Matthew 11

Matthew 11


Now when JesusI had finishedII instructingIII his twelve disciples,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
III “instructing” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
IV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

he went on from there to teachV and proclaimVI his message in their cities.VII

Notes on verse 1b

V “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
VI “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
VII “cities” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

When JohnVIII heardIX in prisonX what the MessiahXI was doing,XII

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note I above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John.
IX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
X “prison” = desmoterion. 4x in NT. From desmos (band, bond, chain, imprisonment, shackle; a string or ligament, infirmity); {from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel, knit, tie, wind; declare prohibited and unlawful, prisoner, put in chains; to bind lit or fig)} + –terion (a suffix denoting place). This is prison, prison house, imprisoned, dungeon. Literally, a place of bondage.
XI “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XII “what…doing” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

he sentXIII word by his disciples 3 and said to him, “Are you the one who is to come, or are we to wait forXIV another?”XV 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XIII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XIV “wait for” = prosdokao. 16x in NT. From pros (for, at, towards, to with, advantageous for) + dokeuo (to watch). This is to await, expect, wait for, think, anticipate, state of expectation, look. This is to anticipate in thought, to hope or fear.
XV “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.

Jesus answered them, “GoXVI and tellXVII John what you hear and see:XVIII the blindXIX receiveXX their sight,

Notes on verses 4-5a

XVI “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XVII “tell” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
XVIII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XIX “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
XX “receive” = anablepo. Related to “see” in v4. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + blepo (see note XVIII above). This is to look up and so it implies recovering sight.

the lameXXI walk,XXII the lepersXXIII are cleansed,XXIV the deafXXV hear,

Notes on verse 5b

XXI “lame” = cholos. 14x in NT. Can be lame, maimed, limping, or someone missing a foot.
XXII “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
XXIII “lepers” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
XXIV “cleansed” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
XXV “deaf” = kophos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (to cut off, strike, beat head or chest as an act of mourning; so, to mourn or grieve). This word is blunt, dull, mute, or deaf. Literally it is blunted so figuratively it is deaf or speechless. Can also refer to a deaf or mute person.

the deadXXVI are raised,XXVII and the poorXXVIII have good news broughtXXIX to them. And blessedXXX is anyone who takes no offenseXXXI at me.”

Notes on verses 5c-6

XXVI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XXVII “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XXVIII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
XXIX “have good news brought” = euaggelizo. Related to “tell” in v4. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note XVII above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
XXX “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
XXXI “take…offense” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.

As they went away,XXXII Jesus beganXXXIII to speak to the crowds about John: “What did you go out into the wildernessXXXIV to look at?XXXV

Notes on verse 7a

XXXII “went away” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v4. See note XVI above.
XXXIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXXXIV “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
XXXV “look at” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”

A reedXXXVI shakenXXXVII by the wind?XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVI “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
XXXVII “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.
XXXVIII “wind” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.

8 What then did you go out to see?XXXIX SomeoneXL dressedXLI in soft robes?XLII

Notes on verse 8a

XXXIX “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XL “someone” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XLI “dressed” = amphiennumi. 4x in NT– 2x God clothes the grass of the field (Mt 6:30) (Lk 12:28) and 2x when Jesus speaks of John the Baptist (Mt 11:8) (Lk 7:25). From amphoteroi (both, on both sides, around, all) + hennumi (to enrobe, clothe, invest). This is to put on, clothe, be dressed.
XLII “soft robes” = malakos. 4x in NT. This is soft, delicate – so, fine clothing. Figuratively used to call one effeminate.

Look,XLIII those who wearXLIV soft robes are in royalXLV palaces.XLVI 

Notes on verse 8b

XLIII “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XLIV “wear” = phoreo. 6x in NT. From phero (to bear, carry, bring forth, conduct, lead; may mean to make known publicly; to carry along particularly for a limit time or on a temporary basis; to bear or carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to bear constantly, to wear, carry. This is something that is worn or borne on an ongoing basis or continually. It can mean to bear a burden or wearing clothing (since that is worn consistently).
XLV “royal” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XLVI “palaces” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

What then did you go out to see?XLVII A prophet?XLVIII Yes, I tell you, and moreXLIX than a prophet. 

Notes on verse 9

XLVII “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v8. See note XXXIX above.
XLVIII “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
XLIX “more” = perissos. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.

