Matthew 27:11-54

Matthew 27:11-54
Passion Sunday A


11 Now JesusI stoodII before the governor,III

Notes on verse 11a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “stood” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
III “governor” = hegemon. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.

and the governor askedIV him,V “AreVI you the kingVII of the Jews?”VIII

Notes on verse 11b

IV “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
V {untranslated} = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
VI “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VII “king” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
VIII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

Jesus said,IX “You sayX so.” 12 But when he was accusedXI

Notes on verses 11c-12a

IX “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
X “say” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note V above.
XI “accused” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

by the chief priestsXII and elders,XIII he did not answer.XIV 

Notes on verse 12b

XII “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XIII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XIV “answer” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.

13 Then PilateXV said to him, “Do you not hearXVI how many accusations they make againstXVII you?” 

Notes on verse 13

XV “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
XVI “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XVII “accusations…make against” = katamartureo. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (to testify, give evidence; testify in a literal or figurative sense); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is testify or bear witness against.

14 But he gave him no answer, not even to a singleXVIII charge,XIX so that the governor was greatlyXX amazed.XXI

Notes on verse 14

XVIII “single” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XIX “charge” = rhema. Related to “asked” in v11. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (see note IV above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
XX “greatly” = lian. 12x in NT. This is very, exceedingly, utterly, vigorously.
XXI “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

15 Now at the festivalXXII the governor was accustomedXXIII to releaseXXIV

Notes on verse 15a

XXII “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
XXIII “accustomed” = etho. 4x in NT– 1x of Pilate’s custom of releasing a prisoner for the crowd, 1x of Jesus’s custom of teaching the crowds, 2x of the custom of going to the synagogue. This is a custom, what is customary – doing something habitually.
XXIV “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

aXXV prisonerXXVI for the crowd,XXVII anyone whom they wanted.XXVIII 

Notes on verse 15b

XXV “a” = heis. Same as “single” in v14. See note XVIII above.
XXVI “prisoner” = desmios. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
XXVII “crowd” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
XXVIII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

16 At that time they hadXXIX a notoriousXXX prisoner calledXXXI Jesus Barabbas.XXXII 

Notes on verse 16

XXIX “had” = echo. Related to “crowd” in v15. See note XXVII above.
XXX “notorious” = episemos. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}. This is prominent, conspicuous, remarkable, or notorious.
XXXI “called” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note V above.
XXXII “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.

17 So after they had gathered,XXXIII Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Messiah?”XXXIV 18 For he realizedXXXV that it was out of jealousyXXXVI that they had handed him over.XXXVII 

Notes on verses 17-18

XXXIII “gathered” = sunago. Related to “governor” in v11. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note III above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XXXIV “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XXXV “realized” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XXXVI “jealousy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
XXXVII “handed…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

19 While he was sittingXXXVIII on the judgment seat,XXXIX his wifeXL sent wordXLI to him,

Notes on verse 19a

XXXVIII “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
XXXIX “judgment seat” = bema. Related to “king” in v11. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (see note VII above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See
XL “wife” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XLI “sent word” = apostello. Related to “stood” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note II above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

“Have nothing to do with that innocentXLII man, for todayXLIII I have sufferedXLIV a great dealXLV because of a dreamXLVI about him.” 

Notes on verse 19b

XLII “innocent” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
XLIII “today” = semeron. Related to “sitting” in v19. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (see note XXXVIII above). This is today, now, at present.
XLIV “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
XLV “great deal” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XLVI “dream” = onar. 6x in NT– 4x of Joseph, father of Jesus, dreaming; 1x of the Wise Men dreaming, and 1x of Pilate’s wife. This is a dream as part of sleep and not a daydream.

20 Now the chief priests and the elders persuadedXLVII the crowds to ask forXLVIII Barabbas and to have Jesus killed.XLIX 

21 The governor again said to them, “Which of the twoL do you want me to release for you?”

And they said, “Barabbas.” 

Notes on verses 20-21

XLVII “persuaded” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
XLVIII “ask for” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XLIX “killed” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
L “two” = duo. This is two or both.

22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I doLI with Jesus who is called the Messiah?” 

AllLII of them said, “Let him be crucified!”LIII 

Notes on verse 22

LI “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LIII “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “stood” in v11 & “sent word” in v19. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note II abobe). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

23 Then he asked,LIV “Why, what evilLV has he done?”

But they shoutedLVI all the more,LVII “Let him be crucified!”

