Numbers 33

Numbers 33


These are the stagesI by which the IsraelitesII went outIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “stages” = massa. 12x in OT– all in the first five books of the Bible. From nasa (properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes; striking tents in order to start a journey; to bring, pull out, set out, journey, or cause to go away). This is a departure, striking camp, travelling by stages a station or march.
II “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
III “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

of the landIV of EgyptV in military formationVI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
V “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
VI “military formation” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.

under the leadershipVII of MosesVIII and Aaron.IX 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “leadership” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
VIII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
IX “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See

Moses wrote downX their starting points,XI stage by stage, by commandXII of the Lord,XIII and these are their stages according to their starting places.XIV 

Notes on verse 2

X “wrote down” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.
XI “starting points” = motsa. Related to “went out” in v1. From yatsa (see note III above). This is going forth as an act or the site from which something goes forth. It could mean exiting a place or the place where one exits. It can also be a source or a produce. Specifically, it can be a spring or fountain, the dawn as the rising of the sin, an export, gate mine, and so on.
XII “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
XIII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XIV “starting places” = motsa. Same as “starting points” in v2. See note XI above.

They set outXV from RamesesXVI in the firstXVII month,XVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “set out” = nasa. Related to “stages” in v1. See note I above.
XVI “Rameses” = Rameses. 5x in OT. From Egyptian r’ (Ra) + msj (“to give birth to”) + sw (him). This is a city name in Egypt, which literally means, “Ra is the one who bore him.” See
XVII “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
XVIII “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.

on the fifteenthXIX dayXX of the first month; on the day afterXXI the PassoverXXII

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “fifteenth” = chamesh + asar. Chamesh is five. Asar is related to eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
XX “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXI “day after” = mochorath. From the same as machar (tomorrow or later; deferred time; indefinitely or the time to come); perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is the next day or next morning.
XXII “Passover” = Pesach. From pasach (to stop, pass over, skip over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. It means exemption.

the Israelites went out boldlyXXIII in the sightXXIV of allXXV the Egyptians,XXVI 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIII “boldly” = yad + rum. Yad is the same as “leadership” in v1. See note VII above. Rum is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
XXIV “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XXV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXVI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v1. From the same as mitsrayim (see note V above). This is Egyptian.

while the Egyptians were buryingXXVII all their firstborn,XXVIII whom the Lord had struck downXXIX among them. The Lord executedXXX judgmentsXXXI even against their gods.XXXII

Notes on verse 4

XXVII “burying” = qabar. This is to bury or inter. It could also refer to the person who does the burying.
XXVIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
XXIX “struck down” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XXX “executed” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXXI “judgments” = shephet. 16x in OT. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a judgment or a sentence.
XXXII “gods” = elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v1. From eloah (God, a god); from el (see note II above). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.

So the Israelites set out from Rameses and campedXXXIII at Succoth.XXXIV They set out from Succoth and camped at Etham,XXXV which is on the edgeXXXVI of the wilderness.XXXVII 

Notes on verses 5-6

XXXIII “camped” = chanah. This is decline, bending down, or living in tents. It can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle.
XXXIV “Succoth” = Sukkoth. 18x in OT. From sukkah (booth, canopy, shelter, tent, or tabernacle); from sok (lair, thicket, den, or hiding place; a den or pavilion as made of intertwined boughs); from sakak (to interweave, knit). This is Succoth, perhaps meaning “booths” or “weavings.” It is related to the Jewish holiday “Sukkoth,” the Festival of Booths. See
XXXV “Etham” = Etham. 4x in OT. This is Etham, which may mean “solid” or “enduring.” It could also be an alternate place name for Khetam, which means “fortress.” See
XXXVI “edge” = qatseh. From qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is end, brink, border, edge, frontier. It can refer to that which is within set boundaries.
XXXVII “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

They set out from Etham and turned backXXXVIII to Pi-hahiroth,XXXIX which facesXL

