Psalm 37

Psalm 37


Of David.I

Do not fretII because of the wicked;III
    do not be enviousIV of wrongdoers,V

Notes on superscript-verse 1

I “David” = david. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
II “fret” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.
III “wicked” = ra’a’. This is to be evil, bad, afflict. Properly, it means to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces. Figuratively, it is to cause something to be worthless. It is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense – something that displeases, does harm or mischief, punishes or vexes.
IV “be envious” = qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy.
V “wrongdoers” = asah + evel. Literally “those who do evil.” Evel is perhaps from aval (to deal unjustly, act in a wrongful way, a wrongdoer). This is injustice, wrong, moral evil, acts of violence, or unrighteousness.

for they will soonVI fadeVII like the grass,VIII
    and witherIX like the greenX herb.XI

Notes on verse 2

VI “soon” = meherah. From mahar (being liquid, which implies flowing; hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense). This is speed, quickly, shortly, promptly.
VII “fade” = namal. 5x in OT. From the same as mul (to cut off, destroy, blunt, or circumcise). This is to cut down, language, circumcise, wither, or fade.
VIII “grass” = chatsir. Perhaps from the same as chatsir (village, settlement); from chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in); from chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is grass, plant, hay.
IX “wither” = nabel. This is to fall away, faint, wither, languish, sink. Figuratively, it can mean being senseless, foolish, or wicked. Further, it can be to despise, disgrace, or fall to nothing, to be seen with contempt.
X “green” = yereq. 6x in OT – including “every green plant for food” from Genesis 1:30. Perhaps from yaraq (to spit). This is something green. It could be pallor or some kind of vegetation.
XI “herb” = deshe. 15x in OT- including “vegetation” from Genesis 1:11-12. From dasha (to sprout, grow green). This is grass, a shoot, or a tender herb.

TrustXII in the Lord,XIII and do good;XIV

Notes on verse 3a

XII “trust” = batach. This is to hide for refuge, be secure or sure. Figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping.
XIII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XIV “good” = tob. This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

    so you will liveXV in the land,XVI and enjoyXVII security.XVIII

Notes on verse 3b

XV “live” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
XVI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XVII “enjoy” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
XVIII “security” = emunah. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. This word shares a root with the word “Amen.”

Take delightXIX in the Lord,
    and he will give you the desiresXX of your heart.XXI

Notes on verse 4

XIX “take delight” = anog. 10x in OT. This is soft or delicate. Figuratively, it can mean luxurious or effeminate. Also, a dainty, delight, or joke.
XX “desires” = mishalah. 2x in OT. From shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand). This is a desire, request, or petition.
XXI “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

CommitXXII your wayXXIII to the Lord;
    trust in him, and he will act.

He will make your vindicationXXIV shineXXV like the light,XXVI
    and the justiceXXVII of your cause like the noonday.XXVIII

Notes on verses 5-6

XXII “commit” = galal. 18x in OT. This is to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove. It is rolling in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIII “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XXIV “vindication” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.
XXV “make…shine” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “light” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.
XXVII “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XXVIII “noonday” = tsohar. From tsahar (pressing oil, glistening); from yitshar (fresh oil, anointed; oil as that which is burned to make light; used figuratively to talk about anointing). This is a light, window, or midday.

Be stillXXIX before the Lord, and wait patientlyXXX for him;
    do not fret over those who prosperXXXI in their way,
    over thoseXXXII who carry out evil devices.XXXIII

Notes on verse 7

XXIX “be still” = damam. This is to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die.
XXX “wait patiently” = chul. This is whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain. It is used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear. It can also be falling in pain or waiting.
XXXI “prosper” = tsalach. This is pushing forward in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to break out, to come mightily, to rush, to go over. Figuratively, it could mean to prosper.
XXXII “those” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XXXIII “evil devices” = mezimmah. 19x in OT. From zamam (to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil; usually in an evil sense). This is generally an evil plan like a machination. It could also refer to goodness, wisdom.

8 RefrainXXXIV from anger,XXXV and forsakeXXXVI wrath.XXXVII
    Do not fret—it leads only to evil.XXXVIII

Notes on verse 8

XXXIV “refrain” = raphah. This is to slacken in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait.
XXXV “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XXXVI “forsake” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
XXXVII “wrath” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.
XXXVIII “leads…to evil” = ra’a’. Same as “wicked” in v1. See note III above.

For the wicked shall be cut off,XXXIX
    but those who wait forXL the Lord shall inheritXLI the land.

Notes on verse 9

XXXIX “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
XL “wait for” = qavah. It can mean to bind or gather together, especially in the sense of twisting together. In that light, it can mean collect. Figuratively, this can mean to wait, await, expect, or tarry.
XLI “inherit” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

10 Yet a little while, and the wickedXLII will be no more;
    though you look diligentlyXLIII for their place,XLIV they will not be there.