Notes on verse 23

LIV “asked” = phemi. Same as “said” in v11. See note IX above.
LV “evil” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
LVI “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
LVII “all the more” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.

24 So when Pilate sawLVIII that he could doLIX nothing but rather that a riotLX was beginning,LXI he tookLXII some waterLXIII

Notes on verse 24a

LVIII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LIX “could do” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.
LX “riot” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
LXI “beginning” = ginomai. Related to “wife” in v19. See note XL above.
LXII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LXIII “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

and washedLXIV his handsLXV before the crowd, saying, “I am innocentLXVI of this man’s blood;LXVII see to it yourselves.” 

Notes on verse 24b

LXIV “washed” = aponipto. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + nipto (to wash, particularly the hands, feet, or face; often used for ceremonial or ritual ablution as when Jesus washes the disciples’ feet in John 13 and during debates about the tradition of the elders as in Matthew 15 and Mark 7); {from nizo (to cleanse)}. This is to wash off.
LXV “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LXVI “innocent” = athoos. 2x in NT – both in Mt 27. From a (not) + thoe (penalty). Literally, this is unpunished – hence guiltless.
LXVII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

25 Then the peopleLXVIII as a wholeLXIX answered, “His blood be on us and on our children!”LXX 26 So he released Barabbas for them, and after floggingLXXI Jesus he handed him over to be crucified.

Notes on verses 25-26

LXVIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LXIX “whole” = pas. Same as “all” in v22. See note LII above.
LXX “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
LXXI “flogging” = phragelloo. 2x in NT. This is to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public.

27 Then the soldiersLXXII of the governor tookLXXIII Jesus into the governor’s headquarters,LXXIV and they gathered the wholeLXXV cohortLXXVI around him. 

Notes on verse 27

LXXII “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIII “took” = paralambano. Related to “took” in v24. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note LXII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
LXXIV “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
LXXV “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LXXVI “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See

28 They strippedLXXVII him and put a scarletLXXVIII robeLXXIX onLXXX him, 

Notes on verse 28

LXXVII “stripped” = ekduo. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (to sink). This is to strip off or take off.
LXXVIII “scarlet” = kokkinos. 6x in NT. From kokkos (kernel, seed). This is scarlet or cloth that is dyed scarlet from a dye made from an insect.
LXXIX “robe” = chlamus. 2x in NT. This is a chalmys – a sort robe or cloak that soldiers wore as well as magistrates and kings. It is a garment that denotes dignity or a particular office that is worn on top of the tunic.
LXXX “put…on” = peritithemi. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

29 and after twistingLXXXI some thornsLXXXII into a crownLXXXIII they putLXXXIV it on his head.LXXXV

Notes on verse 29a

LXXXI “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
LXXXII “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
LXXXIII “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
LXXXIV “put” = epitithemi. Related to “put…on” in v28. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note LXXX above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
LXXXV “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

They put a reedLXXXVI in his right handLXXXVII and kneltLXXXVIII before him and mockedLXXXIX him, saying, “Hail,XC King of the Jews!” 

Notes on verse 29b

LXXXVI “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
LXXXVII “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
LXXXVIII “knelt” = gonupeteo. 4x in NT. From gonu (knee) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to kneel or bow for supplication or entreaty.
LXXXIX “mocked” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
XC “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

30 They spatXCI on him and tookXCII the reed and struckXCIII him on the head. 

Notes on verse 30

XCI “spat” = emptuo. 6x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with’) + ptuo (to spit). This is to spit on.
XCII “took” = lambano. Same as “took” in v24. See note LXII above.
XCIII “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.

31 After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothesXCIV onXCV him. Then they led him awayXCVI to crucify him.

Notes on verse 31

XCIV “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XCV “put…on” = enduo. Related to “stripped” in v28. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (see note LXXVII above)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
XCVI “led…away” = apago. Related to “governor” in v11 & “gathered” in v17. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note III above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.

32 As they went out,XCVII they came uponXCVIII a manXCIX from CyreneC

Notes on verse 32a

XCVII “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XCVIII “came upon” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XCIX “man” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v24. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LVIII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
C “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See

namedCI Simon;CII they compelledCIII this man to carryCIV his cross.CV 

Notes on verse 32b

CI “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CIII “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
CIV “carry” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
CV “cross” = stauros. Related to “stood” in v11 & “sent word” in v19 & “crucified” in v22. See note LIII above.