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVIII “turned back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XXXIX “Pi-hahiroth” = Pi Hachiroth. Related to “Command” in v2. 4x in OT. Perhaps from Egyptian pr (house) + uncertain OR perhaps from peh (see note XII above) + the same as chor (a hole, den, cavity); {from the same as chur (hole; a hole that was bored; a crevice where a snake lives; the cell of a prison)}. This is Pi-hahiroth or Hahiroth. It may mean “mouth of the gorges” or “mouth of the caverns” or “edge of the hollows” or “rudiments of nobility” or “place of meadows.” See
XL “faces” = al + paneh. Literally, “upon the face of.” Paneh is from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

Baal-zephon,XLI and they camped beforeXLII Migdol.XLIII 

Notes on verse 7b

XLI “Baal-zephon” = Baal Tsephon. 3x in OT. From Baal (Baal, used for several Canaanite gods; literally, “lord”); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + perhaps tsaphon (properly hidden, dark, or gloomy; the north); {from tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk).}. This is Baal-zephon or Baal Tsephon. A place whose name means, “Baal of winter” or “Lord of the Hidden Things” or “Lord of the North” or “Lord of Darkness” or “Place of Typhon.” See
XLII “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v7. See note XL above.
XLIII “Migdol” = Migdol. 6x in OT. Probably from gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing) OR it may be from Egyptian. This is Migdol, which may mean “tower.”

They set out fromXLIV Pi-hahiroth, passedXLV throughXLVI the seaXLVII into the wilderness,

Notes on verse 8a

XLIV “from” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v7. See note XL above.
XLV “passed” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
XLVI “through” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XLVII “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

wentXLVIII a threeXLIX days’ journeyL in the wilderness of Etham, and camped at Marah.LI 

Notes on verse 8b

XLVIII “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XLIX “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
L “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
LI “Marah” = Marah. 5x in OT. From the same as mar (bitterness literal or figurative); from marar (to be bitter, enraged, weep, grieve; properly, to trickle; to become bitter in a literal or figurative sense). This is Marah, a place whose name means “bitter.”

They set out from Marah and cameLII to Elim;LIII at Elim there were twelveLIV

Notes on verse 9a

LII “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LIII “Elim” = Elim. 6x in OT. From ayil (terebinth, oak); {from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power)} OR from alal (to stick out, protrude). This is Elim, a place whose name means “terebinths,” “palm-trees,” “large trees,” “grove of oaks,” or “protruder.” See
LIV “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Asar is the same as “fifteenth” in v3. See note XIX above.

springsLV of waterLVI and seventyLVII palm trees,LVIII and they camped there. 

Notes on verse 9b

LV “springs” = ayin. Same as “sight” in v3. See note XXIV above.
LVI “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LVII “seventy” = shibim. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventy.
LVIII “palm trees” = tamar. 12x in OT. From the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post). The root may mean being erect. This is a date palm or other palm tree. This is also the root of Tamar’s name in the Bible.

10 They set out from Elim and camped by the RedLIX Sea. 11 They set out from the Red Sea and camped in the wilderness of Sin.LX 12 They set out from the wilderness of Sin and camped at Dophkah.LXI 13 They set out from Dophkah and camped at Alush. 

Notes on verses 10-13

LIX “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See
LX “Sin” = Sin. 6x in OT. Perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay). This is Sin, the name of a city. It may mean, “clay” or “bush.” See
LXI “Dophkah” = Dophqah. 2x in OT. From daphaq (to knock, pound, drive hard; severe force or pressure). This is Dophkah or Dophqah, meaning “a knock.”

14 They set out from Alush and camped at Rephidim,LXII where there wasLXIII no water for the peopleLXIV to drink.LXV 

Notes on verse 14

LXII “Rephidim” = Rephidim. 5x in OT. From raphad (to spread, make a bed, refresh, comfort). This is Rephidim, meaning supports.
LXIII “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXIV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LXV “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.

