Matthew 19

Matthew 19


When JesusI had finishedII saying these things,III he left GalileeIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
III “saying…things” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
IV “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

and went to the regionV of JudeaVI beyond the Jordan.VII Large crowds followedVIII him, and he curedIX them there.

Notes on verses 1b-2

V “region” = horion. 12x in NT. From horos (limit, boundary). This is a boundary on land or a coast. It could be district, region, territory, or frontier.
VI “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
VII “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
VIII “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
IX “cured” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.

Some PhariseesX came to him, and to testXI him they asked,XII

Notes on verse 3a

X “Pharisees” = pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religion engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XI “test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
XII “asked” = lego. Related to “saying…things” in v1. See note III above.

“Is it lawfulXIII for a manXIV to divorceXV his wifeXVI for any cause?”XVII 

Notes on verse 3b

XIII “is…lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
XIV “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XV “divorce” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
XVI “wife” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XVII “cause” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.

He answered, “Have you not readXVIII that the one who madeXIX them at the beginningXX ‘made them maleXXI and female,’XXII 

Notes on verse 4

XVIII “read” = anaginosko. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
XIX “made” = ktizo. 15x in NT. Probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is to build, create, form, shape. It refers to God’s acts of creation.
XX “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
XXI “male” = arren. 9x in NT. From arsen (male, man) OR perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is male or man.
XXII “female” = thelus. 5x in NT. From thele (breast) OR from the- (to suckle) OR from the same as thelazo (to nurse, suckle, nursing baby); from thele (nipple). This is female or woman – a mature female.

and said, ‘For this reason a man shall leaveXXIII his father and mother and be joined toXXIV his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’?XXV 

Notes on verse 5

XXIII “leave” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
XXIV “be joined to” = kollao. 12x in NT. From kolla (glue). This is to glue together. So it is joining, spending time with, or being intimately connected it. It can be used for marriage, joining the church, clinging, or adhering to something. It was also used medically for uniting wounds.
XXV “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what GodXXVI has joined together,XXVII let no oneXXVIII separate.”XXIX 

Notes on verse 6

XXVI “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXVII “joined together” = suzeugnumi. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeugos (yoke, couple, pair; tea of oxen, group of tied together birds); {from zugos (yoke, scales; figuratively, a burden or something linking two people to work in tandem); from zeugnumi (to yoke or join)}. This is to yoke together, join in marriage, otherwise link for common cause.
XXVIII “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v3. See note XIV above.
XXIX “separate” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.

7 They said to him, “Why then did MosesXXX commandXXXI us to give a certificateXXXII of dismissalXXXIII and to divorce her?” 

Notes on verse 7

XXX “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XXXI “command” = entellomai. Related to “finished” in v1. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (see note II above)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.
XXXII “certificate” = biblion. From biblos (the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll; could also have an association with the sacred); perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is paper, book, scroll, certificate.
XXXIII “dismissal” = apostasion. 3x in NT. From aphistemi (to lead away, repel, leave, remove, revolt, desert); {from apo (from, away from) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}. This is a repudiation or a forsaking. Properly, it is something that marked separation and so it was used specially for a bill of divorce. This is also the same root as the word “apostasy.”

He said to them, “It was because you were so hard-heartedXXXIV that Moses allowedXXXV you to divorce yourXXXVI wives, but from the beginning it was not so. 

Notes on verse 8

XXXIV “hard-hearted” = sklerokardia. 3x in NT. From skleros (hard because dried, rough, difficult, fierce, harsh; stubborn or unyielding – unyieldingly hard); {from skello (to dry) or from skelos (leg); from skello (to parch)} + kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible). This is hard-hearted i.e. obstinate, rebellious. It is hard in the sense of dried out.
XXXV “allowed” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
XXXVI “your” = su. This “you” is plural.

And I say to you, whoever divorces his wife, except for unchastity,XXXVII and marriesXXXVIII anotherXXXIX commits adultery.”XL, XLI

Notes on verse 9

XXXVII “unchastity” = porneia. Related to “test” in v3. From porneuo (to fornicate – used figuratively for practicing idolatry or doing immoral things); from porne (prostitute, whore); from pornos (fornicator or immoral person); perhaps from pernemi (to sell off or export); related to piprasko (to sell with travel involved; to sell into slavery; to be devoted to); from perao (to travel); from peran (see note XI above). This is sexual immorality or unchastity. It could include adultery or incest.
XXXVIII “marries” = gameo. From gamos (a wedding, whether the ceremony, the feast, or the marriage itself). This is to marry.
XXXIX “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XL “commits adultery” = moichao. 5x in NT. From moichos (adulterer; a man who has been with a married woman; used figuratively of an apostate). This is to commit adultery – used for men and women.
XLI Some manuscripts add “and the one who marries a divorced woman commits adultery.”

