Mark 6

Mark 6


He leftI that place and cameII to his hometown,III and his disciplesIV followedV him. 

Notes on verse 1

I “left” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
II “came” = erchomai. Related to “left” in v1. See note I above.
III “hometown” = patris. 8x in NT. From pater (father in a literal or figurative sense) OR from parasemos (marked on the side, wrongly marked a ship’s figurehead); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}}. This is belonging to one’s father or ancestors. It could be hometown, native town, country, or heaven as home.
IV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
V “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

2 VIOn the sabbathVII he beganVIII to teachIX in the synagogue,X and manyXI who heardXII him were astounded.XIII

Notes on verse 2a

VI {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
VII “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
VIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
IX “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
X “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XI “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XIII “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.

They said,XIV “Where did this man get all this? What is this wisdomXV that has been givenXVI to him? What deeds of powerXVII are being doneXVIII by his hands!XIX 

Notes on verse 2b

XIV “said” = lego. This is to say, speak, or tell.
XV “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
XVI “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XVII “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XVIII “being done” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
XIX “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

3 IsXX not this the carpenter,XXI the sonXXII of MaryXXIII 

Notes on verse 3a

XX “is” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
XXI “carpenter” = tekton. 2x in NT. From the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}} + the base of tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is craftsman; particularly one who works with wood.
XXII “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXIII “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.

and brotherXXIV of JamesXXV and JosesXXVI and JudasXXVII and Simon,XXVIII and are not his sistersXXIX here with us?” And they took offenseXXX at him. 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIV “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XXV “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XXVI “Joses” = Ioses. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Ioseph (Joseph, “he increases”); from Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joses, meaning “he increases.”“Joses” = Ioses. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Ioseph (Joseph, “he increases”); from Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joses, meaning “he increases.”
XXVII “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XXVIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XXIX “sisters” = adelphe. Related to “brother” in v3. From adelphos (see note XXIV above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
XXX “took offense” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.

Then JesusXXXI said to them, “ProphetsXXXII are not without honor,XXXIII except in their hometown, and among their own kin,XXXIV and in their own house.”XXXV And he couldXXXVI doXXXVII no deed of power there, except that he laidXXXVIII his hands

Notes on verses 4-5a

XXXI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXII “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
XXXIII “without honor” = atimos. Related to “carpenter” in v3. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + time (see note XXI above). This is without honor, despised, not valued, reproachful, undignified.
XXXIV “kin” = suggenes. Related to {untranslated} in v2. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note VI above)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
XXXV “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XXXVI “could” = dunamai. Related to “deeds of power” in v2. See note XVII above.
XXXVII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXXVIII “laid” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.

on a fewXXXIX sickXL people and curedXLI them. And he was amazedXLII at their unbelief.XLIII

Notes on verses 5b-6a

XXXIX “few” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
XL “sick” = arrostos. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly) probably akin to rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); akin to eruo (to drag) or rheo (to flow, to flow like water, overflow)}. This is literally not strong so it refers to a chronic illness that persists. It is infirmity, feeble, or sick person.
XLI “cured” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
XLII “was amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
XLIII “unbelief” = apistia. 11x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is unfaithfulness, distrust, disbelief, disobedience.

Then he went aboutXLIV amongXLV the villagesXLVI teaching. He calledXLVII the twelveXLVIII and began to send them outXLIX twoL by two,

Notes on verses 6b-7a

XLIV “went about” = periago. Related to “synagogue” in v2. 6x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ago (see note X above). This is to lead around, compass, go about.
XLV “among” = kuklo. 8x in NT. From kuklos (a circle). This is a ring, around, all around.
XLVI “villages” = kome. Perhaps from keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
XLVII “called” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
XLVIII “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
XLIX “send…out” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
L “two” = duo. Related to “twelve” in v7. See note XLVIII above.

and gave them authorityLI over the uncleanLII spirits.LIII 

Notes on verse 7b

LI “authority” = exousia. Related to “is” in v3. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XX above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LII “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
LIII “spirits” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

8 He orderedLIV them to takeLV nothing for their journeyLVI except a staff;LVII, LVIII

Notes on verse 8a

LIV “ordered” = paraggello. Related to “synagogue” in v2 & “went about” in v6. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note X above)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
LV “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
LVI “journey” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LVII “staff” = rhabdos. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the base of rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is staff, rod, cudgel. It is a staff that signifies power, royalty, or authority.
LVIII {untranslated} = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.

no bread,LIX no bag,LX no moneyLXI in their belts;LXII but to wearLXIII sandalsLXIV and not to put onLXV two tunics.LXVI 