15 They set out from Rephidim and camped in the wilderness of Sinai.LXVI 16 They set out from the wilderness of Sinai and camped at Kibroth-hattaavah.LXVII 17 They set out from Kibroth-hattaavah and camped at Hazeroth.LXVIII 

Notes on verses 15-17

LXVI “Sinai” = Sinay. Related to “Sin” in v11. Probably from the same as Sin (see note LX above). This is Sinai – a place whose name may mean “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See
LXVII “Kibroth-hattaavah” = Qibroth Hattaavah. Related to “burying” in v4. 5x in OT. From qeber (a place where one is buried such as a grave or tomb); {from qabar (see note XXVII above)} + taavah (what is desirable, a delight, greedy, satisfaction, a charm); {from the same as avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after)}. This is Kibroth-hattaavah or Qibroth Hattaavah, meaning “graves of desire” or “graves of the longing.”
LXVIII “Hazeroth” = Chatseroth. 6x in OT. From chatser (settlement, village). This is Hazeroth or Chatseroth, meaning “yard.”

18 They set out from Hazeroth and camped at Rithmah.LXIX 19 They set out from Rithmah and camped at Rimmon-perez.LXX 20 They set out from Rimmon-perez and camped at Libnah.LXXI 

Notes on verses 18-20

LXIX “Rithmah” = Rithmah. 2x in OT. From rethem (broom plant or tree, a juniper; perhaps retama raetam); from ratham (to attach, yoke, bind). This is Rithmah, meaning “broom.”
LXX “Rimmon-perez” = Rimmon Parets. Related to “boldly” in v3. 2x in OT. From rimmon (a pomegranate or a decoration in that shape; a pomegranate tree); {perhaps from rum (see note XXIII above)} + perets (a breach or a gap; a break, literal or figurative); {from parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively)}. This is Rimmon-perez or Rimmon Parets, meaning “pomegranate of the breach.”
LXXI “Libnah” = Libnah. 18x in OT. From laban (to be or make white, to make bricks). This is Libnah, meaning “whiteness” or “transparency.” See

21 They set out from Libnah and camped at Rissah.LXXII 22 They set out from Rissah and camped at Kehelathah.LXXIII 23 They set out from Kehelathah and camped at MountLXXIV Shepher.LXXV 

Notes on verses 21-23

LXXII “Rissah” = Rissah. 2x in OT. Perahps from rasas (to moisten); from rasiys (dripping, breach, drop). This is Rissah, meaning “a ruin.” It is something that drips apart.
LXXIII “Kehelathah” = Qehelathah. 2x in OT. Related to qahal (assembly, convocation, congregation, company, crowd, horde, multitude, assemblage); from qahal (to gather as an assembly or congregation; to gather, assemble, convene, call an assembly, to convoke). This is Kehelathah or Qehalathah, a place meaning “assembly,” “convocation,” or “towards the place of assembly.” See
LXXIV “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LXXV “Shepher” = Shepher. 2x in OT. Related to shepher (beauty); {from shaphar (to be beautiful) or from shaphar (to glisten, goodly, plenty)}. This is Shepher, meaning “beauty” or “harmony.” See

24 They set out from Mount Shepher and camped at Haradah.LXXVI 25 They set out from Haradah and camped at Makheloth.LXXVII 26 They set out from Makheloth and camped at Tahath.LXXVIII 

Notes on verses 24-26

LXXVI “Haradah” = Charadah. 2x in OT. Related to charadah (trembling, fear); from chared (trembling fearful); from charad (trembling, being afraid, or being terrified; moving quickly due to anxiety). This is Charadah or Hardah, meaning “fear.” See
LXXVII “Makheloth” = Maqheloth. Related to “Kehelathah” in v2. 2x in OT. From maqhel (assembly, congregation); related to qahal (see note LXXIII above). This is Makheloth or Maqheloth, meaning “place of assembly” or “assemblies.”
LXXVIII “Tahath” = Tachath. 6x in OT. From tachat (underneath, below, the bottom, instead of). This is Tahath or Tachath, meaning “beneath” or “support” or “station” or “depression.” See

27 They set out from Tahath and camped at Terah.LXXIX 28 They set out from Terah and camped at Mithkah.LXXX 29 They set out from Mithkah and camped at Hashmonah.LXXXI 

