Matthew 10:24-39

Matthew 10:24-39
Proper 7A


24 “A discipleA isB not above the teacherC nor a slaveD above the master;E 

Notes on verse 24

A “disciple” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
B “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
C “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
D “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
E “master” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

25 it is enoughF for the disciple to beG like the teacher and the slave like the master. If they have calledH

Notes on verse 25a

F “enough” = arketos. 3x in NT– same word as “today’s trouble is enough for today” from Matthew 6:34. From arkeo (to assist, be satisfied or sufficient; properly, to ward off, by extension being satisfactory). This is enough or satisfactory.
G “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
H “called” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.

the master of the houseI Beelzebul,J how much moreK will they malign those of his household!L

Notes on verse 25b

I “master of the house” = oikodespotes. Related to “slave” in v24. 12x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction); {from deo (see note D above)} + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
J “Beelzebul” = Beelzeboul. 7x in NT. From Hebrew baal zebub (Baal Zebub, meaning “Baal of flies,” a god of the Phoenicians); {from Baal (Baal); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + zebub (a fly, particularly one that stings; root may mean to flit). This is Beelzebul – literally “lord of the flies.”
K “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
L “household” = oikiakos. Related to “master of the house” in v25. 2x in NT – both in Matthew 10. From oikia (a house, household, goods, property, family, or means); from oikos (see note I above). This is part of a household – it can be a family member or a servant.

26 “So have no fearM of them, for nothing is covered upN that will not be uncoveredO

Notes on verse 26a

M “have…fear” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
N “covered up” = kalupto. 8x in NT. Related to kalube (hut, cabin). This is to cover, hide, veil, or conceal. Figuratively, it can mean to keep hidden or secret.
O “uncovered” = apokalupto. Related to “covered up” in v26. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (see note N above). This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.

and nothing secretP that will not become known.Q 27 What I sayR to you in the dark,S

Notes on verses 26b-27a

P “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
Q “known” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
R “say” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
S “dark” = skotia. 16x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness or dimness. Figuratively, it can be a spiritual darkness. This is obscurity in a literal or figurative sense.

tell in the light,T and what you hearU whispered,V proclaimW from the housetops.X 

Notes on verse 27b

T “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
U “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
V “whispered” = eis + ho + ous. Literally, “into the ear.” Ous is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
W “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
X “housetops” = doma. 7x in NT. From demo (to build). This is housetop or roof – a flat roof. Properly, it is more generally a building, but used specifically for roofs.

28 Do not fear those who killY the bodyZ but cannotAA kill the soul;BB

Notes on verse 28a

Y “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
Z “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
AA “cannot” = me + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
BB “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

rather,CC fear the one who can destroyDD both soul and body in hell.EE 

Notes on verse 28b

CC “rather” = mallon. Same as “more” in v25. See note K above.
DD “destroy” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
EE “hell” = geenna. 12x in NT. From Hebrew Gehinnom (valley of Hinnom); from gay (valley; a gorge that is not a winter torrent) + Hinnom (most likely of foreign origin, perhaps from the Jebusites). This is Gehenna or hell, referring to a valley outside of Jerusalem and used figuratively for hell.

29 Are not twoFF sparrowsGG soldHH for a penny?II

Notes on verse 29a

FF “two” = duo. This is two or both.
GG “sparrows” = strouthion. 4x in NT – all in Matthew 10 and Luke 12 in parallel passages. From strouthos (sparrow). This is a little bird or a sparrow.
HH “sold” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
II “penny” = assarion. 2x in NT – in Matthew 10 and Luke 12 in parallel passages. From Latin assarius (related to an as); from as (“bronze Roman coin”). This is an assarion, which was not very valuable. It was “one tenth of a drachma.” See &

Yet not oneJJ of them will fallKK to the groundLL apart fromMM your Father.NN 

Notes on verse 29b

JJ “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
KK “fall” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
LL “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
MM “apart from” = aneu. 3x in NT. Perhaps related to a (not, without). This is without or apart.
NN “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

30 And even the hairsOO of your headPP are allQQ

Notes on verse 30a

OO “hairs” = thrix. 15x in NT. This is hair, whether human or animal.
PP “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
QQ “all” = pas. This is all, every.

counted.RR 31 So do not be afraid; you are of more valueSS than manyTT sparrows.

Notes on verses 30b-31

RR “counted” = arithmeo. 3x in NT. From arithmos (a number or total that has been counted to together); from airo (to raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to number or count. It shares a root with “arithmetic,” which literally means the “art of counting.” See
SS “of more value” = diaphero. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
TT “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.

32 “Everyone,UU therefore, who acknowledgesVV me before others,WW I also will acknowledge before my Father in heaven,XX 33 but whoever deniesYY me before others, I also will deny before my Father in heaven.

Notes on verses 32-33

UU “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v30. See note QQ above.
VV “acknowledges” = homologeo. Related to “say” in v27. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note R above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
WW “others” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “counted” in v30. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note RR above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
YY “denies” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.

34 “Do not thinkZZ that I have comeAAA to bringBBB

Notes on verse 34a

ZZ “think” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
AAA “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
BBB “bring” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.

peaceCCC to the earth;DDD I have not come to bring peace but a sword.EEE

Notes on verse 34b

CCC “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
DDD “earth” = ge. Same as “ground” in v29. See note LL above.
EEE “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

35 For I have come to setFFF a manGGG against his father,
and a daughterHHH against her mother,III

Notes on verse 35a

FFF “set” = dichazo. Related to “two” in v29. 1x in NT. From dicha (apart) OR related to dis (twice, utterly, again). This is to separate, cause to be hostile.
GGG “man” = anthropos. Same as “others” in v32. See note WW above.
HHH “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
III “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.

and a daughter-in-lawJJJ against her mother-in-law,KKK
36 and one’sLLL foesMMM will be members of one’s own household.

Notes on verses 35b-36

JJJ “daughter-in-law” = numphe. 8x in NT. Perhaps from nupto (to put on a veil as a bride does – in Latin nupto means simple to marry); related to numphon (the room where the marriage bed is). This is bride, daughter-in-law, young wife, or young woman. This shares a root with “nymph” and “nymphomaniac.”
KKK “mother-in-law” = penthera. 6x in NT. From pentheros (specifically a wife’s father). This is the wife’s mother.
LLL “one’s” = anthropos. Same as “others” in v32. See note WW above.
MMM “foes” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.

37 “Whoever lovesNNN father or mother more than me is not worthyOOO of me, and whoever loves sonPPP or daughter more than me is not worthy of me, 

Notes on verse 37

NNN “loves” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
OOO “worthy” = axios. From ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
PPP “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

38 and whoever does not take upQQQ the crossRRR and followSSS me is not worthy of me. 

Notes on verse 38

QQQ “take up” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
RRR “cross” = stauros. From the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This is an upright stake, cross. Literally refers to the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die.
SSS “follow” = akoloutheo + opiso. Akoloutheo is from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does. Opiso is related to “others” in v32. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note WW above). This is back, behind, after.

39 Those who findTTT their lifeUUU will loseVVV it, and those who lose their life for my sake will find it.

Notes on verse 39

TTT “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
UUU “life” = psuche. Same as “soul” in v28. See note BB above.
VVV “lose” = apollumi. Same as “destroy” in v28. See note DD above.

Image credit: “Ring Sparrows and Insect” by Ohara Koson. Digitally enhanced by Rawpixel Ltd, 2018.

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