Notes on verses 8b-9

LIX “bread” = artos. Related to “take” in v8. Perhaps from airo (see note LV above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
LX “bag” = pera. 6x in NT. This is a sack or bag for carrying food and money.
LXI “money” = chalkos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from chalao (let down, slacken, loosen). This is copper or bronze. Can also mean things made of brass – money, instruments.
LXII “belts” = zone. 8x in NT. From zonnumi (to gird up – to tighten the belt so one can work or move quickly). This is belt, sash, waistband – the place where one puts the purse.
LXIII “wear” = hupodeo. 3x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to bind under, wear on the feet.
LXIV “sandals” = sandalion. 2x in NT. From sandalon (a sandal; or the sole of a shoe made from wood). This is a sandal or the pad for under the foot. It is where the word “sandal” comes from.
LXV “put on” = enduo. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (to go down, sink, or set)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
LXVI “tunics” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.

10 He said to them, “Wherever you enterLXVII a house, stayLXVIII there until you leaveLXIX the place. 

Notes on verse 10

LXVII “enter” = eiserchomai. Related to “left” and “came” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVIII “stay” = meno. Related to {untranslated} in v8. See note LVIII above.
LXIX “leave” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.

11 If any placeLXX will not welcomeLXXI you and they refuse to hear you, as you leave, shake offLXXII the dustLXXIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LXXI “welcome” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “shake off” = ektinasso. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tinasso (to swing). This is shake off or out.
LXXIII “dust” = choos. 2x in NT. See chous (earth, dust, soil); {from cheo (to pour)} OR from choos (dust, soil, earth, loose dirt, rubbish); {from cheimon (winter, storm); from the same as cheimazo (be storm-tossed, exposed to the winter chill); from chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)}. This is dust or soil. It can imply that it is poured into a mound – loose earth.

that is on your feetLXXIV as a testimonyLXXV against them.”LXXVI 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIV “feet” = pous. This is foot literal or figurative.
LXXV “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
LXXVI Some manuscripts add, “truly I say to you it will be more tolerable for Sodom or Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that town.” “Truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows. “More Tolerable” = anektoteros. 6x in NT.  From anektos (bearable, tolerable); from anecho (to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is more tolerable or endurable. “Sodom” = Sodoma. 10x in NT. From Hebrew sedom (Sodom, the Canaanite city; root may mean scorch; perhaps this was a volcanic or coal rich area). This is Sodom. “Gomorrah” = Gomorra. 5x in NT. From Hebrew amorah (Amorah, Gomorrah; a ruined heap); from amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows). This is Gomorrah. “Day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak. “Judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from. “Town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

12 So they went outLXXVII and proclaimedLXXVIII that all should repent.LXXIX 13 They cast outLXXX many demons,LXXXI and anointedLXXXII with oilLXXXIII many who were sick and cured them.

Notes on verses 12-13

LXXVII “went out” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v1. See note I above.
LXXVIII “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
LXXIX “repent” = metanoeo. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
LXXX “cast out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “demons” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXXII “anointed” = aleipho. 9x in NT. From a (with) + liparos (oil, fatty; something luxurious); {from lipos (fat, grease)}. This is to anoint whether for medical reasons, as part of hospitality, for a dead body, for a celebration or festival, or to show respect.
LXXXIII “oil” = elaion. 11x in NT. From elaia (the olive tree or that which it produces; can also refer to the Mount of Olives). This is olive oil.

14 KingLXXXIV HerodLXXXV heard of it, for Jesus’LXXXVI nameLXXXVII had becomeLXXXVIII known.LXXXIX

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXIV “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
LXXXV “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
LXXXVI “Jesus’” = autos. Literally, “his.”
LXXXVII “name” = onoma. Related to “repent” in v12. May be from ginosko (see note LXXIX above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXXXVIII “become” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
LXXXIX “known” = phaneros. Related to “prophets” in v4. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (see note XXXII above); from the same as phaino (see note XXXII above). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.

Some were saying, “JohnXC the baptizerXCI has been raisedXCII from the dead;XCIII and for this reason these powersXCIV are at workXCV in him.” 

Notes on verse 14b

XC “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v4. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXXI above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XCI “baptizer” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
XCII “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XCIII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XCIV “powers” = dunamis. Same as “deeds of power” in v2. See note XVII above.
XCV “are at work” = energeo. From energes (active, effective, operative, energized, powerful); {from en (in, at, by, with, among) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}}. This is to be at work, accomplish, be mighty or effectual. This is where “energy” comes from.

