Matthew 28

Matthew 28


After the sabbath,A as the first day of the week was dawning,B MaryC MagdaleneD and the otherE Mary went to seeF the tomb.G 

Notes on verse 1

A “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
B “dawning” = epiphosko. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); {from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light)} OR from epiphaino (to shine on, give light to); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is to grow light or let shine. It can mean to dawn or be about to start.
C “Mary” = Mariam. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
D “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.
E “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
F “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
G “tomb” = taphos. 7x in NT. From thapto (to bury, hold a funeral). This is a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb.

And suddenlyH there wasI a great earthquake;J for an angelK of the Lord,L

Notes on verse 2a

H “suddenly” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
I “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
J “earthquake” = seismos. 14x in NT. From seio (to shake, move, or quake to and fro; figuratively, to create agitation, fear, or worry). This is a commotion or shaking generally. It can also be a storm or earthquake. This is where “seismic” comes from.
K “angel” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
L “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

descending from heaven,M cameN and rolled back the stone and satO on it. 

Notes on verse 2b

M “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
N “came” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
O “sat” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

His appearanceP was like lightning,Q and his clothingR whiteS as snow. 

Notes on verse 3

P “appearance” = idea. Related to “suddenly” in v2. 1x in NT. From eidea (else, otherwise, if not); {from ei (if, whether) + de (then, but, now, indeed) + me (not, never)} OR from eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is sight, appearance, or figuratively an idea. This is where “idea” comes from.
Q “lightning” = astrape. 9x in NT. From astrapto (to flash with or like lightning, be dazzling); probably from aster (star literally or figuratively); probably from stronnumi or stronnuo (to spread, make a bed). This is lightning, brightness, glare, or ray.
R “clothing” = enduma. 8x in NT. From enduo (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}. This is clothing, especially outer robes. This is clothing as something one sinks into.
S “white” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.

For fearT of him the guardsU shookV and became like deadW men. 

Notes on verse 4

T “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
U “guards” = tereo. Related to “see” in v1. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (see note F above). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
V “shook” = seio. Related to “earthquake” in v2. 5x in NT. See note J above.
W “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

But the angel said to the women,X “Do not be afraid;Y I knowZ that you are looking forAA JesusBB who was crucified.CC 

Notes on verse 5

X “women” = gune. Perhaps related to “was” in v2. Perhaps from ginomai (see note I above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
Y “be afraid” = phobeo. Related to “fear” in v4. From phobos (see note T above). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
Z “know” = eido. Related to “suddenly” in v2 & “appearance” in v3. See note H above.
AA “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
BB “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CC “crucified” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

6 He is not here; for he has been raised,DD as he said. Come,EE seeFF the placeGG where he lay.HH 

Notes on verse 6

DD “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
EE “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
FF “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
GG “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
HH “lay” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.

Then goII quicklyJJ and tell his disciples,KK ‘He has been raised from the dead, and indeedLL he is going aheadMM of you to Galilee;NN there you will see him.’OO This is my message for you.” 

Notes on verse 7

II “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
JJ “quickly” = tachu. 12x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is quickly, but not immediately. It is without undue delay.
KK “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
LL “indeed” = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v2. See note H above.
MM “going ahead” = proago. Perhaps related to “angel” in v2. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note K above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
NN “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
OO {untranslated} = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v2. See note H above.

So they left the tombPP quickly with fear and great joy,QQ and ranRR to tellSS his disciples. 

Notes on verse 8

PP “tomb” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
QQ “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
RR “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
SS “tell” = apaggello. Perhaps related to “angel” in v2 & “going ahead” in v7. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (see note K above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.

9 Suddenly Jesus metTT them and said, “Greetings!”UU And they came to him, took hold ofVV his feet, and worshipedWW him. 

10 Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid; goXX and tell my brothersYY to go to Galilee; there they will see me.”

Notes on verses 9-10

TT “met” = hupantao. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.
UU “greetings” = chairo. Related to “joy” in v8. See note QQ above.
VV “took hold of” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
WW “worshipped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
XX “go” = hupago. Perhaps related to “angel” in v2 & “going ahead” in v7 & “tell” in v8.  From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note K above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
YY “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

11 While they were going,ZZ some of the guardAAA went into the cityBBB and told the chief priestsCCC everything that had happened.DDD 

Notes on verse 11

ZZ {untranslated} = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v2. See note H above.
AAA “guard” = koustodia. 3x in NT. From Latin custodia (custody, protection, guardianship); from custos (guard, jailer, keeper, custodian); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewdʰ– (to cover, wrap, encase); from *(s)kew– (to cover, hide). This is a guard or watch – a Roman sentry. See
BBB “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CCC “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
DDD “happened” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v2. See note I above.