Notes on verse 10

XLII “wicked” = rasha. This is to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong. It can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment. This verb implies disturbing or violating.
XLIII “look diligently” = bin. This is to discern, consider, attend to. It refers to distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand.
XLIV “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.

11 But the meekXLV shall inherit the land,
    and delight themselves in abundantXLVI prosperity.XLVII

Notes on verse 11

XLV “meek” = anav. From anah (to be bowed down; can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is poor, needy, afflicted as well as humble or meek.
XLVI “abundant” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
XLVII “prosperity” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

12 The wicked plotXLVIII against the righteous,XLIX
    and gnashL their teethLI at them;

Notes on verse 12

XLVIII “plot” = zamam. 13x in OT. This is to devise, plot, imagine, intend, scheme, think evil. It is usually used in an evil sense
XLIX “righteous” = tsaddiq. Related to “vindication” in v6. From the same as tsedeq (see note XXIV above). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
L “gnash” = charaq. 5x in OT.  This is to gnash or grind the teeth.
LI “teeth” = shen. From shaman (to sharpen, point, pierce; figuratively to teach). This is a tooth, ivory, something sharp, or, figuratively, a cliff.

13 but the LordLII laughsLIII at the wicked,
    for he seesLIV that their day is coming.

Notes on verse 13

LII “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
LIII “laughs” = sachaq. This is to laugh, celebrate, joke, mock, scorn. This is laughing, whether for joy or scorn. It can imply plays or holding a contest.
LIV “sees” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

14 The wicked drawLV the swordLVI and bendLVII their bowsLVIII

Notes on verse 14a

LV “draw” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LVI “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
LVII “bend” = darak. Related to “way” in v5. See note XXIII above.
LVIII “bows” = qesheth. Perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare) OR from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is a bow, arrow, or archer. Bow can be used figuratively for strength.

    to bring down the poorLIX and needy,LX
    to killLXI those who walkLXII uprightly;LXIII

15 their sword shall enter their own heart,
    and their bows shall be broken.LXIV

Notes on verses 14b-15

LIX “poor” = ani. Related to “meek” in v11. From anah (see note XLV above). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
LX “needy” = ebyon. From abah (to consent, obey, want, yield, accept). This is needy, poor, beggar. Someone who is wanting.
LXI “kill” = tabach. 11x in OT. This is to slaughter or butcher. It can be used to refer to animals or people.
LXII “walk” = derek. Same as “way” in v5. See note XXIII above.
LXIII “uprightly” = yashar. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous). This is straight, right, level. Also, it is pleasing, whether pleasing God or pleasing other people. So, it is upright or righteous.
LXIV “broken” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.

16 BetterLXV is a little that the righteous person has
    than the abundanceLXVI of manyLXVII wicked.

17 For the armsLXVIII of the wicked shall be broken,
    but the Lord upholdsLXIX the righteous.

Notes on verses 16-17

LXV “better” = tob. Same as “good” in v3. See note XIV above.
LXVI “abundance” = hamon. From hamah (to growl, cry out, be moved, murmur, hum, mourn, rage, clamor). This is a sound, noise, roar, rumbling, wealth, crowd, disquietude.
LXVII “many” = rab. Related to “abundant” in v11. From rabab (see note XLVI above). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
LXVIII “arms” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
LXIX “upholds” = samak. This is to lean, rest, support, brace, uphold, sustain, or establish. It is to lean on in a positive or negative sense.

18 The Lord knowsLXX the days of the blameless,LXXI
    and their heritageLXXII will abide forever;LXXIII

Notes on verse 18

LXX “knows” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LXXI “blameless” = tamim. From tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is entire in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be complete, full, intact, or without defect. Alternately, it could refer to being sound, having integrity, being sincere or perfect.
LXXII “heritage” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
LXXIII “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

19 they are not put to shameLXXIV in evilLXXV times,LXXVI
    in the days of famineLXXVII they have abundance.LXXVIII

Notes on verse 19

LXXIV “put to shame” = bosh. Properly, this means to be pale, which implies shame, disappointment, or confusion.
LXXV “evil” = ra’. Related to “wicked” in v1. From ra’a’ (see note III above). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
LXXVI “times” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
LXXVII “famine” = reabon. 3x in OT – also used of the famine in Egypt in Genesis 42:19, 33. From raeb (to be hungry, famished).  This is hunger – lacking food for any reason.
LXXVIII “have abundance” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.

20 But the wicked perish,LXXIX
    and the enemiesLXXX of the Lord are like the gloryLXXXI of the pastures;LXXXII
    they vanishLXXXIII—like smokeLXXXIV they vanish away.