15 But othersXCVI said, “It is Elijah.”XCVII

And others said, “It is a prophet, like oneXCVIII of the prophets of old.” 

16 But when Herod heard of it, he said, “John, whom I beheaded,XCIX has been raised.”

Notes on verses 15-16

XCVI “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XCVII “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v4 & “John” in v14. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XXXI above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”
XCVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XCIX “beheaded” = apokephalizo. 4x in NT– all in reference to John the Baptist. From apo (from, away from) + kephale (head or chief; literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord, corner stone); {from kapto (to seize)}. This is to behead or decapitate.

17 For Herod himself had sent men who arrestedC John, boundCI him, and put him in prisonCII on account of Herodias,CIII his brother Philip’sCIV wife,CV because Herod had marriedCVI her. 

Notes on verse 17

C “arrested” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
CI “bound” = deo. Related to “wear” in v9. See note LXIII above.
CII “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
CIII “Herodias” = Herodias. Related to “Herod” in v14. 6x in NT. From Herodes (see note LXXXV above). This is Herodias, the female form of Herod, perhaps meaning “hero’s song” or “heroic.”
CIV “Philp’s” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
CV “wife” = gune. Related to {untranslated} in v2 & “kin” in v4. Perhaps from ginomai (see note VI above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CVI “married” = gameo. From gamos (a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself). This is to marry.       

18 For John had been telling Herod, “It is not lawfulCVII for you to haveCVIII your brother’s wife.” 19 And Herodias had a grudgeCIX against him, and wantedCX to killCXI him. But she could not, 

Notes on verses 18-19

CVII “is…lawful” = exesti. Related to “is” in v3 & “authority” in v7. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note XX above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
CVIII “have” = echo. Related to {untranslated} in v11. See note LXXVI above.
CIX “had a grudge” = enecho. Related to {untranslated} in v11 & “have” in v18. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note LXXVI above). This is to hold in, trap, have a grudge, be hostile.
CX “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CXI “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

20 for Herod fearedCXII John, knowingCXIII that he was a righteousCXIV and holyCXV man,CXVI and he protectedCXVII him.

Notes on verse 20a

CXII “feared” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CXIII “knowing” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
CXIV “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CXV “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXVI “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
CXVII “protected” = suntereo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); { teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is to keep close, preserve, remember and obey, treasure.

When he heard him, he was greatlyCXVIII perplexed;CXIX and yet he likedCXX to listenCXXI to him. 21 But anCXXII opportunityCXXIII cameCXXIV

Notes on verses 20b-21a

CXVIII “greatly” = polus. Same as “many” in v2. See note XI above.
CXIX “was…perplexed” = aporeo. Related to “leave” in v11. 6x in NT. From a (not) + poros (see note LXIX above). This is feeling like you have no way out, being perplexed or doubting.
CXX “liked” = hedeos. 3x in NT. From hedus (sweet) or from hedone (pleasure, passion – particularly of physical senses); {from hedomai (to enjoy oneself); from handano (to please)}. This is sweetly, gladly, enjoyable, with pleasure.
CXXI “listen” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v2. See note XII above.
CXXII {untranslated} = hemera. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LXXVI above.
CXXIII “opportunity” = eukairos. 2x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; chronos is used for chronological time while kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time). This is well-timed, convenient, opportune, or strategic. It could also mean holiday or festival as well as time of need.
CXXIV “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.

when Herod on his birthdayCXXV gaveCXXVI a banquetCXXVII for his courtiersCXXVIII and officersCXXIX and for the leadersCXXX of Galilee.CXXXI 

Notes on verse 21

CXXV “birthday” = genesia. Related to {untranslated} in v2 & “kin” n v4 & “wife” in v17. 2x in NT. From genesis (origin, lineage, life, nativity, nature, generation); from ginomai (see note VI above). This is birthday or celebration for a birthday.
CXXVI “gave” = poieo. Same as “do” in v5. See note XXXVII above.
CXXVII “banquet” = deipnon. 16x in NT. From the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening.
CXXVIII “courtiers” = megistan. 3x in NT. From megistos (greatest, magnificent); from megas (big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc). This is a great one, noble, courtier, grandee.
CXXIX “officers” = chiliarchos. Related to “began” in v2. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archomai (see note VIII above)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
CXXX “leaders” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CXXXI “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