12 After the priests had assembledEEE with the elders,FFF they devised a planGGG to give a large sumHHH of moneyIII to the soldiers,JJJ 

Notes on verse 12

EEE “assembled” = sunago. Perhaps related to “angel” in v2 & “going ahead” in v7 & “tell” in v8 & “go” in v10. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note K above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
FFF “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
GGG “plan” = sumboulion. 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.
HHH “large sum” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
III “money” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
JJJ “soldiers” = stratiotes. Related to “lightning” in v3. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (see note Q above). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.

13 telling them, “You must say, ‘His disciples came by night and stoleKKK him away while we were asleep.’LLL 14 If this comes to the governor’sMMM ears,NNN we will satisfyOOO him and keep you out of trouble.”PPP 

Notes on verses 13-14

KKK “stole” = klepto. 13x in NT. This is to steal by stealth – not in the open or using violence.
LLL “asleep” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
MMM “governor’s” = hegemon. Perhaps related to “angel” in v2 & “going ahead” in v7 & “tell” in v8 & “go” in v10 & “assembled” in v12. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (see note K above). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.
NNN “comes to…ears” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
OOO “satisfy” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
PPP “out of trouble” = amerimnos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + merimna (care, worry, anxiety; being separated from the whole); from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is not anxious, secure, free from worry.

15 So they took the money and did as they were directed.QQQ And this storyRRR is still toldSSS among the JewsTTT to this day.

Notes on verse 15

QQQ “directed” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
RRR “story” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
SSS “told” = diaphemizo. Related to “dawning” in v1. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + phemizo (to spread news); {from pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame); from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (see note B above)}}. This is to spread a report or news – a thorough reporting.
TTT “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

16 Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directedUUU them. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted.VVV 18 And Jesus came and said to them, “All authorityWWW in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 

Notes on verses 16-18

UUU “directed” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.
VVV “doubted” = distazo. Related to “crucified” in v5. 2x in NT– here and when Jesus walks on water and tells Peter “you of little faith, why did you doubt?” in Matthew 14:31. From dis (twice, utterly, again); {from duo (two, both)} + stasis (standing, place, rebel, insurrection, controversy); {from the base of histemi (see note CC above)}. Properly, this is going back and forth between two stances – wavering or doubting. It can also be used for hesitation.
WWW “authority” = exousia. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.

19 Go therefore and make disciplesXXX of all nations,YYY baptizingZZZ them in the nameAAAA of the Father and of the Son and of the HolyBBBB Spirit,CCCC 

Notes on verse 19

XXX “make disciples” = matheteuo. Related to “disciples” in v16. 4x in NT. From mathetes (see note KK above). This to be, make, or train a disciple. It is the same root that “mathematics” comes from.
YYY “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
ZZZ “baptizing” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
AAAA “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
BBBB “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CCCC “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

20 and teachingDDDD them to obeyEEEE everything that I have commandedFFFF you.

Notes on verse 20a

DDDD “teaching” = didasko. Same as “directed” in v15. See note QQQ above.
EEEE “obey” = tereo. Same as “guards” in v4. See note U above.
FFFF “commanded” = entellomai. 15x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {related to telos (end, event, purpose, consummation)}. This is to charge or command – focuses on the final objective. So, this is looking at the final outcome of the command – how things will end up.

And remember,GGGG I am with you always,HHHH to the endIIII of the age.”JJJJ

Notes on verse 20b

GGGG “remember” = idou. Same as “suddenly” in v2. See note H above.
HHHH “always” = pas + ho + hemera. Literally “all the days.”
IIII “end” = sunteleia. Related to “commanded” in v20. 6x in NT. From sunteleo (to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively); {from sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (see note FFFF above)}}. This is completion, end, consummation – joint action or joint payment.
JJJJ “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

Image credit: Mosaic of the Resurrection at a cemetery in Treis-Karden, Germany.

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