Notes on verse 20

LXXIX “perish” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
LXXX “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
LXXXI “glory” = yaqar. From yaqar (to be precious, costly, rare, valued; properly, to be heavy; figuratively, valuable or inhibit). This is precious, splendid, noble, weighty, or rare. It is valuable in a subjective or objective sense.
LXXXII “pastures” = kar. 16x in OT. From karar (to dance, whirl). This is a ram, battering ram, lamb, pasture for sheep, camel’s saddle.
LXXXIII “vanish” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
LXXXIV “smoke” = ashan. From ashan (to smoke or burn in a literal or figurative sense; to be angry). This is smoke, vapor, dust, or anger.

21 The wicked borrow,LXXXV and do not pay back,LXXXVI
    but the righteous are generousLXXXVII and keep giving;

22 for those blessedLXXXVIII by the Lord shall inherit the land,
    but those cursedLXXXIX by him shall be cut off.

Notes on verses 21-22

LXXXV “borrow” = lavah. This is to join, abide with, borrow. Properly, it means to twine, which gives it the sense of joining or uniting. It can also mean to remain or borrow/lend as joining an obligation to another. This root may be where the name/tribe Levi comes from.
LXXXVI “pay back” = shalam. Related to “prosperity” in v11. See note XLVII above.
LXXXVII “are generous” = chanan. This is to beseech, show favor, be gracious. Properly, it is to bend in kindness to someone with less status.
LXXXVIII “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
LXXXIX “cursed” = qalal. This is to be little, insignificant, swift. It can also mean to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse

23 OurXC stepsXCI are made firmXCII by the Lord,
    when he delightsXCIII in our way;

Notes on verse 23

XC “our” = geber. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or to be insolent) This is man, warrior, a person generally, or a valiant person.
XCI “steps” = mitsad. 3x in T. From tsaad (to step, go, run, walk, to pace; to march with a regular step, climb up, hurl down). This is a step or heel. Figuratively, it can also be companionship.
XCII “made firm” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
XCIII “delights” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.

24 though we stumble,XCIV we shall not fall headlong,XCV
    for the Lord holdsXCVI us by the hand.XCVII

Notes on verse 24

XCIV “stumble” = naphal. Same as “bring down” in v14. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
XCV “fall headlong” = tul. 14x in NT. This is to hurl or throw, pitch or reel.
XCVI “holds” = samak. Same as “upholds” in v17. See note LXIX above.
XCVII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

25 I have been young,XCVIII and now am old,XCIX
    yet I have not seen the righteous forsaken
    or their childrenC beggingCI bread.CII

Notes on verse 25

XCVIII “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XCIX “am old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is to be old or grow old.
C “children” = zera. Perhaps related to “arms” in v17. From zara (see note LXVIII above). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CI “begging” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
CII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

26 They are everCIII giving liberallyCIV and lending,CV
    and their children become a blessing.CVI

Notes on verse 26

CIII “ever” = kol + yom. Literally “all day.”
CIV “giving liberally” = chanan. Same as “are generous” in v21. See note LXXXVII above.
CV “lending” = lavah. Same as “borrow” in v21. See note LXXXV above.
CVI “blessing” = barakah. Related to “blessed” in v22. From barak (see note LXXXVIII above). This is blessing, which implies prosperity or peace.

27 DepartCVII from evil, and do good;
    so you shall abideCVIII forever.

28 For the Lord loves justice;
    he will not forsake his faithful ones.CIX
The righteous shall be kept safeCX forever,
    but the children of the wicked shall be cut off.

29 The righteous shall inherit the land,
    and live in it forever.

Notes on verses 27-29

CVII “depart” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CVIII “abide” = shakan. Same as “live” in v3. See note XV above.
CIX “faithful ones” = chasid. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is faithful, kind, pious, merciful, or gracious. It can also refer to godly or pious people. This is where Chasidic Jews take their name from.
CX “kept safe” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

30 The mouthsCXI of the righteous utterCXII wisdom,CXIII
    and their tonguesCXIV speakCXV justice.

Notes on verse 30

CXI “mouths” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CXII “utter” = hagah. This is to speak, declare, make a sound, imagine, or mutter. It could be a murmur, moan, or growl, whether from delight or anger. It can also mean to study, ponder, or meditate.
CXIII “wisdom” = chokmah. From chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wisdom, wit, or skillfulness.
CXIV “tongues” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.
CXV “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.

31 The lawCXVI of their GodCXVII is in their hearts;
    their stepsCXVIII do not slip.CXIX

Notes on verse 31

CXVI “law” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.
CXVII “God” = Elohim.
CXVIII “steps” = ashshur. 9x in NT – 2x in Job, 6x in Psalms, 1x in Proverbs. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is step or going.
CXIX “slip” = maad. 6x in OT. This is to slip, totter, shake, or waver.