22 When his daughterCXXXII Herodias came inCXXXIII and danced,CXXXIV she pleasedCXXXV Herod and his guests;CXXXVI

Notes on verse 22a

CXXXII “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
CXXXIII “came in” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v10. See note LXVII above.
CXXXIV “danced” = orcheomai. 4x in NT. Perhaps from orchos (a row, ring). This is to dance with repeated motion.
CXXXV “please” = aresko. Related to “take” and “bread” in v8. 17x n NT. Perhaps from airo (see note LV above). Root means to fit together. This is to please or be agreeable. It implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval. It is often used for moral agreement. It can mean being agreeable or trying to be agreeable. Used 9x of pleasing people in a negative way, 5x of pleasing people in a positive way, and 3x of pleasing God.
CXXXVI “guests” = sunanakeimai. Related to “villages” in v6. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anakeimai (to recline, particularly as one does for dinner; also reclining as a corpse); {from ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (see note XLVI above)}. This is to dine, recline at a table with someone else, a dinner guest, the table itself.

and the king said to the girl,CXXXVII “AskCXXXVIII me for whatever you wish,CXXXIX and I will give it.” 23 And he solemnly sworeCXL to her, “WhateverCXLI you ask me, I will give you, even half of my kingdom.”CXLII 

24 She went out and said to her mother, “What should I ask for?”

She replied, “The headCXLIII of John the baptizer.” 

Notes on verses 22b-24

CXXXVII “girl” = korasion. 8x in NT– 4x of the girl restored to life & 4x of Salome. From kore (maiden). This is a little girl or maiden.
CXXXVIII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
CXXXIX “wish” = thelo. Same as “wanted” in v19. See note CX above.
CXL “swore” = omnuo. This is to swear, to make an oath.
CXLI “whatever” = polus. Same as “many” in v2. See note XI above.
CXLII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “king” in v14. From basileus (see note LXXXIV above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CXLIII “head” = kephale. Related to “beheaded” in v16. See note XCIX above.

25 ImmediatelyCXLIV she rushed backCXLV to the king and requested,CXLVI “I want you to give me at onceCXLVII the head of John the BaptistCXLVIII on a platter.”CXLIX 

Notes on verse 25

CXLIV “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “laid” in v5 & “opportunity” in v21. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note CXXIII above) + tithemi (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CXLV “rushed back” = eiserchomaimeta + spoude. Eiserchomai is the same as “enter” in v10. See note LXVII above. Spoude is related to “feet” in v11. 12x in NT. From speudo (to hurry, urge on, await); probably from pous (see note LXXIV above). This is haste, diligence, earnestness, effort. It is being swift to demonstrate one’s enthusiasm. It is doing what one is told right away and with full effort.
CXLVI “requested” = aiteo. Same as “ask” in v22. See note CXXXVIII above.
CXLVII “at once” = exautes. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + autos (he, she, self, they, same). Literally “from that one,” with the sense of “from that hour.” So, it is at once, immediately.
CXLVIII “Baptist” = baptistes. Related to “baptizer” in v14. 12x in NT. From baptizo (see note XCI above). This is baptizer or Baptist. The term is only used for John the Baptist.
CXLIX “platter” = pinax. 5x in NT. Perhaps from plax (something flat and broad, stone tablet); from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a dish, platter, disc, board, or charger.

26 The king wasCL deeply grieved;CLI yet out of regard for his oathsCLII and for the guests,CLIII he did not want to refuseCLIV her. 

Notes on verse 26

CL “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
CLI “deeply grieved” = perilupos. 5x in NT– including 2x when Jesus prays in Gethsemane in Matthew and Mark. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is very sorrowful, deeply grieved.
CLII “oaths” = horkos. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is an oath or vow. It is something with limits, done for a sacred purpose.
CLIII “guests” = anakeimai. Related to “villages” in v6 & “guests” in v22. 14x in NT. See note CXXXVI above.
CLIV “refuse” = atheteo. Related to “laid” in v5 & “immediately” in v25. 16x in NT. From athetos (not having position or place); {from a (not) + tithemi (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting. It can also mean to annul or cancel out the effect of something. Literally, this is to un-place. It can also be rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid.

