “began to walk about” = peripateo. Related to “child” in v39. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (see note LXXV above)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
LXXXIX “overcome” = existemi. Related to “got up” in v42. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note LXXXVII above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.
XC {untranslated} = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v29. See note XXXI above.
XCI “amazement” = exstasis. Related to “got up” and “overcome” in v42. 7x in NT. From existemi (see note LXXXIX above). This is amazement, a disturbance, a trance. It is a state in which one’s mind is out of place or in an altered state. This is where the word “ecstasy” comes from.

43 He strictlyXCII orderedXCIII them that no one should knowXCIV this, and told them to giveXCV her something to eat.XCVI

Notes on verse 43

XCII “strictly” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XCIII “ordered” = diastello. Related to “got up” and “overcome” and “amazement” in v42. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is to set apart, distinguish, give a commission, order, set apart for service.
XCIV “know” = ginosko. Same as “felt” in v29. See note XXXIV above.
XCV “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

Image credit: “Woman with an Issue of Blood” by James Tissot, 1886-1896.

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