32 The wicked watchCXX for the righteous,
    and seekCXXI to kill them.

33 The Lord will not abandonCXXII them to their power,CXXIII
    or let them be condemnedCXXIV when they are brought to trial.CXXV

Notes on verses 32-33

CXX “watch” = tsaphah. This is to keep watch or spy – to look out. Properly, it refers to leaning forward to look out. It implies observing or awaiting.
CXXI “seek” = baqash. Same as “begging” in v25. See note CI above.
CXXII “abandon” = azab. Same as “forsake” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXXIII “power” = yad. Same as “hand” in v24. See note XCVII above.
CXXIV “let…be condemned” = rasha. From resha (wrong, particularly moral wrong; wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten). This is to be or do something wicked, condemn, give punishment, vex, disturb, or violate.
CXXV “brought to trial” = shaphat. Related to “justice” in v6. See note XXVII above.

34 Wait for the Lord, and keepCXXVI to his way,
    and he will exaltCXXVII you to inherit the land;
    you will look on the destructionCXXVIII of the wicked.

Notes on verse 34

CXXVI “keep” = shamar. Same as “kept safe” in v28. See note CX above.
CXXVII “exalt” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
CXXVIII “destruction” = karat. Same as “cut off” in v9. See note XXXIX above.

35 I have seen the wicked oppressing,CXXIX
    and toweringCXXX like a cedarCXXXI of Lebanon.CXXXII

Notes on verse 35

CXXIX “oppressing” = arits. From arats (to tremble, dread, stand in awe, oppress, harass). This is awe-inspiring or terror-inducing, ruthless, tyrant, oppressor, violent, powerful.
CXXX “towering” = arah. 15x in OT. This is being or making someone naked or bare, to be defenseless, empty, poured out, spread, uncover. This can be to demolish, pour out, to empty, or to leave destitute.
CXXXI “cedar” = ezrach. 17x in OT. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is native or native-born. It can also refer to spontaneous growth, a bay tree.
CXXXII “Lebanon” = raanan. From raan (to grow luxuriant, grow green). This is to be fresh, green, flourish, be new or prosperous.

36 Again I passed by,CXXXIII, CXXXIV and they were no more;
    though I soughtCXXXV them, they could not be found.CXXXVI

Notes on verse 36

CXXXIII “passed by” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CXXXIV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CXXXV “sought” = baqash. Same as “begging” in v25. See note CI above.
CXXXVI “be found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.

37 MarkCXXXVII the blameless,CXXXVIII and behold the upright,
    for there is posterityCXXXIX for the peaceable.CXL

Notes on verse 37

CXXXVII “mark” = shamar. Same as “kept safe” in v28. See note CX above.
CXXXVIII “blameless” = tam. Related to “blameless” in v18. 14x in OT. From tamam (see note LXXI above). This is complete, integrity, peaceful, perfect, blameless person, undefiled, upright. This is complete, generally from a moral perspective. It can be gentle or dear.
CXXXIX “posterity” = acharith. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is the last, length, remnant, end, reward, future.
CXL “peaceable” = ish + shalom. Ish is the same as “those” in v7. See note XXXII above. Shalom is the same as “prosperity” in v11.See note XLVII above.

38 But transgressorsCXLI shall be altogetherCXLII destroyed;CXLIII
    the posterity of the wicked shall be cut off.

Notes on verse 38

CXLI “transgressors” = pasha. This is to rebel, offend, quarrel. It is making a break from proper authority so can also refer to an apostate.
CXLII “altogether” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.
CXLIII “destroyed” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.

39 The salvationCXLIV of the righteous is from the Lord;
    he is their refugeCXLV in the time of trouble.CXLVI

Notes on verse 39

CXLIV “salvation” = teshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone). This is deliverance or salvation.
CXLV “refuge” = maoz. From uz (to run for refuge, to seek safety, be strong) OR from azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; to be stout literally or figuratively). This is a defense, refuge, safety, fortress, rock, strength, or stronghold. It is somewhere one goes to be safe and protected or something one uses to be safe. Figuratively, it could be a defense or a force.
CXLVI “trouble” = tsarah. From tsar (properly, a narrow or constricted place; figuratively, trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress); from tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is tightness, distress, affliction, trouble, or adversary.

40 The Lord helpsCXLVII them and rescuesCXLVIII them;
    he rescues them from the wicked, and savesCXLIX them,
    because they take refugeCL in him.

Notes on verse 40

CXLVII “helps” = azar. This is to surround, which implies encircling to protect someone or help them out. It can also be help, ally, or support.
CXLVIII “rescues” = palat. This is to escape, slip out, deliver, carry away, or calve.
CXLIX “saves” = yasha. Related to “salvation” in v39. See note CXLIV above.
CL “take refuge” = chasah. This is to take refuge or flee for protection. Figuratively, it means to hope or trust in someone or something.

Image credit: Ceiling of the National Cathedral of Brazil in Brasilia.

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