Notes on verses 27-29

LXXIX “Terah” = Terach. 13x in OT. Perhaps from tarah (to turn, wander) OR from tor (dove) + ruach (breath, wind, air, cool, spirit; wind, which resembles the breath; figuratively, life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent; air of the sky or the spirit). This is Terah or Terach, maybe meaning “delay, “wanderer,” or “global spirit.” See
LXXX “Mithkah” = Mithqah. 2x in OT. From motheq (sweetness); from mathoq (to be sweet, sweeten, become pleasant, cover, to suck, to relish). This is Mithkah or Mithqah, meaning “sweetness.”
LXXXI “Hashmonah” = Chashmonah. 2x in OT. From chashman (root may mean firm or prodigal with resources; it may be wealthy or envoy). This is Hashmonah or Chashmonah, meaning “fertile.”

30 They set out from Hashmonah and camped at Moseroth.LXXXII 31 They set out from Moseroth and camped at Bene-jaakan.LXXXIII 32 They set out from Bene-jaakan and camped at Hor-haggidgad.LXXXIV 

Notes on verses 30-32

LXXXII “Moseroth” = Moserah. 3x in OT. From moser (a band, chain; some kind of restraint or figuratively a chastisement); {from asar (to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten; can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone) or from yasar (to discipline, correct, train, teach, punish; literally with blows, but figuratively using words)}. This is Moseroth or Moserah, meaning “correction” or “corrections” or “bond” or “bonds.” See
LXXXIII “Bene-jaakan” = Bene Yaaqan. Related to “Israelites” in v1. 2x in OT. From ben (see note II above) + Yaaqan (Yaaqan, Jaakan; may mean “he twists”); {related to Aqan (Aqan, Akan; “torturous”); from aqal (to bend, wrong, twist)}. This is Bene-jaakan or Bene Yaaqan, meaning “son of Jaakan” or “son of the one who twists.” See &
LXXXIV “Hor-haggidgad” = Chor Haggidgad. Related to “Pi-hahiroth” in v7. 2x in OT. From chor (see note XXXIX above) + similar to Gudgodah (Gudgodah; “cleft”); {from gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing)}. This is Hor-haggidgad or Chor Haggidgad, meaning “hollow of Gidgad” or “hole of the cleft.”

33 They set out from Hor-haggidgad and camped at Jotbathah.LXXXV 34 They set out from Jotbathah and camped at Abronah.LXXXVI 35 They set out from Abronah and camped at Ezion-geber.LXXXVII 

Notes on verses 33-35

LXXXV “Jotbathah” = Yotbathah. 3x in OT. From Yotbah (Jotbah, Yotbah; meaning “pleasantness”); from yatab (to be good or pleasing, joyful; doing good in an ethical sense or to be beautiful, happy, successful, or right). This is Jotbathah or Yotbathah, meaning “pleasantness.” See
LXXXVI “Abronah” = Abronah. Related to “passed” in v8. 2x in OT. From Ebron (Ebron, meaning “transitional”); {from abar (see note XLV above) or related to Abdon (Abdon, meaning “servitude”); {from abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage) or from eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); {from abar (see note XLV above)}}}. This is Abronah, meaning “transitional” or “servitude.”
LXXXVII “Ezion-geber” = Etsyon Geber. 7x in OT. Perhaps from atseh (spine, backbone); {from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes)} + geber (man, warrior, a person generally, or a valiant person); {from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or to be insolent)}. This is Ezion-geber or Etsyon Geber, meaning “backbone-like of a man” or “backbone of a man” or “foundation of human essence” or “backbone of a giant.” See

36 They set out from Ezion-geber and camped in the wilderness of ZinLXXXVIII (that is, Kadesh).LXXXIX 37 They set out from Kadesh and camped at Mount Hor,XC, XCI on the edge of the land of Edom.XCII

Notes on verses 36-37

LXXXVIII “Zin” = Tsin. 10x in OT. This is Zin or Tsin, which may come from a word that means to prick. It could mean “a crag” or “thorn” or “barb” or “decompilation” or “dry place” or “tradition” or “low palm tree” or “lowland.” See
LXXXIX “Kadesh” = Qadesh. 18x in OT. From the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.) This is Kadesh, a place whose name means sacred or sanctuary.
XC “Hor” = hor. 12x in OT. Perhaps from har (mountain, hill); from harar (mountain, hill). This is Hor, the name of two mountains – one in Idumaea and another in Syria.
XCI “Mount Hor” is pronounced “behor hahar.”
XCII “Edom” = Edom. From the same as adom (to be red or flushed). This is Edom or Idumaea. It means red.