27 Immediately the king sent a soldier of the guardCLV with ordersCLVI to bringCLVII John’s head. He wentCLVIII and beheaded him in the prison, 28 brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the girl. Then the girl gave it to her mother. 29 When his disciples heard about it, they came and took his body,CLIX and laidCLX it in a tomb.CLXI

Notes on verses 27-29

CLV “soldier of the guard” = spekoulator. 1x in NT. From Latin speculator (“a spy, explorer, investigator”; one of the legion or who worked for the governor to do executions); from specular (to watch, spy); from specula (watchtower, lookout); from specio (to observe). This is a scout, spy, guard, executioner. It shares a root with the word “speculate.” See
CLVI “with orders” = epitasso. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange, command, charge, order. It is a command that brings things into their proper order – so that they fit together.
CLVII “bring” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVIII “went” = aperchomai. Related to “left” and “came” in v1 & “enter” in v10. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIX “body” = ptoma. 7x in NT. From pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is a fall, misfortune, ruin, corpse.
CLX “laid” = tithemi. Related to “laid” in v5 & “immediately” in v25 & “refuse” in v26. See note XXXVIII above.
CLXI “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to {untranslated} in v8 & “stay” in v10. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note LVIII above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.

30 The apostlesCLXII gatheredCLXIII around Jesus, and toldCLXIV him all that they had done and taught. 

Notes on verse 30

CLXII “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “send…out” in v7. From apostello (see note XLIX above). This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
CLXIII “gathered” = sunago. Related to “synagogue” in v2 & “went about” in v6 & “ordered” in v8. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note X above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CLXIV “told” = apaggello. Related to “synagogue” in v2 & “went about” in v6 & “ordered” in v8 & “gathered” n v30. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (see note LIV above). This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.

31 He said to them, “ComeCLXV away to a desertedCLXVI place all by yourselvesCLXVII and restCLXVIII a while.”CLXIX

Notes on verse 31a

CLXV “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
CLXVI “deserted” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
CLXVII “by yourselves” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CLXVIII “rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
CLXIX “a while” = oligos. Same as “few” in v5. See note XXXIX above.

For many were coming and going,CLXX and they had no leisureCLXXI even to eat.CLXXII 32 And they went awayCLXXIII in the boatCLXXIV to a deserted place by themselves.CLXXV 

Notes on verses 31b-32

CLXX “going” = hupago. Related to “synagogue” in v2 & “went about” in v6 & “ordered” in v8 & “gathered” and “told” in v30. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note X above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
CLXXI “had…leisure” = eukaireo. Related to “opportunity” in v21 & “immediately” in v25. 3x in NT. From eukairos (see note CXXIII above). This is to have a good opportunity, to spend free time at something, to have a good time.
CLXXII “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CLXXIII “went away” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v27. See note CLVIII above.
CLXXIV “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
CLXXV “themselves” = idios. Same as “by yourselves” in v31. See note CLXVII above.

33 Now many sawCLXXVI them goingCLXXVII and recognizedCLXXVIII them, and they hurriedCLXXIX there on footCLXXX from all the towns and arrived aheadCLXXXI of them. 

Notes on verse 33

CLXXVI “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CLXXVII “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v31. See note CLXX above.
CLXXVIII “recognized” = epiginosko. Related to “repent” in v12 & “name” in v14. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note LXXIX above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
CLXXIX “hurried” = suntrecho. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run, hurry together. Figuratively, it can be to gather quickly or rush headlong.
CLXXX “on foot” = peze. Related to “feet” in v11 & “rushed back” in v25. 2x in NT. From pous (see note LXXIV above). This is by foot, over the land, walking.
CLXXXI “arrived ahead” = proerchomai. Related to “left” and “came” in v1 & “enter” in v10 & “went” in v27. 9x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go before, advance. It is to be located forward or earlier in time.

34 As he went ashore,CLXXXII he saw a great crowd; and he had compassionCLXXXIII for them, because they were like sheepCLXXXIV withoutCLXXXV a shepherd;CLXXXVI and he began to teach them many things. 

Notes on verse 34

CLXXXII “went ashore” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXXIII “had compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
CLXXXIV “sheep” = probaton. Related to “king” in v4 & “kingdom” n v23. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (see note LXXXIV above)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CLXXXV “without” = me + echo. Literally, “not having.” Echo is the same as “have” in v18. See note CVIII above.
CLXXXVI “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 

35 When it grew late,CLXXXVII his disciples cameCLXXXVIII to him and said, “This is a deserted place, and the hour is now very late;CLXXXIX 36 send them awayCXC so that they may goCXCI into the surroundingCXCII countryCXCIII and villages and buyCXCIV something for themselves to eat.” 

Notes on verses 35-36

CLXXXVII “grew late” = hora + polus + ginomai. Literally, “the hour became many.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from .Polus is the same as “many” in v2. See note XI above. Ginomai is the same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
CLXXXVIII “came” = proserchomai. Related to “left” and “came” in v1 & “enter” in v10 & “went” in v27 & “arrived ahead” in v33. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CLXXXIX “late” = polus. Same as “many” in v2. See note XI above.
CXC “send…away” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CXCI “go” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v27. See note CLVIII above.
CXCII “surrounding” = kuklo. Same as “among” in v6. See note XLV above.
CXCIII “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
CXCIV “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.