33 And when they cameCVI to a placeCVII called GolgothaCVIII (which meansCIX Place of a Skull),CX 

Notes on verse 33

CVI “came” = erchomai. Related to “went out” in v32. See note XCVII above.
CVII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CVIII “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
CIX “means” = eimi. Same as “are” in v11. See note VI above.
CX “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

34 they offeredCXI him wineCXII to drink,CXIII mixedCXIV with gall,CXV but when he tastedCXVI it, he wouldCXVII not drink it. 

Notes on verse 34

CXI “offered” = didomi. Related to “handed…over” in v18. See note XXXVII above.
CXII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
CXIII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
CXIV “mixed” = mignumi. 4x in NT. This is to mix or mingle.
CXV “gall” = chole. 2x in NT. This is gall or bitter herbs. May be used figuratively to mean poison or bitterness.
CXVI “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.
CXVII “would” = thelo. Same as “wanted” in v15. See note XXVIII above.

35 And when they had crucified him, they dividedCXVIII his clothes among themselves by castingCXIX lots;CXX, CXXI 

Notes on verse 35

CXVIII “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CXIX “casting” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
CXX “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CXXI Some manuscripts add, “in order that what had been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, “They divided my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots.” = hina + pleroo + ho + ereo + hupo + ho + prophetes + ho + himation + ego + heautou + kai + epi + ho + himatismos + ego + ballo + kleros. Pleroo is from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill. Ereo is related to “asked” in v11. See note IV above. Prophetes is related to “said” in v11. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note IX above); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God. Himation is the same as “clothes” in v31. See note XCIV above. Himatismos is related to “clothes” in v31. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (see note XCIV above). This is clothing, apparel. Ballo is the same as “casting” in v35. See note CXIX above. Kleros is the same as “lots” in v35. See note CXX above.

36 then they sat down there and kept watchCXXII over him. 37 Over his head they putCXXIII the chargeCXXIV against him, which read,CXXV “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.”

Notes on verses 36-37

CXXII “kept watch” = tereo. Related to “amazed” in v14. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (see note XXI above). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
CXXIII “put” = epitithemi. Same as “put” in v29. See note LXXXIV above.
CXXIV “charge” = aitia. Related to “ask for” in v20. From aiteo (see note XLVIII above). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CXXV “read” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

38 Then two rebelsCXXVI were crucified with him, oneCXXVII on his rightCXXVIII and one on his left.CXXIX 

Notes on verse 38

CXXVI “rebels” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CXXVII “one” = heis. Same as “single” in v14. See note XVIII above.
CXXVIII “right” = dexios. Same as “right hand” in v29. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXIX “left” = euonumos. Related to “named” in v32. 9x in NT.  From eu (good, well, rightly) + onoma (see note CI above)}. This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.

39 Those who passed byCXXX deridedCXXXI him, shakingCXXXII their heads 

Notes on verse 39

CXXX “passed by” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
CXXXI “derided” = blasphemeo. Related to “said” in v11 & {untranslated} in v35. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note IX above)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CXXXII “shaking” = kineo. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.

40 and saying, “You who would destroyCXXXIII the templeCXXXIV and buildCXXXV it

Notes on verse 40a

CXXXIII “destroy” = kataluo. Related to “release” in v15. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (see note XXIV above). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CXXXIV “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CXXXV “build” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.

in threeCXXXVI days,CXXXVII saveCXXXVIII yourself! If you are the SonCXXXIX of God,CXL come downCXLI from the cross.” 

Notes on verse 40b

CXXXVI “three” = treis. This is three.
CXXXVII “days” = hemera. Related to “sitting” and “today” in v19. Perhaps from hemai (see note XXXVIII above). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CXXXVIII “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CXXXIX “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXL “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXLI “come down” = katabaino. Related to “king” in v11 & “judgement seat” in v19. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note VII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

41 In the same wayCXLII the chief priests also, along with the scribesCXLIII and elders, were mocking him, saying, 42 “He saved others;CXLIV

Notes on verses 41-42a

CXLII “in the same way” = homoios. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is likewise or equally.
CXLIII “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “read” in v37. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note CXXV above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXLIV “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

he cannotCXLV save himself. He is the King of Israel;CXLVI let him come down from the cross now, and we will believeCXLVII in him. 