38 Aaron the priestXCIII went upXCIV Mount Hor at the command of the Lord and diedXCV there in the fortiethXCVI yearXCVII

Notes on verse 38a

XCIII “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XCIV “went up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XCV “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XCVI “fortieth” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
XCVII “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

after the Israelites had come outXCVIII of the land of Egypt, on the firstXCIX day of the fifthC month. 39 Aaron was one hundredCI twentyCII-three years oldCIII when he died on Mount Hor.

Notes on verses 38b-39

XCVIII “come out” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v1. See note III above.
XCIX “first” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
C “fifth” = chamishi. Related to “fifteenth” in v3. From chamesh (see note XIX above). This is fifth or one-fifth.
CI “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
CII “twenty” = esrim. Related to “fifteenth” in v3. From the same as eser (see note XIX above). This is twenty or twentieth.
CIII “old” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note II above.

40 The Canaanite,CIV the kingCV of Arad,CVI

Notes on verse 40a

CIV “Canaanite” = Knaani. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
CV “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
CVI “Arad” = Arad. 5x in OT. Perhaps similar to aron (wild ass); perhaps related to arad (to flee, to be free) OR from rud (to wander) OR from a word meaning to sequester oneself. This is Arad, meaning “fugitive” or “wild ass.” See

who livedCVII in the NegebCVIII in the land of Canaan,CIX heardCX of the comingCXI of the Israelites.

Notes on verse 40b

CVII “lived” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CVIII “Negeb” = Negeb. Root may mean to be parched. The Negeb is the south country – sometimes used to refer to Egypt. This is a land that suffers from a lot of drought.
CIX “Canaan” = Kna’an. Related to “Canaanite” in v40. See note CIV above.
CX “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CXI “coming” = bo. Same as “came” in v9. See note LII above.

41 They set out from Mount Hor and camped at Zalmonah.CXII 42 They set out from Zalmonah and camped at Punon.CXIII 43 They set out from Punon and camped at Oboth.CXIV 

Notes on verses 41-43

CXII “Zalmonah” = Tsalmonah. Related to “died” in v38. 2x in OT. From Tsalmon (Zalmon, may mean “shady,” “dark,” “place of the idol,” or “man of the idol”); {from tselem (phantom, resemblance, illusion, image, idol)} OR from tsalmaveth (a deep shadow, the grave; figuratively a darkness like death or a calamity); {from tsel (shade in a literal or figurative sense; shadow, shade, protection, shelter, or defense); {from tsalal (to be or become dark, shade; this is the shade as during twilight or shadow as associated with something opaque)} + mavet (death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go; figuratively, pestilence or ruin); {from mut (see note XCV above)}}. This is Zalmonah or Tsalmonah, meaning “shadiness” or “shady” or “place of the idol” or “little image.” See &
CXIII “Punon” = Punon. 2x in OT. May be related to pun (to be distracted or perplexed); from aphunah (helpless, overcome); related to ophan (root might be to revolve or turn; a wheel). This is Punon, meaning “perplexity.”
CXIV “Oboth” = Oboth. 4x in OT– all in Numbers. From ob (literally a bottle made from hide; one could mumble into this bottle and make a hollow sound; it refers to mediums, ventriloquists, or necromancers; also a familiar spirit); may be from the same as ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Oboth, meaning waterskins.