37 But he answered them, “You give them something to eat.”

They said to him, “Are we to goCXCV and buy two hundredCXCVI denariiCXCVII worth of bread, and give it to them to eat?” 

38 And he said to them, “How many loavesCXCVIII have you? GoCXCIX and see.”

When they had found out,CC they said, “Five,CCI and two fish.”CCII 

Notes on verses 37-38

CXCV “go” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v27. See note CLVIII above.
CXCVI “two hundred” = diakosioi. Related to “twelve” and “two” in v7. 8x in NT. From dis (twice, utterly, again); {from duo (see note XLVIII above)} + hekaton (hundred). This is two hundred.
CXCVII “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
CXCVIII “loaves” = artos. Same as “bread” in v8. See note LIX above.
CXCIX “go” = hupago. Same as “going” in v31. See note CLXX above.
CC “found out” = ginosko. Related to “repent” in v12 & “name” in v14 & “recognized” in v33. See note LXXIX above.
CCI “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
CCII “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See

39 Then he orderedCCIII them to get all the people to sit downCCIV in groupsCCV on the greenCCVI grass.CCVII 

Notes on verse 39

CCIII “ordered” = epitasso. Same as “with orders” in v27. See note CLVI above.
CCIV “sit down” = anaklino. 6x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is to lay down, recline, lie back, or sit down.
CCV “groups” = sumposion. 2x in NT. From sumpino (to drink with); {from sun (with, together with) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively)}. This is a group or party of people who drink together. It can also be a place that guests congregate. This is where the word “symposium” comes from.
CCVI “green” = chloros. 4x in NT. Related to Chloe (Chloe; a name referring to young plant growth or meaning verdant; also a name for the goddess Demeter); from chloe (young plant growth). This is greenish, pale green, brownish-gray, or pale. It is the root of “chlorophyll” and “chlorine.”
CCVII “grass” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.

40 So they sat downCCVIII in groupsCCIX of hundredsCCX and of fifties.CCXI 41 TakingCCXII the five loaves and the two fish, he looked upCCXIII to heaven,CCXIV

Notes on verses 40-41a

CCVIII “sat down” = anapipto. Related to “body” in v29. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (see note CLIX above). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.
CCIX “groups” = prasia. 2x in NT. From prason (leek; place where onions are grown). This is a garden bed. By analogy, it can refer to a group that is organized in ranks or other divisions.
CCX “hundreds” = hekaton. Related to “two hundred” in v37. 17x in NT. See note CXCVI above.
CCXI “fifties” = pentekonta. Related to “twelve” in v7 & “five” in v38. 7x in NT. From pente (see note CCI above) + deka (see note XLVIII above). This is fifty.
CCXII “taking” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CCXIII “looked up” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.
CCXIV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

and blessedCCXV and brokeCCXVI the loaves, and gave them to his disciples to set beforeCCXVII the people; and he dividedCCXVIII the two fish among them all. 42 And all ate and were filled;CCXIX 

Notes on verses 41b-42

CCXV “blessed” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v2 & “opportunity” in v21 & “immediately” in v25 & “had…leisure” in v31. From eu (see note CXXIII above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XIV above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CCXVI “broke” = kataklao. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This is to break apart, divide.
CCXVII “set before” = paratithemi. Related to “laid” in v5 & “immediately” in v25 & “refuse” in v26 & “laid” in v29. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is properly, to se beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
CCXVIII “divided” = merizo. 14x in NT. From meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to divide, distribute, assign, apportion – separate into parts, bestow, share.
CCXIX “were filled” = chortazo. Related to “grass” in v39. 16x in NT. From chortos (see note CCVII above). This is to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy. It carries the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food.

43 and they took upCCXX twelve basketsCCXXI fullCCXXII of broken piecesCCXXIII and of the fish. 44 Those who had eaten the loaves numberedCCXXIV five thousandCCXXV men.

Notes on verses 43-44

CCXX “took up” = airo. Same as “take” in v8. See note LV above.
CCXXI “baskets” = kophinos. 6x in NT. This is a basket, perhaps made of wicker.
CCXXII “full” = pleroma. 18x in NT. From pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.
CCXXIII “broken pieces” = klasma. Related to “broke” in v41. 9x in NT. From klao (see note CCXVI above). This is a fragment or broken piece.
CCXXIV “numbered” = eimi. Same as “is” in v3. See note XX above.
CCXV “five thousand” = pentakischilioi. Related to “offices” in v21 & “five” in v38 & “fifties” in v40. 6x in NT. From pentakis (five times); {from pente (see note CCI above)} + chilioi (see note CXXIX above). This is five thousands.