Notes on verse 42b

CXLV “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXLVI “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CXLVII “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “persuaded” in v20. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note XLVII above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

43 He trustsCXLVIII in God; let God deliverCXLIX him now, if he wants to, for he said, ‘I am God’s Son.’” 44 The rebels who were crucifiedCL with him also tauntedCLI him in the same way.

Notes on verses 43-44

CXLVIII “trusts” = peitho. Same as “persuaded” in v20. See note XLVII above.
CXLIX “deliver” = rhuomai. 18x in NT– including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.
CL “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “stood” in v11 & “sent word” in v19 & “crucified” in v22 & “cross” in v32. 5x in NT– including “our old self was crucified with him” from Romans 6:6. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note LIII above). This is crucify together with.
CLI “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “named” in v32 & “left” in v38. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note CI above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

45 From noonCLII on, darknessCLIII cameCLIV

Notes on verse 45a

CLII “noon” = hektos + hora. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth. Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CLIII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CLIV “came” = ginomai. Same as “beginning” in v24. See note LXI above.

over the wholeCLV landCLVI until three in the afternoon.CLVII 

Notes on verse 45b

CLV “whole” = pas. Same as “all” in v22. See note LII above.
CLVI “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CLVII “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally, “ninth hour.” Hora is the same as “noon” in v45. See note CLII above. Ennatos is related to “prisoner” in v15. 10x in NT. From enatos (needy, lacking); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (see note XXVI above)} OR from ennea (nine). This is ninth.

46 And about three o’clock Jesus criedCLVIII with a loudCLIX voice,CLX “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?”CLXI that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsakenCLXII me?” 

Notes on verse 46

CLVIII “cried” = anaboao. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + boao (cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance); {from boe (a cry, shout)}. This is to cry out with intensity and urgency.
CLIX “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CLX “voice” = phone. Related to “said” in v11 & {untranslated} in v35 & “derided” in v39. Probably from phemi (see note IX above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CLXI “Eli Eli lema sabachthani” = Eli + Eli + lama + sabachthani. Eli is related to “Israel” in v27:9. 2x in NT. From Aramaic El (God); from Hebrew El (see note CXLVI above). This is God. Lema is 2x in NT. From Hebrew mah (what, how, why, whatever). This is why. Sabachthani is 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, permit, forsake). This is forsake or leave.
CLXII “forsaken” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

47 When some of the bystandersCLXIII heard it, they said, “This man is callingCLXIV for Elijah.”CLXV 

Notes on verse 47

CLXIII “bystanders” = histemi. Same as “stood” in v11. See note II above.
CLXIV “calling” = phoneo. Related to “said” in v11 & {untranslated} in v35 & “derided” in v39 & “voice” in v46. From phone (see note CLX above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CLXV “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v11& “Israel” in v42 & “Eli” in v46. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from El (see note CXLVI above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

48 At onceCLXVI one of them ranCLXVII and gotCLXVIII a sponge,CLXIX

Notes on verse 48a

CLXVI “at once” = eutheos. Related to “left” in v38 & “put…on” in v28 & “put” in v29. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note CXXIX above) + tithemi (see note LXXX above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CLXVII “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CLXVIII “got” = lambano. Same as “took” in v24. See note LXII above.
CLXIX “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See

filledCLXX it with sour wine,CLXXI put it onCLXXII a stick,CLXXIII and gave it to him to drink.CLXXIV 

Notes on verse 48b

CLXX “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
CLXXI “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v29. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (see note LXXXII above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CLXXII “put…on” = peritithemi. Same as “put…on” in v28. See note LXXX above.
CLXXIII “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v29. See note LXXXVI above.
CLXXIV “gave…to drink” = potizo. Related to “drink” in v34. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (see note CXIII above). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.