44 They set out from Oboth and camped at Iye-abarim,CXV in the territoryCXVI of Moab.CXVII 

Notes on verse 44

CXV “Iye-abarim” = Iyye Haabarim. Related to “passed” in v8 & “Abronah” in v34. 2x in OT– both in Numbers. From Iyyim (Iyim, Iim; a place meaning “ruins” or “ruinous heaps’); {from iy (a ruin or a heap as a place that was overturned); from avah (to bend, twist, be amiss)} + abar (see note XLV above). This is Iye-abarim or Iye Haabarim, meaning “ruins of the passers.” See
CXVI “territory” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
CXVII “Moab” = Moab. Related to “Oboth” in v43. May be from ab (see note CXIV above). This is Moab or Moabite. Name could mean “from her father” in reference to the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters. The name could also mean, more pleasantly, “seed of a father” or “desirable land.” See

45 They set out from IyimCXVIII and camped at Dibon-gad.CXIX 46 They set out from Dibon-gad and camped at Almon-diblathaim.CXX 

Notes on verses 45-46

CXVIII “Iyim” = Iyyim. Related to “Iye-abarim” in v44. 2x in OT. See note CXV above. See note CXV above.
CXIX “Dibon-gad” = Dibon + Gad. Dibon is 11x in OT. Perhaps from dub (to mope, sorrow). This is Dibon, meaning “pining.” Gad is perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
CXX “Almon-diblathaim” = Almon Diblathayemah. 2x in OT. From Almon (Almon, meaning “hidden”); {from alam (to hide, conceal, a dissembler; to conceal in a literal or figurative sense) + debelah (a lump or cake – specifically of figs); {related to zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside)}. This is Almon-diblathaim or Almon Diblathayemah, meaning “Almon towards Diblathajim” or “hidden towards the two cakes” or “Almon of the double cake of figs.” See

47 They set out from Almon-diblathaim and camped in the mountainsCXXI of Abarim,CXXII beforeCXXIII Nebo.CXXIV 

Notes on verse 47

CXXI “mountains” = har. Same as “Mount” in v23. See note LXXIV above.
CXXII “Abarim” = Abarim. Related to “passed” in v8 & “Abronah” in v34 & “Iye-abarim” in v4. 5x in OT. From abar (see note XLV above). This is Abarim, meaning “regions beyond” or “passages” or “crossings.” See
CXXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v7. See note XL above.
CXXIV “Nebo” = Nebo. 13x in OT. From Akkadian nabu (to prophesy, announce); related to Hebrew nabi (prophet) and nabah (to be important or high). This is Nebo – the name of a city and mountain in Moab. It is also a Babylonian god of wisdom and the god of the scribes. The name likely means foreteller or height. See

48 They set out from the mountains of Abarim and camped in the plainsCXXV of Moab by the JordanCXXVI opposite Jericho;CXXVII 

Notes on verse 48

CXXV “plains” = arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.
CXXVI “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
CXXVII “Jericho” = Yericho. From yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (smell, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy). This is Jericho meaning either “moon city” or “fragrant place.”

49 they camped by the Jordan from Beth-jeshimothCXXVIII as far as Abel-shittimCXXIX in the plains of Moab.

50 In the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho, the Lord spokeCXXX to Moses, saying, 

Notes on verses 49-50

CXXVIII “Beth-jeshimoth” = Beth Hayshimoth. Related to “Israelites” in v1 & “Bene-jaakan” in v31 & to “died” in v38 & “Zalmonah” in v41. 4x in OT. From bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {from banah (see note II above)} + yeshimah (desolation, gripped by death) or yasham (to be stripped, destroyed, desolate). This is Beth-jeshimoth or Beth Hayshimoth, meaning “place of the desert” or “house of the deserts” or “house of the wastes” or “desert house.” See
CXXIX “Abel-shittim” = Abel Hashshittim. 1x in OT. From abel (meadow, plain – grassy) + shittah (acacia); {related to shotet (whip, goad); from shot (whip – literal or figurative); from shut (to push, wander around, row, travel)}. This is Abel-shittim or Abel Hashshittim, meaning “meadow of the acacias” or “stream of the acacias.” See
CXXX “spoke” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v6. See note XXXVII above.