10 This is the one about whom it is written,

‘See, I am sendingL my messengerLI ahead of you,LII
    who will prepareLIII your wayLIV before you.’

Notes on verse 10

L “sending” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
LI “messenger” = aggelos. Related to “tell” in v4 & “have good news brought” in v6. See note XVII above.
LII “you” = prosopon + su. Literally “your face.” Perhaps related to “see” in v8 & “someone” in v8. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note XL above) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XXXIX above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
LIII “prepare” = kataskeuazo. 11x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + skeuazo (to prepare using a tool); {from skeuos (tool, container, property, goods)}. This is to prepare, build, or ordain. It denotes preparing with the use of tools and with skill.
LIV “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

11 TrulyLV I tell you, among those bornLVI of womenLVII no one has arisenLVIII greater than John the Baptist;LIX

Notes on verse 11a

LV “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LVI “born” = gennetos. 2x in NT. From gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth).
LVII “women” = gune. Related to “born” in v11. See note LVI above. This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
LVIII “arisen” = egeiro. Same as “raised” in v5. See note XXVII above.
LIX “Baptist” = baptistes. 12x in NT. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is baptizer or Baptist. The term is only used for John the Baptist.

yet the leastLX in the kingdomLXI of heavenLXII is greater than he. 12 From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence,LXIII and the violentLXIV take it by force.LXV 

Notes on verses 11b-12

LX “least” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
LXI “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “royal” in v8. From basileus (see note XLV above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LXII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LXIII “suffered violence” = biazo. 2x in NT. From bia (force, violence, strength). This is to force, use power to seize.
LXIV “violent” = biastes. 1x in NT. From biazo (see note LXIII above). This is a person who is violent, forceful, or aggressively pursuing. It can also be used in a positive sense for assertiveness or energetic.
LXV “take…by force” = harpazo. 14x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to choose, take); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove) This is to grab with force, seize, pluck, get through robbery, snatch up. This is taking something openly and violently – not subtly or in secret.

13 For all the prophets and the lawLXVI prophesiedLXVII until John came; 14 and if you are willingLXVIII to acceptLXIX it, he is ElijahLXX who is to come. 15 Let anyone with ears listen!

Notes on verses 13-15

LXVI “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
LXVII “prophesied” = propheteuo. Related to “prophet” in v9. From prophetes (see note XLVIII above). THis is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
LXVIII “willing” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXIX “accept” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “John” in v2. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

16 “But to what will I compareLXXI this generation?LXXII It is likeLXXIII childrenLXXIV sittingLXXV in the marketplacesLXXVI and callingLXXVII to one another,

Notes on verse 16

LXXI “compare” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
LXXII “generation” = genea. Related to “born” and “women” in v11. From genos (see note LVI above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
LXXIII “like” = homoios. Related to “compare” in v16. See note LXXI above.
LXXIV “children” = paidion. Perhaps related to “walk” in v5. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note XXII above). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
LXXV “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
LXXVI “marketplaces” = agora. 11x in NT. From ageiro (to gather). This is assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare. This is where “agoraphobia” comes from.
LXXVII “calling” = prosphoneo. Related to “prophet” in v9 & “prophesied” in v13. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + phoneo (to call out, summon, shout, address; making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument); {from phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note XLVIII above)}. This is to call to, address, give a speech, summon, exclaim.

17 ‘We played the fluteLXXVIII for you, and you did not dance;LXXIX
    we wailed,LXXX and you did not mourn.’LXXXI

Notes on verse 17

LXXVIII “played the flute” = auleo. 3x in NT. From aulos (pipe, flute). This is to play a pipe or flute.
LXXIX “dance” = orcheomai. 4x in NT. Perhaps from orchos (a row or ring). This is to dance – as with regular movement.
LXXX “wailed” = threneo. 4x in NT. From threnos (ailing, dirge, lamentation, crying aloud); from threomai (to cry aloud, shriek); from throeo (to be disturbed, unsettled, troubled; feeling the desire to scream from fear, very upset, startled); from throos (noise, tumult). This is to mourn or lament – particularly in a vocal way. It can also mean to sing a dirge.
LXXXI “mourn” = kopto. Perhaps related to “deaf” in v5. 8x in NT. See note XXV above.