10 His disciplesXLII said to him, “If such is the caseXLIII of a man with his wife, it is betterXLIV not to marry.” 

Notes on verse 10

XLII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XLIII “case” = aitia. Same as “cause” in v3. See note XVII above.
XLIV “is better” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.

11 But he said to them, “Not everyone can acceptXLV this teaching,XLVI but only those to whom it is given. 12 For there are eunuchsXLVII who have beenXLVIII so from birth,XLIX

Notes on verses 11-12a

XLV “accept” = choreo. Related to “separate” in v6. 10x in NT. From choros (a particular space or place); from chora (see note XXIX above). This is to leave in order to make room or space. It can also be to advance, receive, accept, or make progress. Figuratively, it can also refer to being open-hearted.
XLVI “teaching” = logos. Same as “saying…things” in v1. See note III above.
XLVII “eunuchs” = eunouchos. 8x in NT. From eune (bed) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a eunuch – one who keeps the bed-chamber or chooses not to marry. Literally, it can refer to one who is castrated.
XLVIII “been” = gennao. Related to “wife” in v3. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XVI above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
XLIX “birth” = koilia + meter. Literally “womb of mother.” Koilia is from koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.

and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchsL by others,LI and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdomLII of heaven.LIII Let anyone accept this who can.”LIV

Notes on verse 12b

L “made eunuchs” = eunouchizo. Related to “eunuchs” in v12. 2x in NT. From eunouchos (see note XLVII above). This is to make a eunuch, emasculate, or castrate. Figuratively, it can mean to chose not to marry.
LI “others” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v3. See note XIV above.
LII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LIV “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.

13 Then little childrenLV were being broughtLVI to him in order that he might layLVII his handsLVIII on them and pray.LIX The disciples spoke sternlyLX to those who brought them; 

Notes on verse 13

LV “little children” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
LVI “brought” = prosphero. Related to “is better” in v10. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (see note XLIV above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
LVII “lay” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
LVIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LIX “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
LX “spoke sternly” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.

14 but Jesus said, “LetLXI the little children come to me, and do not stopLXII them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of heaven belongs.” 15 And he laid his hands on them and wentLXIII on his way.

Notes on verses 14-15

LXI “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LXII “stop” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
LXIII “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.

16 ThenLXIV someone came to him and said, “Teacher,LXV what goodLXVI deed must I do to have eternalLXVII life?”LXVIII 

Notes on verse 16

LXIV {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXV “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LXVI “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
LXVII “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
LXVIII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

17 And he said to him, “Why do you askLXIX me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you wishLXX to enter into life, keepLXXI the commandments.”LXXII 

Notes on verse 17

LXIX “ask” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
LXX “wish” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
LXXI “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
LXXII “commandments” = entole. Related to “finished” in v1 & “command” in v7. From entellomai (see note XXXI above). This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.

18 He said to him, “Which ones?”

And Jesus said, “You shall not murder;LXXIII You shall not commit adultery;LXXIV You shall not steal;LXXV You shall not bear false witness;LXXVI 

Notes on verse 18

LXXIII “murder” = phoneuo. 12x in NT. From phoneus (a murderer); from phonos (killing, murder, or slaughter; one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of); from pheno (to slay). This is to kill or murder. It is killing on purpose without justification.
LXXIV “commit adultery” = moicheuo. Related to “commits adultery” in v9. 15x in NT. From moichos (see note XL above). This is committing adultery or adultery itself. Used of a man with a married woman or a married man with anyone other than his wife.
LXXV “steal” = klepto. 13x in NT. This is to steal by stealth – not in the open or using violence.
LXXVI “bear false witness” = pseudomartureo. 5x in NT. From pseudomartus (false witness); {from pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear false witness or give untrue evidence.

19 HonorLXXVII your father and mother; also, You shall loveLXXVIII your neighborLXXIX as yourself.” 

Notes on verse 19

LXXVII “honor” = timao. Related to “spoke sternly” in v13. See note LX above.
LXXVIII “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
LXXIX “neighbor” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.

20 The young manLXXX said to him, “I have keptLXXXI all these; what do I still lack?”LXXXII 

Notes on verse 20

LXXX “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
LXXXI “kept” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXII “lack” = hustereo. 16x in NT– same verb used by the rich young man when he asks Jesus what do I still lack? (Mt 19:20); used in the parable of the prodigal son to describe him as impoverished (Lk 15:14); used when the wine ran out at the wedding at Cana (Jn 2:3); all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Rom 3:23); used in describing the body of Christ – that we give greater honor to the inferior member (1 Cor 12:24). From husteros (last, later). This is to fall behind, come late, be interior, suffer need, be left out., to fail to meet a goal.