49 But the othersCLXXV said, “Wait,CLXXVI let us see whether Elijah will comeCLXXVII to save him.”CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 49

CLXXV “others” = loipos. Related to “forsaken” in v46. From leipo (see note CLXII above). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
CLXXVI “wait” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CLXXVII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v33. See note CVI above.
CLXXVIII Some manuscripts add “And another took a spear and pierced his side, and out came water and blood” = allos + de + lambano + logche + nusso + autos + ho + pleura + kai + exerchomai + hudor + kai + haima. Allos is the same as “others” in v42. See note CXLIV above. Lambano is the same as “took” in v24. See note LXII above. Logche is 2x in NT. This is a lance or spear. Nusso is 2x in NT. This is to pierce or prick. Pleura is 6x in NT. This is a rib, which extends to the side of the body in general. This is where the word “pleurisy” comes from. Exerchomai is the same as “went out” in v32. See note XCVII above. Hudor is the same as “water” in v24. See note LXIII above. Haima is the same as “blood” in v24. See note LXVII above.

50 Then Jesus criedCLXXIX againCLXXX with a loud voice and breathedCLXXXI his last. 

Notes on verse 50

CLXXIX “cried” = krazo. Same as “shouted” in v23. See note LVI above.
CLXXX “again” = palin. Perhaps from pael (wrestle, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway). This is back, again, further.
CLXXXI “breathed” = aphiemi + ho + pneuma. Aphiemi is the same as “wait” in v49. See note CLXXVI above. Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

51 At that momentCLXXXII the curtainCLXXXIII of the temple was tornCLXXXIV in two,

Notes on verse 51a

CLXXXII “at that moment” = idou. Related to “realized” in v18. From eido (see note XXXV above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CLXXXIII “curtain” = katapetasma.6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
CLXXXIV “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).

from topCLXXXV to bottom.CLXXXVI The earthCLXXXVII shook,CLXXXVIII and the rocksCLXXXIX were split.CXC 

Notes on verse 51b

CLXXXV “top” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.
CLXXXVI “bottom” = kato. 10x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among). This is down, below, lower, bottom, under.
CLXXXVII “earth” = ge. Same as “land” in v45. See note CLVI above.
CLXXXVIII “shook” = seio. 5x in NT. This is shake, move, or quake. Properly, it is shaking back and forth. Figuratively, it can mean to agitate or to cause people to have tremors of fear or worry.
CLXXXIX “rocks” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
CXC “split” = schizo. Same as “torn” in v51. See note CLXXXIV above.

52 The tombsCXCI also were opened,CXCII and manyCXCIII bodiesCXCIV

Notes on verse 52a

CXCI “tombs” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CXCII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
CXCIII “many” = polus. Same as “great deal” in v19. See note XLV above.
CXCIV “bodies” = soma. Related to “save” in v40. Perhaps from sozo (see note CXXXVIII above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

of the saintsCXCV who had fallen asleepCXCVI were raised.CXCVII 

Notes on verse 52b

CXCV “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXCVI “fallen asleep” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CXCVII “raised” = egeiro. Related to “accused” in v12. Perhaps from agora (see note XI above). This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

53 After his resurrectionCXCVIII they cameCXCIX out of the tombs and enteredCC the holyCCI city and appearedCCII to many. 

Notes on verse 53

CXCVIII “resurrection” = egersis. Related to “accused” in v12 & “raised” in v52. 1x in NT. From egeiro (see note CXCVII above). This is rousing, waking up, resurrection from death.
CXCIX “came” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v32. See note XCVII above.
CC “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “went out” in v32 & “came” in v33. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XCVII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CCI “holy” = hagios. Same as “saints” in v52. See note CXCV above.
CCII “appeared” = emphanizo. Related to {untranslated} in v35 & “voice” in v46 & “derided” in v47. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (see note CXXI above)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.

54 Now when the centurionCCIII and those with him, who were keeping watch over Jesus, saw the earthquakeCCIV and what took place,CCV they were terrifiedCCVI and said, “TrulyCCVII this man was God’s Son!”

Notes on verse 54

CCIII “centurion” = hekatontarches. Related to “chief priests” in v12. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (see note XII above). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
CCIV “earthquake” = seismos. Related to “shook” in v51. 14x in NT. From seio (see note CLXXXVIII above). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
CCV “took place” = ginomai. Same as “beginning” in v24. See note LXI above.
CCVI “terrified” = phobeo + sphodra. Phobeo is from phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is wh[ere the word phobia comes from. Sphodra is 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
CCVII “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.

Image credit: “Golgotha of Beskids – Station IV.” This is Simon of Cyrene carrying the cross near Radziechowy village in Poland. Photo by Magnus Manske, 2009.

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