18 For John came neither eatingLXXXII nor drinking, and they say, ‘He has a demon’;LXXXIII 19 the Son of ManLXXXIV came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Look, aLXXXV gluttonLXXXVI and a drunkard,LXXXVII

Notes on verses 18-19a

LXXXII “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
LXXXIII “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXXIV “Man” = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v8. See note XL above.
LXXXV {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v8. See note XL above.
LXXXVI “glutton” = phagos. 2x in NT. From phago (to eat; fig to consume like rust). This is literally an eater i.e. a glutton or someone who is gluttonous.
LXXXVII “drunkard” = oinopotes. Related to “drinking” in v18. 2x in NT. From oinos (wine); {perhaps related to Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce)} + potes (drinker); {from pino (to drink – literal or figurative)}. This is literally a wine drinker i.e. a drunkard.

a friendLXXXVIII of tax collectorsLXXXIX and sinners!’XC Yet wisdomXCI is vindicatedXCII by her deeds.”XCIII

Notes on verse 19b

LXXXVIII “friend” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.
LXXXIX “tax collectors” = telones. Related to “finished” in v1. From telos (see note II above). This is tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews. It also meant the toll house. Literally, this is “paying at the end.”
XC “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
XCI “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
XCII “is vindicated” = dikaioo. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
XCIII “deeds” = ergon. Related to “what…doing” in v2. See note XII above.

20 Then he began to reproachXCIV the cities in which most of his deeds of powerXCV had been done, because they did not repent.XCVI 

Notes on verse 20

XCIV “reproach” = oneidizo. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.
XCV “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XCVI “repent” = metanoeo. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.

21 “WoeXCVII to you, Chorazin!XCVIII Woe to you, Bethsaida!XCIX

Notes on verse 21a

XCVII “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
XCVIII “Chorazin” = Chorazin. 2x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew karoz (herald, announcer). This is Chorazin, a Galilean city. See
XCIX “Bethsaida” = Bethsaida. 7x in NT. From Aramaic bet (house) + tsaida (hunting); related to Hebrew bayit (house, family); {from banah (to build)} + tsayid (hunting, catch, the chase); {from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people)} OR from Aramaic bet (house) + chasda (grace); related to Hebrew chesed (favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed; when done by humanity to God, it is piety); {from chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here)}. This is Bethsaida, meaning either house of fish or house of grace.

For if the deeds of power done in you had been done in TyreC and Sidon,CI they would have repented long agoCII in sackclothCIII and ashes. 22 But I tell you, on the day of judgmentCIV it will be more tolerableCV for Tyre and Sidon than for you. 

Notes on verses 21b-22

C “Tyre” = Turos 11x in NT. From Phoenician t-s-r (rock; “after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built”). This is Tyre, the capital of Phoenicia. See
CI “Sidon” = Sidon. 10x in NT. From Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidon – a city in Phoenicia. See &
CII “long ago” = palai. 7x in NT. Perhaps from palin (back, again, further); probably from the same as pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate). This is long ago, former, ancient, in the past.
CIII “sackcloth” = sakkos. 4x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew saq (sack or sackcloth used as bags for grain and so on; worn during times or mourning or when seeking humility); perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; by implication having an appetite, seeking greedily). This is sackcloth or mohair as a material or referring to clothing made from this material. The word “sack” comes from this Hebrew root.
CIV “judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.
CV “more tolerable” = anektoteros. 6x in NT. From anektos (bearable, tolerable); from anecho (to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is more tolerable or endurable.

23 And you, Capernaum,CVI
will you be exaltedCVII to heaven?
    No, you will be brought down to Hades.CVIII

For if the deeds of power done in you had been done in Sodom,CIX it would have remainedCX until this day. 24 But I tell you that on the day of judgment it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom than for you.”

Notes on verses 23-24

CVI “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”
CVII “exalted” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
CVIII “Hades” = Hades. Related to “look” in v8. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + eido (see note XLIII above). This is Literally, the world that is not seen. It is Hades, hell, the place where the dead reside. It can also refer to the grave.
CIX “Sodom” = Sodoma. 10x in NT. From Hebrew sedom (Sodom, the Canaanite city; root may mean scorch; perhaps this was a volcanic or coal rich area). This is Sodom.
CX “remained” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.