45 Immediately he madeCCXXVI his disciples getCCXXVII into the boat and go on aheadCCXXVIII to the other side,CCXXIX to Bethsaida,CCXXX while he dismissedCCXXXI the crowd. 

Notes on verse 45

CCXXVI “made” = anagkazo. 9x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is to urge, compel, or force.
CCXXVII “get” = embaino. Related to “king” in v14 & “kingdom” in v23 & “sheep” in v34. 17x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + baino (see note LXXXIV above). This is to step onto – embark on a boat.
CCXXVIII “go on ahead” = proago. Related to “synagogue” in v2 & “went about” in v6 & “ordered” in v8 & “gathered” and “told” in v30 & “going” in v31. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note X above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CCXXIX “other side” = peran. Related to pera (on the far side); from peiro (to pierce). This is over, beyond, the opposite side.
CCXXX “Bethsaida” = Bethsaida. 7x in NT. From Aramaic bet (house) + tsaida (hunting); related to Hebrew bayit (house, family); {from banah (to build)} + tsayid (hunting, catch, the chase); {from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people)} OR from Aramaic bet (house) + chasda (grace); related to Hebrew chesed (favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed; when done by humanity to God, it is piety); {from chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here)}. This is Bethsaida, meaning either house of fish or house of grace.
CCXXXI “dismissed” = apoluo. Same as “send…away” in v36. See note CXC above.

46 After saying farewellCCXXXII to them, he went upCCXXXIII on the mountainCCXXXIV to pray.CCXXXV

Notes on verse 46

CCXXXII “saying farewell” = apotasso. Related to “with orders” in v27. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tasso (see note CLVI above). This is to say goodbye, to dismiss someone, renounce, give up, set apart, forsake.
CCXXXIII “went up” = aperchomai. Same as “went” in v27. See note CLVIII above.
CCXXXIV “mountain” = oros. Related to “take” and “bread” in v8 & “pleased” in v22. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note LV above). This is mountain or hill.
CCXXXV “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

47 When eveningCCXXXVI came,CCXXXVII the boat was out on the sea,CCXXXVIII and he was aloneCCXXXIX on the land.CCXL 

Notes on verse 47

CCXXXVI “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
CCXXXVII “came” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
CCXXXVIII “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CCXXXIX “alone” = monos. Related to {untranslated} in v8 & “stay” in v10 & “tomb” in v29. Perhaps from meno (see note LVIII above). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
CCXL “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

48 When he saw that they were strainingCCXLI at the oarsCCXLII against an adverse wind,CCXLIII

Notes on verse 48a

CCXLI “straining” = basanizo. Related to “king” in v14 & “kingdom” in v23 & “sheep” in v34 & “get” in v45. 12x in NT. From basanos (touchstone used to test metals; figuratively used for interrogating using torture, torment, pain sickness); perhaps from the same as basis (see note LXXXIV above). This is to torture, interrogate by torture, torment, batter with waves, examine, strain.
CCXLII “oars” = elauno. 5x in NT. This is to propel or carry – to drive forward with oars or like the wind does. It can also refer to being driven by a demon.
CCXLIII “wind” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.

he came towards them early in the morning,CCXLIV walkingCCXLV on the sea. He intendedCCXLVI to pass them by.CCXLVII 

Notes on verse 48b

CCXLIV “early in the morning” = tetartos + phulake + ho + nux. Literally, “fourth watch of the night.” Tetartos is 10x in NT. From tessares (four – used figuratively for total coverage). This is literally fourth. Figuratvely, it is a significant portion.  Phulake is from phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
CCXLV “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.                 
CCXLVI “intended” = thelo. Same as “wanted” in v19. See note CX above.
CCXLVII “pass…by” = parerchomai. Related to “left” and “came” in v1 & “enter” in v10 & “went” in v27 & “arrived ahead” in v33 & “came” in v35 From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note I above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.

