Acts 15:1-18

Acts 15:1-18
Narrative Lectionary 343


Then certain individuals came down from JudeaI and were teachingII the brothers,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
II “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
III “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

“Unless you are circumcisedIV according to the customV of Moses,VI you cannotVII be saved.”VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “circumcised” = peritemno. 18x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is to circumcise – literally to cut around.
V “custom” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
VI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
VII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
VIII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

And after Paul and Barnabas hadIX no small dissensionX and debateXI with them,

Notes on verse 2a

IX “had” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
X “dissension” = stasis. 9x in NT – including Barabbas’s crime. From histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is standing – the act of standing, a place, an uprising, insurrection, dissension, or controversy.
XI “debate” = zetesis. 8x in NT. From zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is a search, controversy, discussion, or debate.

PaulXII and BarnabasXIII and some of the othersXIV were appointedXV

Notes on verse 2b

XII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, litle). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XIII “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son) + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See
XIV “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XV “appointed” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.

to go upXVI to JerusalemXVII to discuss this questionXVIII with the apostlesXIX and the elders.XX 

Notes on verse 2c

XVI “go up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XVII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XVIII “question” = zetema. Related to “debate” in v2. 5x in NT. From zeteo (see note XI above). This is a question, issue, matter of discussion. It is a contentious question for debate or the debate itself.
XIX “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XX “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

So theyXXI were sent on their wayXXII by the church,XXIII

Notes on verse 3a

XXI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXII “sent on their way” = propempo. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send forth, accompany, escort. It is to prepare for a journey.
XXIII “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

and as they passed through both PhoeniciaXXIV and Samaria,XXV they reportedXXVI the conversionXXVII of the Gentiles,XXVIII

Notes on verse 3b

XXIV “Phoenicia” = Phoinike. 3x in NT – all in Acts. Probably from phoinix (palm tree, palm branch, date palm) OR from Phoinix (Phoenician, Tyrian purple); {related to phoinos (red); probably related to Egyptian fenkhu (carpenter – used to refer to a people)}. This is Phoenicia, perhaps meaning “palm country.” It is north of Galilee. See
XXV “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
XXVI “reported” = ekdiegeomai. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + diegeomai (to describe fully, narrate, declare, tell something clearly so that one knows what is most important); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}}. This is to report or describe fully – the reporter having thorough knowledge of the issue at hand.
XXVII “conversion” = epistrophe. 1x in NT. From epistrepho (to turn, return, or come again; to revert; turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning); {from epi epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}}. This is conversion or reversion. It is a turning or a moral revolution.
XXVIII “Gentiles” = ethnos. Related to “custom” in v1. Probably from etho (see note V above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

and broughtXXIX great joyXXX to all the believers.XXXI 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIX “brought” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXX “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
XXXI “believers” = adelphos. Same as “brothers” in v1. See note III above.

When they cameXXXII to Jerusalem, they were welcomedXXXIII by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they reportedXXXIV all that GodXXXV had doneXXXVI with them.

Notes on verse 4

XXXII “came” = paraginomai. Related to “had” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note IX above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
XXXIII “welcomed” = paradechomai. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, accept, adopt, admit. It can also mean to find joy in.
XXXIV “reported” = anaggello. Related to “reported” in v3. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note XXVI above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
XXXV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXXVI “done” = poieo. Same as “brought” in v3. See note XXIX above.

But some believersXXXVII who belonged to the sectXXXVIII of the PhariseesXXXIX stood upXL and said,

Notes on verse 5a

XXXVII “believers” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
XXXVIII “sect” = hairesis. 9x in NT. From haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.
XXXIX “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XL “stood up” = exanistemi. Related to “dissension” in v2. 3x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note X above)}. This is to rise up, stand, grow, beget. It can also mean to raise children.

“It is necessaryXLI for them to be circumcised and orderedXLII to keepXLIII the lawXLIV of Moses.”

Notes on verse 5b

XLI “is necessary” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XLII “ordered” = paraggello. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported” in v4. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note XXXIV above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
XLIII “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
XLIV “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

The apostles and the elders met togetherXLV to considerXLVI this matter.XLVII 

Notes on verse 6

XLV “met together” = sunago. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported” in v4 & “ordered” in v5. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXVI above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XLVI “consider” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XLVII “matter” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

After there had beenXLVIII much debate, PeterXLIX stood upL and said to them,

Notes on verse 7a

XLVIII “been” = ginomai. Same as “had” in v2. See note IX above.
XLIX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
L “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “stood up” in v5. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note X above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

LIMy brothers, you knowLII that in the earlyLIII days God made a choiceLIV among you,

Notes on verse 7b

LI {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LII “know” = epistamai. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” in v7. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note X above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted.
LIII “early” = archaios. 11x in NT. From arche (origin, beginning, rule; can refer to the power of a magistrate or a king; it is the first thing as being the starting point or the most important); {from archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is old, ancient, original. It is where the word “archaic” comes from.
LIV “made a choice” = eklgeo. Related to “matter” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XLVII above). This is to choose or elect.

that ILV should be the one through whom the Gentiles would hearLVI the messageLVII of the good newsLVIII and become believers.LIX 

Notes on verse 7c

LV “I” = dia + ho + stoma + ego. Literally “by my mouth.” Stoma is perhaps related to “circumcised” in v1. Perhaps from tomoteros (see note IV above). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
LVI “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LVII “message” = logos. Same as “matter” in v6. See note XLVII above.
LVIII “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported” in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note XXXIV above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LIX “become believers” = pisteuo. Same as “believers” in v5. See note XXXVII above.