25 At that timeCXI Jesus said, “I thankCXII you, Father, LordCXIII of heaven and earth,

Notes on verse 25a

CXI “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CXII “thank” = exomologeo. Related to “speak” in v7 & “compare” and “like” in v16. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (see note LXXI above) + lego (to say, speak, tell)}}. This is agree, consent, or acknowledge. It can also be confess, give thanks, or praise. It includes an open, public, unabashed declaration.
CXIII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

 because you have hiddenCXIV these things from the wiseCXV and the intelligentCXVI and have revealedCXVII them to infants;CXVIII 26 yes, Father, for such was your gracious will.CXIX 

Notes on verses 25b-26

CXIV “hidden” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
CXV “wise” = sophos. Related to “wisdom” in v19. See note XCI above.
CXVI “intelligent” = sunetos. 4x in NT. From suniemi (to put together facts or ideas into a logical whole; understanding or being wise through a process of logic and discernment; implies acting piously); {from sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put)}. This is intelligent, wise, discerning, clever. It is finding understanding within one’s own frame of reference by connecting facts and concepts. Focuses on the mental process of putting things together – being prudent or wise.
CXVII “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
CXVIII “infants” = nepios. 15x in NT– used in 1 Corinthians 13 (“when I was a child…”). This may be from ne (not) + epos (word; by extension, to speak) {from epo (to answer, bring word, command). This is an infant, child, minor, or immature person. It can also be used figuratively for someone who is childish or unlearned.
CXIX “gracious will” = eudokia. 9x in NT. From eudokeo (to think well of, to be pleased or resolved; properly, what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of); {from eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}}. This is goodwill, favor, happiness, delight, satisfaction, or desire. It is something that a person finds good or of benefit.

27 All things have been handed overCXX to me by my Father; and no one knowsCXXI the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and anyone to whom the Son choosesCXXII to reveal him.

Notes on verse 27

CXX “handed over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
CXXI “knows” = epiginosko. Perhaps related to “reproach” in v20. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note XCIV above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
CXXII “chooses” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.

28 “ComeCXXIII to me, all you that are wearyCXXIV and are carrying heavy burdens,CXXV and I will give you rest.CXXVI 

Notes on verse 28

CXXIII “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
CXXIV “weary” = kopiao. Perhaps related to “deaf” in v5 & “mourn” in v17. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (see note XXV above). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.
CXXV “carrying heavy burdens” = phortizo. Related to “wear” in v8. 2x in NT. From the same as phortion (burden, cargo; a load that an individual must carry that isn’t transferable; figuratively, a task or service); from phortos (load, cargo); from phero (see note XLIV above). This is to pack up, weigh down, burden, overload. It can be to load a vessel, an animal, or a person. Figuratively, it can be weighed down with spiritual anxiety or strain.
CXXVI “give…rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.

29 TakeCXXVII my yokeCXXVIII upon you, and learnCXXIX from me; for I am gentleCXXX and humbleCXXXI in heart,CXXXII

Notes on verse 29a

CXXVII “take” = airo. Related to “take…by force” in v12. See note LXV above.
CXXVIII “yoke” = zugos. 6x in NT. From zeugnumi (to yoke). This is a yoke or set of scale. It is what unites people in shared work so it is servitude or obligation.
CXXIX “learn” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v1. See note IV above.
CXXX “gentle” = praus. 4x in NT– same as “blessed are the meek” from the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:5). Related to praios (meek, gentle, kind); related to praotes (mildness kindness, meekness; being temperate – gentle, but strong; implies humility). This is gentle, meek, which implies humility.
CXXXI “humble” = tapeinos. 8x in NT. This is low in position, depressed, low in circumstance, meek, cast down. Figuratively, it can be humiliated or low in spirit.
CXXXII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

and you will findCXXXIII restCXXXIV for your souls.CXXXV 30 For my yoke is easy,CXXXVI and my burdenCXXXVII is light.”

Notes on verses 29b-30

CXXXIII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CXXXIV “rest” = anapausis. Related to “give…rest” in v28. 5x in NT. From anapauo (see note CXXVI above). This is rest, tranquility, inner rest, ceasing labor, intermission.
CXXXV “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXXXVI “easy” = chrestos. 7x in NT. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is useful, good, well-fitted, benevolent, kind, gracious. It was also a name given to slaves in the ancient world.
CXXXVII “burden” = phortion. Related to “wear” in v8 & “carrying heavy burdens” in v28. 6x in NT. See note CXXV above.

Image credit: “John the Baptist Peaching in the Desert” by Jesus MAFA, Cameroon 1973.

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