21 Jesus saidLXXXIII to him, “If you wish to be perfect,LXXXIV go,LXXXV sell your possessions,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 21a

LXXXIII “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
LXXXIV “perfect” = teleios. Related to “finished” in v1 & “command” in v7 & “commandments” in v17. 19x in NT. From telos (see note II above). This is going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one. This is reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect.” It is also full grown or mature.
LXXXV “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXXVI “possessions” = huparcho. Related to “beginning” in v4. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note XX above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.

and give the money to the poor,LXXXVII and you will have treasureLXXXVIII in heaven; then come,LXXXIX follow me.” 

Notes on verse 21b

LXXXVII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
LXXXVIII “treasure” = thesauros. Related to “lay” in v13. 17x in NT. From tithemi (see note LVII above). This is treasure, storehouse, deposit. It can be used figuratively for treasured thoughts.
LXXXIX “come” = deuro. 9x in NT. This is come here, hither, hence, now, until now.

22 When the young man heardXC this word,XCI he went away grieving,XCII for he had many possessions.XCIII

Notes on verse 22

XC “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XCI “word” = logos. Same as “saying…things” in v1. See note III above.
XCII “grieving” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
XCIII “possessions” = ktema. Related to “made” in v4. 4x in NT. From ktaomai (see note XIX above). This is a possession as something acquired. It particularly refers to field or property that is land.

23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “TrulyXCIV I tell you, it will be hardXCV for a rich personXCVI to enter the kingdom of heaven. 

Notes on verse 23

XCIV “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XCV “hard” = duskolos. 3x in NT. From duskolos (properly, hard to satiate with food; used to mean hard to please more broadly, difficult); {from dus (un- or mis-) + kolon (food)}. This is hard, with difficulty, problematic.
XCVI “rich person” = plousios.  From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.

24 Again I tell you, it is easierXCVII for a camel to go through the eyeXCVIII of a needleXCIX than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.”

Notes on verse 24

XCVII “easier” = eukopoteros. 7x in NT. From eukopos (easy); {from eu (good, well, well done) + kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); {from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}}.This is easier, better for labor.
XCVIII “eye” = trupema. 2x in NT. From trema (hole, eye); from tetraino (to pierce) OR from the base of trumalia (hole, eye of the needle); from truo (to wear away). This is hole, aperture, needle’s eye.
XCIX “needle” = rhaphis. 2x in NT. From rhapto (to sew) OR akin to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a needle, whether for sewing cloth or for surgery.

25 When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astoundedC and said, “Then who can be saved?”CI 

26 But Jesus looked atCII them and said, “For mortalsCIII it is impossible,CIV but for God all things are possible.”CV

Notes on verses 25-26

C “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CI “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CII “looked at” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CIII “mortals” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v3. See note XIV above.
CIV “impossible” = adunatos. Related to “can” in v12. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (see note LIV above)}. This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
CV “possible” = dunatos. Related to “can” in v12 & “impossible” in v26.See note CIV above.

27 Then PeterCVI said in reply, “Look,CVII we have leftCVIII everything and followed you. What then will we have?” 

Notes on verse 27

CVI “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CVII “look” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v16. See note LXIV above.
CVIII “left” = aphiemi. Same as “let” in v14. See note LXI above.

28 Jesus said to them, “Truly I tell you, at the renewalCIX of all things, when the Son of Man is seatedCX on the throneCXI of his glory,CXII

Notes on verse 28a

CIX “renewal” = paliggenesia. Related to “wife” in v3 & “been” in v12. 2x in NT. From palin (back, again, further); {probably from pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate)} + genesis (origin, lineage, life, nativity, nature, generation); {from the same as genea (family, generation, kind, or nation;  an age as a period of time, infinity); from genos (see note XLVIII above) }. This is regeneration, new birth, spiritual renewal. It can also mean messianic restoration.
CX “seated” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CXI “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes form.
CXII “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

you who have followed me will also sitCXIII on twelve thrones, judgingCXIV the twelve tribesCXV of Israel.CXVI 

Notes on verse 28b

CXIII “sit” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CXIV “judging” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CXV “tribes” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
CXVI “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

29 And everyone who has left housesCXVII or brothersCXVIII or sistersCXIX or father or mother or childrenCXX or fields,CXXI

Notes on verse 29a

CXVII “houses” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CXVIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXIX “sisters” = adelphe. Related to “brothers” in v29. From adelphos (see note CXVIII above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
CXX “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CXXI “fields” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”

for my name’sCXXII sake, will receive a hundredfold,CXXIII and will inheritCXXIV eternal life. 30 But many who are first will be last,CXXV and the last will be first.

Notes on verses 29b-30

CXXII “name’s” = onoma. Related to “read” in v4. May be from ginosko (see note XVIII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CXXIII “hundredfold” = hekatontaplasion. Related to “rich person” in v23. 3x in NT. From Hekaton (hundred) + perhaps polus (see note XCVI above). This is a hundredfold. Used figuratively, it can mean totality.
CXXIV “inherit” = kleronomeo. 18x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is to acquire or get by inheriting.
CXXV “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”

Image credit: “Jesus Welcomes All” by a Sudanese artist.

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