And God, who knows the human heart,LX testifiedLXI to them by giving them the HolyLXII Spirit,LXIII just as he did to us; 

Notes on verse 8

LX “knows the human heart” = kardiognostes. 2x in NT. From kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible) + gnostes (expert, a knower); {from ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is one who knows hearts i.e. the inner life, moral convictions. Used of God both times.
LXI “testified” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense
LXII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXIII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and in cleansingLXIV their heartsLXV by faithLXVI he has made no distinctionLXVII between them and us. 

Notes on verse 9

LXIV “cleansing” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
LXV “hearts” = kardia. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8. See note LX above.
LXVI “faith” = pistis. Related to “believers” in v5. See note XXXVII above.
LXVII “made…distinction” = diakrino. 19x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge.

10 Now therefore why are you puttingLXVIII God to the testLXIX by placing on the neckLXX of the disciplesLXXI

Notes on verse 10a

LXVIII “putting” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
LXIX “test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
LXX “neck” = trachelos. 7x in NT. Probably from trachus (rough, uneven). This is the neck or throat. It can also refer to an embrace. It shares a root with the word “trachea.”
LXXI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

a yokeLXXII that neither our ancestorsLXXIII nor we have been ableLXXIV to bear?LXXV 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXII “yoke” = zugos. 6x in NT. From zeugnumi (to yoke). This is a yoke or set of scale. It is what unites people in shared work so it is servitude or obligation.
LXXIII “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXIV “been able” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXV “bear” = bastazo. Related to “go up” in v2. Perhaps from basis (see note XVI above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.

11 On the contrary, we believe that we will be saved through the graceLXXVI of the LordLXXVII Jesus,LXXVIII just as they will.”

Notes on verse 11

LXXVI “grace” = charis. Related to “joy” in v3. From chairo (see note XXX above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LXXVII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

12 The whole assemblyLXXIX kept silence,LXXX and listened to Barnabas and Paul as they toldLXXXI of all the signsLXXXII and wondersLXXXIII that God had done through them among the Gentiles. 

Notes on verse 12

LXXIX “assembly” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
LXXX “kept silence” = sigao. 10x in NT. From sige (silence, hush); perhaps from sizo (to hiss or hush). This is to be silent or hold peace.
LXXXI “told” = exegeomai. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hegeomai (see note XXVI above). This is to lead the way, bring forth. Figuratively, it is to unfold or explain something thoroughly to show what is most important. This is where the word “exegesis” comes from.
LXXXII “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LXXXIII “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.

13 After they finished speaking,LXXXIV JamesLXXXV replied, “LXXXVIMy brothers, listen to me. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXXIV “finished speaking” = sigao. Same as “kept silence” in v12. See note LXXX above.
LXXXV “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
LXXXVI {untranslated} = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LI above.

14 SimeonLXXXVII has relatedLXXXVIII how God first looked favorablyLXXXIX on the Gentiles, to take from among them a peopleXC for his name.XCI 

Notes on verse 14

LXXXVII “Simeon” = Sumeon. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
LXXXVIII “related” = exegeomai. Same as “told” in v12. See note LXXXI above.
LXXXIX “looked favorably” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
XC “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
XCI “name” = onoma. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

15 This agreesXCII with the wordsXCIII of the prophets,XCIV as it is written,XCV

Notes on verse 15

XCII “agrees” = sumphoneo. 6x in NT. From sumphonos (harmonious, agreeing, consent; having one voice i.e. a shared understanding); {from sun (with, together with) + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is to harmonize with, agree, have a shared opinion, an accord. This is the root that “symphony” comes from.
XCIII “words” = logos. Same as “matter” in v6. See note XLVII above.
XCIV “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “agrees” in v15. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XCII above) or phaino (see note XCII above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
XCV “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

16 ‘After this I will return,XCVI
and I will rebuildXCVII the dwellingXCVIII of David,XCIX which has fallen;
    from its ruinsC I will rebuild it,
        and I will set it up,CI

Notes on verse 16

XCVI “return” = anastrepho. Related to “conversion” in v3. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (see note XXVII above). This is to turn back, return, or over turn. It can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere.
XCVII “rebuild” = anoikodomeo. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oikodomeo (to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build)}. This is To rebuild – something that has fallen or been destroyed.
XCVIII “dwelling” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIX “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
C “ruins” = kataskapto. Related to “looked favorably” in v14. 2x in NT. From kata (up, again, back, anew) + skapto (see note LXXXIX above). This is to dig under, tear down, ruin, destroy.
CI “set…up” = anorthoo. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + orthoo (to set up, be straight). This is to set up straight, restore, strengthen, lift up.

17 so that all otherCII peoplesCIII may seekCIV the Lord—
    even all the Gentiles over whom my name has been called.CV

Notes on verse 17a

CII “other” = kataloipos. 1x in NT. From kata (up, again, back, anew) + loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); {from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking)}. This is remaining, residue, what is left over.
CIII “peoples” = anthropos. Related to {untranslated} in v7. Probably from aner (see note LI above) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CIV “seek” = ekzeteo. Related to “debate” and “question” in v2. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + zeteo (see note XI above). This is to seek out, inquire, to search for diligently, crave. Figuratively, it can mean to worship.
CV “called” = epikaleo. Related to “church” in v3. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note XXIII above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.

        Thus says the Lord, who has been makingCVI these things 18 knownCVII from long ago.’CVIII, CIX

Notes on verses 17b-18

CVI “making” = poieo. Same as “brought” in v3. See note XXIX above.
CVII “known” = gnostos. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8 & “name” in v14. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note LX above). This is an acquaintance – someone who is known.
CVIII “long ago” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CIX Some manuscripts read, “known to God from of old are all his works.” ”Works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

Image credit: “Holy Apostle James, brother of the Lord, Orthodox icon”

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