49 But when they saw him walking on the sea, they thoughtCCXLVIII it was a ghostCCXLIX and cried out;CCL 50 for they all saw him and were terrified.CCLI But immediately he spoke to them and said, “Take heart,CCLII it is I; do not be afraid.”CCLIII 

Notes on verses 49-50

CCXLVII “thought” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CCXLIX “ghost” = phantasma. Related to “prophets” in v4 & “known” in v14. 2x in NT. From phantazo (to become visible or apparent); from phaino (see note XXXII above).  This is an appearance, manifestation, ghost, or spirit. It is where the word “phantasm” comes from.
CCL “cried out” = anakrazo. 5x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry or shout out loudly. It can be excited or as a scream.
CCLI “terrified” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
CCLII “take heart” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
CCLIII “be afraid” = phobeo. Same as “feared” in v20. See note CXII above.

51 Then he gotCCLIV into the boat with them and the wind ceased.CCLV And they were utterlyCCLVI astounded,CCLVII 

Notes on verse 51

CCLIV “got” = anabaino. Related to “king” in v14 & “kingdom” in v23 & “sheep” in v34 & “get” in v45 & “straining” in v48. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note LXXXIV above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CCLV “ceased” = kopazo. 3x in NT. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to tire, be stilled, stop, or cease. It can also mean to relax.
CCLVI “utterly” = lian + ek + perissos. Literally, “very much from abundance.” Perissos is from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.
CCLVII “astounded” = existemi. Related to “send…out” in v7 & “apostles” in v30. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note XLIX above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.

52 for they did not understandCCLVIII about the loaves, but their heartsCCLIX were hardened.CCLX 53 When they had crossed over,CCLXI they came to land at GennesaretCCLXII and moored the boat.CCLXIII 

Notes on verses 52-53

CCLVIII “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
CCLIX “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CCLX “hardened” = poroo. 5x in NT. From poros (a stone, callous). This is to harden, petrify, of rock. Figuratively, this can be insensitive, callous, or dense.
CCLXI “crossed over” = diaperao. Related to “other side” in v45. 6x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + peran (see note CCXXIX above). This is to cross or sail over entirely.
CCLXII “Gennesaret” = Gennesaret. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Kinaroth (lyre, maybe harp-shaped; root may mean to twang). This is west of the Sea of Galilee.
CCLXIII “moored the boat” = prosormizo. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + hormos (to anchor); {or from horme (onrush, quick motion forward, attempt, inclination, attempt)}. This is to anchor or moor to. It can imply making a landing.

54 When they gotCCLXIV out of the boat, people at onceCCLXV recognized him, 55 and rushed aboutCCLXVI that wholeCCLXVII regionCCLXVIII

Notes on verses 54-55a

CCLXIV “got” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v1. See note I above.
CCLXV “at once” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v25. See note CXLIV above.
CCLXVI “rushed about” = peritrecho. Related to “hurried” in v33. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing)) + trecho (see note CLXXIX above). This is to run around or across.
CCLXVII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CCLXVIII “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.

and began to bringCCLXIX the sickCCLXX on matsCCLXXI to wherever they heard he was. 

Notes on verse 55b

CCLXIX “bring” = periphero. Related to “bring” in v27. 3x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + phero (see note CLVII above). This is to carry around, transport, or be driven about.
CCLXX “sick” = kakos + echo. Kakos is 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly. Echo is the same as {untranslated} in v18. See note LXXVI above.
CCLXXI “mats” = krabattos. 11x in NT. From Ancient Macedonian grabos (oak or beech). This is a bed or pallet. It is a place for poor people, perhaps made of a quilt or a mat. Always used to refer to sick people on mats – 9x in the Gospels and 2x in the book of Acts.

56 And wherever he went,CCLXXII into villages or citiesCCLXXIII or farms,CCLXXIV they laid the sickCCLXXV in the marketplaces,CCLXXVI

Notes on verse 56a

CCLXXII “went” = eisporeuomai. Related to “leave” in v11 & “was perplexed” in v20. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (see note LXIX above). 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXIII “cities” = polis. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LXXVI above.
CCLXXIV “farms” = agros. Same as “country” in v36. See note CXCIII above.
CCLXXV “sick” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
CCLXXVI “marketplaces” = agora. Related to “buy” in v36. 11x in NT. See note CXCIV above.

and beggedCCLXXVII him that they might touchCCLXXVIII even the fringeCCLXXIX of his cloak;CCLXXX and all who touched it were healed.CCLXXXI

Notes on verse 56b

CCLXXVII “begged” = parakaleo. Related to “called” in v7. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note XLVII above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CCLXXVIII “touch” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
CCLXXIX “fringe” = kraspedon. 5x in NT. This is a border – a fringe, edge, or tassel.
CCLXXX “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CCLXXXI “healed” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

Image credit: “Jesus Walks on Water” by LUMO Project.

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