Matthew 14:22-33

Matthew 14:22-33
Proper 14A


22 ImmediatelyA he madeB the disciplesC getD

Notes on verse 22a

A “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
B “made” = anagkazo. 9x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is to urge, compel, or force.
C “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
D “get” = embaino. 17x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to step onto – embark on a boat.

into a boatE and go on aheadF to the other side, while he dismissedG the crowds.H 

Notes on verse 22b

E “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
F “go on ahead” = proago. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, guide, go). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
G “dismissed” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
H “crowds” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.

23 And after he had dismissed the crowds, he went upI the mountainJ by himselfK to pray.L

Notes on verse 23a

I “went up” = anabaino. Related to “get” in v22. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note D above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
J “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
K “himself” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
L “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

When eveningM came,N he wasO there alone,P 

Notes on verse 23b

M “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
N “came” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
O “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
P “alone” = monos. Perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.

24 but by this time the boat, batteredQ by the waves,R was farS

Notes on verse 24a

Q “battered” = basanizo. Related to “get” in v22 & “went up” in v23. 12x in NT. From basanos (touchstone used to test metals; figuratively used for interrogating using torture, torment, pain sickness); perhaps from the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note D above). This is to torture, interrogate by torture, torment, batter with waves, examine, strain.
R “waves” = kuma. 5x in NT. From kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is a wave, billow, curve, or bend.
S “far” = stadion + polus. Literally “many stadia.” Stadion is 7x in NT. From the same as histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is a stadium, which was a unit of length. By implication, this would refer to a racing track for a foot race. Polus is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.

from the land,T, U for the windV was against them. 

Notes on verse 24b

T “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
U {untranslated} = apecho. Related to “crowds” in v22. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note H above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
V “wind” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.

25 And early in the morningW he cameX walkingY toward them on the sea.Z 

Notes on verse 25

W “early in the morning” = tetartos + de + phulake + ho + nux. Literally “and in the fourth watch of the night.” Tetartos is 10x in NT. From tessares (four; perhaps universality or inclusion). This is fourth or figuratively totality. Phulake is from phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches). Nux is night in a literal or figurative sense.
X “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
Y “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
Z “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

26 But when the disciples sawAA him walking on the sea, they were terrified,BB saying,CC

Notes on verse 26a

AA “saw” = horao. Related to “evening” in v23. See note M above.
BB “terrified” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
CC “saying” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“It is a ghost!”DD And they cried outEE in fear.FF 

Notes on verse 26b

DD “ghost” = phantasma. 2x in NT. From phantazo (to become visible or apparent); from phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear).  This is an appearance, manifestation, ghost, or spirit. It is where the word “phantasm” comes from.
EE “cried out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
FF “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.

27 But immediately JesusGG spokeHH to them and said, “Take heart,II it is I; do not be afraid.”JJ

Notes on verse 27

GG “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
HH “spoke” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
II “take heart” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
JJ “be afraid” = phobeo. Related to “fear” in v26. From phobos (see note FF above). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

28 PeterKK answeredLL him, “Lord,MM if it is you,

Notes on verse 28a

KK “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LL “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
MM “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

commandNN me to comeOO to you on the water.”PP 

29 He said, “Come.”QQ

So Peter gotRR out of the boat, started walking on the water, and cameSS toward Jesus. 

Notes on verses 28b-29

NN “command” = keleuo. From kelomai (to urge on). This is to command, order, or direct.
OO “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v25. See note X above.
PP “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
QQ “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v25. See note X above.
RR “got” = katabaino. Related to “get” in v22 & “went up” in v23 & “battered” in v24. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note D above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
SS “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v25. See note X above.

30 But when he noticedTT the strongUU wind, he became frightened,VV

Notes on verse 30a

TT “noticed” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
UU “strong” = ischuros. Related to “crowds” in v22 & {untranslated} in v24. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note H above). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
VV “became frightened” = phobeo. Same as “be afraid” in v27. See note JJ above.

and, beginningWW to sink,XX he cried out, “Lord, saveYY me!” 

Notes on verse 30b

WW “beginning” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XX “sink” = katapontizo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pontos (sea; also the name of a Roman Province). This is to be submerged, drown, or sink.
YY “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

31 Jesus immediately reached outZZ his handAAA and caughtBBB him, saying to him, “You of little faith,CCC why did you doubt?”DDD 

Notes on verse 31

ZZ “reached out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
AAA “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
BBB “caught” = epilambanomai. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
CCC “of little faith” = oligopistos. 6x in NT– 5 in Matthew & 1 in Luke. From oligos (few, small, short, brief, puny) + pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is of little faith – incredulous, lacking confidence.
DDD “doubt” = distazo. Related to “far” in v24. 2x in NT. From dis (twice, doubly, again, entirely) + stasis (place, standing, rebel, position, existence); {from the base of histemi (see note S above)}. This is to waver, doubt, or hesitate. It is shifting back and forth between positions – vacillating. It is refusing to choose a position or direction.

32 When they gotEEE into the boat, the wind ceased.FFF 33 And those in the boat worshipedGGG him,

Notes on verses 32-33a

EEE “got” = anabaino. Same as “went up” in v23. See note I above.
FFF “ceased” = kopazo. 3x in NT. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to tire, be stilled, stop, or cease. It can also mean to relax.
GGG “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

saying, “TrulyHHH you are the SonIII of God.”JJJ

Notes on verse 33b

HHH “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
III “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
JJJ “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Image credit: “Peter Tries to Walk on Water” by Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas from the Lion Comic Book Hero Bible of the Edge Group – Lion Hudson.

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