51 “Speak to the Israelites, and say to them: When you cross overCXXXI the Jordan into the land of Canaan, 52 you shall drive outCXXXII all the inhabitantsCXXXIII of the land from beforeCXXXIV you, destroyCXXXV all their figured stones,CXXXVI

Notes on verses 51-52a

CXXXI “cross over” = abar. Same as “passed” in v8. See note XLV above.
CXXXII “drive out” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
CXXXIII “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “lived” in v40. See note CVII above.
CXXXIV “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v7. See note XL above.
CXXXV “destroy” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
CXXXVI “figured stones” = maskit. 6x in OT. From the same as sekvi (appearance, mind, heart). This is a figure, imagery, wish, imagination, a stone carved piece, setting.

destroy all their castCXXXVII images,CXXXVIII and demolishCXXXIX all their high places.CXL 

Notes on verse 52b

CXXXVII “cast” = massekah. From nasak (to cover, pour out, offer; by analogy anointing a king). This is a pouring out or over. So it could be pouring molten metal to cast an image, making a libation (pouring out a drink offering), or otherwise covering.
CXXXVIII “images” = tselem. Related to “Zalmonah” in v41. 17x in OT. See note CXII above.
CXXXIX “demolish” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
CXL “high places” = bamah. The root might mean being high. This is height, wave, or elevation.

53 You shall take possessionCXLI of the land and settleCXLII in it, for I have givenCXLIII you the land to possess.CXLIV 

Notes on verse 53

CXLI “take possession” = yarash. Same as “drive out” in v52. See note CXXXII above.
CXLII “settle” = yashab. Same as “lived” in v40. See note CVII above.
CXLIII “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXLIV “possess” = yarash. Same as “drive out” in v52. See note CXXXII above.

54 You shall apportionCXLV the land by lotCXLVI according to your clans;CXLVII

Notes on verse 54a

CXLV “apportion” = nachal. From nachalah (properly something that was inherited; can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate; can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion). This is to gain as a possession, divide for inheritance. Also, to occupy for any reason.
CXLVI “lot” = goral. Root may mean to be rough like a stone. A lot was probably a small pebble used to determine one’s portion or what one should do (the will of a god or one’s destiny).
CXLVII “clans” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.

to a large oneCXLVIII you shall give a largeCXLIX inheritance,CL and to a small oneCLI you shall give a smallCLII inheritance;

Notes on verse 54b

CXLVIII “large one” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CXLIX “give a large” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CL “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to “apportion” in v54. See note CXLV above.
CLI “small one” = me’at. From maat (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
CLII “give a small” = maat. Related to “small one” in v54. See note CLI above.

the inheritance shall belongCLIII to the person on whom the lot falls;CLIV according to your ancestralCLV tribesCLVI you shall apportion it. 

Notes on verse 54c

CLIII “belong” = hayah. Same as “was” in v14. See note LXIII above.
CLIV “falls” = yatsa. Same as “went out” in v1. See note III above.
CLV “ancestral” = ab. Related to “Oboth” in v43 & “Moab” in v44. See note CXIV above.
CLVI “tribes” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).

55 But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land from beforeCLVII you, then those whom you let remainCLVIII shall be as barbsCLIX in your eyesCLX and thornsCLXI in your sides;CLXII

Notes on verse 55a

CLVII “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v7. See note XL above.
CLVIII “remain” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
CLIX “barbs” = sek. Related to “Succoth” in v5. 1x in OT. Related to sakak (see note XXXIV above). This is a thorn, brier, or barb.
CLX “eyes” = ayin. Same as “sight” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CLXI “thorns” = tsanin. 2x in OT. Related to tsen (root may mean to be prickly; thorn, barb, cactus hedge). This is a thorn or prick.
CLXII “sides” = tsad. Root may mean to sidle. This is a side or an arm. It can also be used to mean beside or, figuratively, an adversary.

they shall troubleCLXIII you in the land where you are settling. 56 AndCLXIV I will doCLXV to you as I thoughtCLXVI to do to them.”

Notes on verses 55b-56

CLXIII “trouble” = tsarar. This is to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary.
CLXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v14. See note LXIII above.
CLXV “do” = asah. Same as “executed” in v4. See note XXX above.
CLXVI “thought” = damah. This is to be like, resemble, devise. It can be to think using analogies.

Image credit: “Camells al carrer de les Façanes” in Petra, Jordan. Photo by Enric, 2008.

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